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3.
Cancer Cell ; 35(1): 95-110.e8, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595504

RESUMO

Biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1, encoding a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, is the hallmark genetic aberration of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). Here, we report how loss of SMARCB1 affects the epigenome in these tumors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) on primary tumors for a series of active and repressive histone marks, we identified the chromatin states differentially represented in ATRTs compared with other brain tumors and non-neoplastic brain. Re-expression of SMARCB1 in ATRT cell lines enabled confirmation of our genome-wide findings for the chromatin states. Additional generation of ChIP-seq data for SWI/SNF and Polycomb group proteins and the transcriptional repressor protein REST determined differential dependencies of SWI/SNF and Polycomb complexes in regulation of diverse gene sets in ATRTs.

4.
EMBO Mol Med ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389682

RESUMO

We compared 24 primary pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) collected at the time of initial diagnosis and relapse from 12 patients and 24 matched patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). DNA methylation profile was preserved in PDX mice in 97.5% of the promoters (ρ = 0.99). Similarly, the genome-wide chromatin accessibility (ATAC-Seq) was preserved remarkably well (ρ = 0.96). Interestingly, both the ATAC regions, which showed a significant decrease in accessibility in PDXs and the regions hypermethylated in PDXs, were associated with immune response, which might reflect the immune deficiency of the mice and potentially the incomplete interaction between murine cytokines and human receptors. The longitudinal approach of this study allowed an observation that samples collected from patients who developed a type 1 relapse (clonal mutations maintained at relapse) preserved their genomic composition; whereas in patients who developed a type 2 relapse (subset of clonal mutations lost at relapse), the preservation of the leukemia's composition was more variable. In sum, this study underlines the remarkable genomic stability, and for the first time documents the preservation of the epigenomic landscape in T-ALL-derived PDX models.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3184, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093639

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a pediatric cancer characterized by the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion. We performed a genome-wide association study of 733 EWS cases and 1346 unaffected individuals of European ancestry. Our study replicates previously reported susceptibility loci at 1p36.22, 10q21.3 and 15q15.1, and identifies new loci at 6p25.1, 20p11.22 and 20p11.23. Effect estimates exhibit odds ratios in excess of 1.7, which is high for cancer GWAS, and striking in light of the rarity of EWS cases in familial cancer syndromes. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate genes at 6p25.1 (RREB1) and 20p11.23 (KIZ). The 20p11.22 locus is near NKX2-2, a highly overexpressed gene in EWS. Interestingly, most loci reside near GGAA repeat sequences and may disrupt binding of the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion protein. The high locus to case discovery ratio from 733 EWS cases suggests a genetic architecture in which moderate risk SNPs constitute a significant fraction of risk.

6.
Cancer Cell ; 34(2): 271-285.e7, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107177

RESUMO

The NUP214-ABL1 fusion is a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase that is significantly associated with overexpression of the TLX1 and TLX3 transcription factors in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we show that NUP214-ABL1 cooperates with TLX1 in driving T-ALL development using a transgenic mouse model and human T-ALL cells. Using integrated ChIP-sequencing, ATAC-sequencing, and RNA-sequencing data, we demonstrate that TLX1 and STAT5, the downstream effector of NUP214-ABL1, co-bind poised enhancer regions, and cooperatively activate the expression of key proto-oncogenes such as MYC and BCL2. Inhibition of STAT5, downregulation of TLX1 or MYC, or interference with enhancer function through BET-inhibitor treatment leads to reduction of target gene expression and induction of leukemia cell death.

