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1.
Ecol Lett ; 21(5): 724-733, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575384

RESUMO

Vegetative dormancy, that is the temporary absence of aboveground growth for ≥ 1 year, is paradoxical, because plants cannot photosynthesise or flower during dormant periods. We test ecological and evolutionary hypotheses for its widespread persistence. We show that dormancy has evolved numerous times. Most species displaying dormancy exhibit life-history costs of sprouting, and of dormancy. Short-lived and mycoheterotrophic species have higher proportions of dormant plants than long-lived species and species with other nutritional modes. Foliage loss is associated with higher future dormancy levels, suggesting that carbon limitation promotes dormancy. Maximum dormancy duration is shorter under higher precipitation and at higher latitudes, the latter suggesting an important role for competition or herbivory. Study length affects estimates of some demographic parameters. Our results identify life historical and environmental drivers of dormancy. We also highlight the evolutionary importance of the little understood costs of sprouting and growth, latitudinal stress gradients and mixed nutritional modes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Herbivoria , Demografia , Flores
2.
Mycorrhiza ; 27(4): 355-367, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039600

RESUMO

Orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) fungi play a crucial role in the ontogeny of orchids, yet little is known about how the structure of OrM fungal communities varies with space and environmental factors. Previous studies suggest that within orchid patches, the distance to adult orchids may affect the abundance of OrM fungi. Many orchid species grow in species-rich temperate semi-natural grasslands, the persistence of which depends on moderate physical disturbances, such as grazing and mowing. The aim of this study was to test whether the diversity, structure and composition of OrM fungal community are influenced by the orchid patches and management intensity in semi-natural grasslands. We detected putative OrM fungi from 0 to 32 m away from the patches of host orchid species (Orchis militaris and Platanthera chlorantha) in 21 semi-natural calcareous grasslands using pyrosequencing. In addition, we assessed different ecological conditions in semi-natural grasslands but primarily focused on the effect of grazing intensity on OrM fungal communities in soil. We found that investigated orchid species were mostly associated with Ceratobasidiaceae and Tulasnellaceae and, to a lesser extent, with Sebacinales. Of all the examined factors, the intensity of grazing explained the largest proportion of variation in OrM fungal as well as total fungal community composition in soil. Spatial analyses showed limited evidence for spatial clustering of OrM fungi and their dependence on host orchids. Our results indicate that habitat management can shape OrM fungal communities, and the spatial distribution of these fungi appears to be weakly structured outside the orchid patches.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Micorrizas/classificação , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Basidiomycota , Estônia , Filogenia
3.
Ecol Evol ; 6(17): 6245-65, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648240

RESUMO

The red list has become a ubiquitous tool in the conservation of species. We analyzed contemporary trends in the threat levels of European orchids, in total 166 species characterized in 27 national red lists, in relation to their reproductive biology and growth form, distribution area, and land cover where they occur. We found that species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern, or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Nectarless and tuberous species are significantly more threatened than nectariferous and rhizomatous taxa. Land cover (ratios of artificial land cover, area of pastures and grasslands, forests and inland wetlands) also significantly impacted the threat level. A bigger share of artificial land cover increases threat, and a bigger share of pasture and grassland lowers it. Unexpectedly, a bigger share of inland wetland area in a country increased threat level, which we believe may be due to the threatened nature of wetlands themselves relative to other natural land cover types. Finally, species occurring in multiple countries are on average less threatened. We believe that large-scale analysis of current IUCN national red lists as based on their specific categories and criteria may particularly inform the development of coordinated regional or larger-scale management strategies. In this case, we advocate for a coordinated EU protection and restoration strategy particularly aimed at central European orchids and those occurring in wetland area.

4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 21(7): 2726-2738, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25641681

RESUMO

Although the distribution ranges and abundance of many plant species have declined dramatically in recent decades, detailed analysis of these changes and their cause have only become possible following the publication of second- and third-generation national distribution atlases. Decline can now be compared both between species and in different parts of species' ranges. We extracted data from distribution atlases to compare range persistence of 736 plant species common to both the UK and Estonia between survey periods encompassing almost the same years (1969 and 1999 in the UK and 1970 and 2004 in Estonia). We determined which traits were most closely associated with variation in species persistence, whether these were the same in each country, and the extent to which they explained differences in persistence between the countries. Mean range size declined less in Estonia than in the UK (24.3% vs. 30.3%). One-third of species in Estonia (239) maintained >90% of their distribution range compared with one-fifth (141) in the UK. In Estonia, 99 species lost >50% of their range compared with 127 species in the UK. Persistence was very positively related to original range in both countries. Major differences in species persistence between the studied countries were primarily determined by biogeographic (affiliation to floristic element) and ecoevolutionary (plant strategy) factors. In contrast, within-country persistence was most strongly determined by tolerance of anthropogenic activities. Decline of species in the families Orchidaceae and Potamogetonaceae was significantly greater in the UK than in Estonia. Almost all of the 736 common and native European plant species in our study are currently declining in their range due to pressure from anthropogenic activities. Those species with low tolerance of human activity, with biotic pollination vectors and in the families referred to above are the most vulnerable, especially where human population density is high.

5.
New Phytol ; 205(4): 1608-18, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25546739

RESUMO

Orchid mycorrhizal (OrM) symbionts play a key role in the growth of orchids, but the temporal variation and habitat partitioning of these fungi in roots and soil remain unclear. Temporal changes in root and rhizosphere fungal communities of Cypripedium calceolus, Neottia ovata and Orchis militaris were studied in meadow and forest habitats over the vegetation period by using 454 pyrosequencing of the full internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The community of typical OrM symbionts differed by plant species and habitats. The root fungal community of N. ovata changed significantly in time, but this was not observed in C. calceolus and O. militaris. The rhizosphere community included a low proportion of OrM symbionts that exhibited a slight temporal turnover in meadow habitats but not in forests. Habitat differences in OrM and all fungal associates are largely attributable to the greater proportion of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forests. Temporal changes in OrM fungal communities in roots of certain species indicate selection of suitable fungal species by plants. It remains to be elucidated whether these shifts depend on functional differences inside roots, seasonality, climate or succession.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Florestas , Pradaria , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Endófitos/fisiologia , Estônia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Ann Bot ; 110(5): 977-86, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23002267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. METHODS: Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. KEY RESULTS: Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Poliploidia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Citogenética , Endorreduplicação , Europa (Continente) , Citometria de Fluxo , Geografia , Hibridização Genética , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/citologia
7.
Conserv Biol ; 23(2): 307-16, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19183201

RESUMO

Without robust and unbiased systems for monitoring, changes in natural systems will remain enigmatic for policy makers, leaving them without a clear idea of the consequences of any environmental policies they might adopt. Generally, biodiversity-monitoring activities are not integrated or evaluated across any large geographic region. The EuMon project conducted the first large-scale evaluation of monitoring practices in Europe through an on-line questionnaire and is reporting on the results of this survey. In September 2007 the EuMon project had documented 395 monitoring schemes for species, which represents a total annual cost of about 4 million euro, involving more than 46,000 persons devoting over 148,000 person-days/year to biodiversity-monitoring activities. Here we focused on the analysis of variations of monitoring practices across a set of taxonomic groups (birds, amphibians and reptiles, mammals, butterflies, plants, and other insects) and across 5 European countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, and Poland). Our results suggest that the overall sampling effort of a scheme is linked with the proportion of volunteers involved in that scheme. Because precision is a function of the number of monitored sites and the number of sites is maximized by volunteer involvement, our results do not support the common belief that volunteer-based schemes are too noisy to be informative. Just the opposite, we believe volunteer-based schemes provide relatively reliable data, with state-of-the-art survey designs or data-analysis methods, and consequently can yield unbiased results. Quality of data collected by volunteers is more likely determined by survey design, analytical methodology, and communication skills within the schemes rather than by volunteer involvement per se.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Voluntários , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Cooperação Internacional , Plantas
8.
Am J Bot ; 95(2): 156-64, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21632341

RESUMO

Northeastern Estonia is home to extensive oil shale mines. Associated with these are desolate and environmentally damaging hills of ash and semicoke tailings. Interestingly, some of the first plants to colonize these hills are rare orchids. Here, we assess the identities of the mycorrhizal fungi associated with these orchids, in particular Epipactis atrorubens, Orchis militaris, and Dactylorhiza baltica, and compare them with mycorrhizal fungi from orchids from pristine habitat. Epipactis atrorubens associated with the widest breadth of fungi, including unnamed members of the basidiomycete family Tulasnellaceae and the potentially ectomycorrhizal ascomycetes Trichophaea woolhopeia and Geopora cooperi. Orchis militaris also associated with unnamed members of the Tulasnellaceae. Dactylorhiza baltica associated with Ceratobasidium albasitensis. In Epipactis and Orchis, the same fungi associated with plants in the pristine habitat as with those on ash hills. The tulasnelloid and ceratobasidioid fungi mycorrhizal with these orchids appear closely related to common orchid mycorrhizal fungi, while one of the ascomycetes mycorrhizal with E. atrorubens is closely related to a mycorrhizal fungus with E. microphylla. Our results suggest that these orchids and their fungi are not limited to pristine habitats and that environmentally polluted sites may present novel habitats that may be exploited for endangered plant conservation.

9.
Ambio ; 36(7): 545-50, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18074890

RESUMO

Conflicts between the conservation of biodiversity and other human activities have been and continue to be of increasing concern in the European Union, often having important political, economic, and environmental repercussions. These conflicts have been addressed in the European Union by using a wide array of top down and bottom up tools, with varying degrees of success. A new challenge is now facing Europe with the integration of 10 new countries in the European Union (EU) and an additional range of biodiversity-rich habitats placed under EU legislation. The rich biodiversity of the central and eastern European countries (CEEC) is likely to be threatened by some aspects of the integration process, and conflicts between the conservation of biodiversity and other human activities are expected. In this paper, we review certain existing conflicts between biodiversity conservation and human activities in the CEEC, expected conflicts associated with integration to the EU, particularly in terms of new policy and legislation implementation, and, finally, explore possible conflict management options.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Atividades Humanas , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
10.
Evolution ; 61(6): 1380-90, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17542847

RESUMO

Although coevolution is acknowledged to occur in nature, coevolutionary patterns in symbioses not involving species-to-species relationships are poorly understood. Mycorrhizal plants are thought to be too generalist to coevolve with their symbiotic fungi; yet some plants, including some orchids, exhibit strikingly narrow mycorrhizal specificity. Here, we assess the evolutionary history of mycorrhizal specificity in the lady's slipper orchid genus, Cypripedium. We sampled 90 populations of 15 taxa across three continents, using DNA methods to identify fungal symbionts and quantify mycorrhizal specificity. We assessed phylogenetic relationships among sampled Cypripedium taxa, onto which we mapped mycorrhizal specificity. Cypripedium taxa associated almost exclusively with fungi within family Tulasnellaceae. Ancestral specificity appears to have been narrow, followed by a broadening after the divergence of C. debile. Specificity then narrowed, resulting in strikingly narrow specificity in most of the taxa in this study, with no taxon rewidening to the same extant as basal members of the genus. Sympatric taxa generally associated with different sets of fungi, and most clades of Cypripedium-mycorrhizal fungi were found throughout much of the northern hemisphere, suggesting that these evolutionary patterns in specificity are not the result of biogeographic lack of opportunity to associate with potential partners. Mycorrhizal specificity in genus Cypripedium appears to be an evolvable trait, and associations with particular fungi are phylogenetically conserved.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Geografia , Micorrizas/classificação , Orchidaceae/classificação , Orchidaceae/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Mol Ecol ; 14(2): 613-26, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15660950

RESUMO

Lady's slipper orchids (Cypripedium spp.) are rare terrestrial plants that grow throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere. Like all orchids, they require mycorrhizal fungi for germination and seedling nutrition. The nutritional relationships of adult Cypripedium mycorrhizae are unclear; however, Cypripedium distribution may be limited by mycorrhizal specificity, whether this specificity occurs only during the seedling stage or carries on into adulthood. We attempted to identify the primary mycorrhizal symbionts for 100 Cypripedium plants, and successfully did so with two Cypripedium calceolus, 10 Cypripedium californicum, six Cypripedium candidum, 16 Cypripedium fasciculatum, two Cypripedium guttatum, 12 Cypripedium montanum, and 11 Cypripedium parviflorum plants from a total of 44 populations in Europe and North America, yielding fungal nuclear large subunit and mitochondrial large subunit sequence and RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) data for 59 plants. Because orchid mycorrhizal fungi are typically observed without fruiting structures, we assessed fungal identity through direct PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of fungal genes from mycorrhizally colonized root tissue. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the great majority of Cypripedium mycorrhizal fungi are members of narrow clades within the fungal family Tulasnellaceae. Rarely occurring root endophytes include members of the Sebacinaceae, Ceratobasidiaceae, and the ascomycetous genus, Phialophora. C. californicum was the only orchid species with apparently low specificity, as it associated with tulasnelloid, ceratobasidioid, and sebacinoid fungi in roughly equal proportion. Our results add support to the growing literature showing that high specificity is not limited to nonphotosynthetic plants, but also occurs in photosynthetic ones.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Simbiose , Sequência de Bases , Basidiomycota/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Estônia , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Micorrizas/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Estados Unidos
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