7.
Br J Haematol ; 183(1): 96-103, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028023

RESUMO

This study reports the prognostic impact of the expression of the natural killer cell marker CD56 in a large series of risk-adapted paediatric patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL; n = 493) treated within the ALL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 2000 protocol. The immunophenotype was analysed centrally at diagnosis using flow cytometry and correlated with clinical parameters and outcome. CD56 expression was detected in 7·1% and early T-cell precursor (ETP) phenotype in 6·7% of all T-ALL patients. The percentage of ETP in the CD56+ T-ALL cohort was 4-fold higher than in the whole cohort. CD56+ T-ALL frequently expressed the progenitor marker CD34 and myeloid antigens CD13 and CD33. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rates for the European Group for the Immunological classification of Leukaemias/World Health Organization subgroups and the ETP phenotype were not statistically different. By contrast, patients with CD56 expression had a significantly reduced EFS (60 ± 8%) and overall survival (60 ± 8%) at 5 years, with a hazard ratio of 2·46 (P = 0·002) and 2·99 (P < 0·001), respectively. Moreover, CD56 expression in combination with the minimal residual disease (MRD)-based high risk assignment defined a population with a 'very-high' risk probability of relapse in the ALL-BFM 2000 trial. The CD56 marker has the potential to augment MRD-based risk stratification and may serve as a molecular target for antibody-based treatment strategies in childhood T-ALL.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 663, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deletions of 6q15-16.1 are recurrently found in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). This chromosomal region includes the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7) gene which has a crucial role in innate immune signaling and was observed to be functionally and prognostically relevant in different cancer entities. Therefore, we correlated the presence of MAP3K7 deletions with clinical parameters in a cohort of 327 pediatric T-ALL patients and investigated the function of MAP3K7 in the T-ALL cell lines CCRF-CEM, Jurkat and MOLT-4. METHODS: MAP3K7 deletions were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). T-ALL cell lines were transduced with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing anti-MAP3K7 shRNA or a non-silencing shRNA together with a GFP reporter. Transduction efficiency was measured by flow cytometry and depletion efficiency by RT-PCR and Western blots. Induction of apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry after staining with PE-conjugated Annexin V. In order to assess the contribution of NF-κB signaling to the effects of MAP3K7 depletion, cells were treated with TNF-α and cell lysates analyzed for components of the NF-κB pathway by Western blotting and for expression of the NF-κB target genes BCL2, CMYC, FAS, PTEN and TNF-α by RT-PCR. RESULTS: MAP3K7 is deleted in approximately 10% and point-mutated in approximately 1% of children with T-ALL. In 32 of 33 leukemias the deletion of MAP3K7 also included the adjacent CASP8AP2 gene. MAP3K7 deletions were associated with the occurrence of SIL-TAL1 fusions and a mature immunophenotype, but not with response to treatment and outcome. Depletion of MAP3K7 expression in T-ALL cell lines by shRNAs slowed down proliferation and induced apoptosis, but neither changed protein levels of components of NF-κB signaling nor NF-κB target gene expression after stimulation with TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the recurrent deletion of MAP3K7/CASP8AP2 is associated with SIL-TAL1 fusions and a mature immunophenotype, but not with response to treatment and risk of relapse. Homozygous deletions of MAP3K7 were not observed, and efficient depletion of MAP3K7 interfered with viability of T-ALL cells, indicating that a residual expression of MAP3K7 is indispensable for T-lymphoblasts.

10.
Leukemia ; 32(7): 1657-1669, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925908

RESUMO

A total of 156 patients (age range 1.3-18.0 years, median 13.2 years; 91 (58.3%) male) with newly diagnosed CML (N = 146 chronic phase (CML-CP), N = 3 accelerated phase (CML-AP), N = 7 blastic phase (CML-BP)) received imatinib up-front (300, 400, 500 mg/m2, respectively) within a prospective phase III trial. Therapy response, progression-free survival, causes of treatment failure, and side effects were analyzed in 148 children and adolescents with complete data. Event-free survival rate by 18 months for patients in CML-CP (median follow-up time 25 months, range: 1-120) was 97% (95% CI, 94.2-99.9%). According to the 2006 ELN-criteria complete hematologic response by month 3, complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) by month 12, and major molecular response (MMR) by month 18 were achieved in 98, 63, and 59% of the patients, respectively. By month 36, 86% of the patients achieved CCyR and 74% achieved MMR. Thirty-eight patients (27%) experienced imatinib failure because of unsatisfactory response or intolerance (N = 9). In all, 28/148 patients (19%) underwent stem cell transplantation (SCT). In the SCT sub-cohort 2/23 patients diagnosed in CML-CP, 0/1 in CML-AP, and 2/4 in CML-BP, respectively, died of relapse (N = 3) or SCT-related complications (N = 2). This large pediatric trial extends and confirms data from smaller series that first-line imatinib in children is highly effective.

11.
Nature ; 555(7696): 321-327, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489754

RESUMO

Pan-cancer analyses that examine commonalities and differences among various cancer types have emerged as a powerful way to obtain novel insights into cancer biology. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of genetic alterations in a pan-cancer cohort including 961 tumours from children, adolescents, and young adults, comprising 24 distinct molecular types of cancer. Using a standardized workflow, we identified marked differences in terms of mutation frequency and significantly mutated genes in comparison to previously analysed adult cancers. Genetic alterations in 149 putative cancer driver genes separate the tumours into two classes: small mutation and structural/copy-number variant (correlating with germline variants). Structural variants, hyperdiploidy, and chromothripsis are linked to TP53 mutation status and mutational signatures. Our data suggest that 7-8% of the children in this cohort carry an unambiguous predisposing germline variant and that nearly 50% of paediatric neoplasms harbour a potentially druggable event, which is highly relevant for the design of future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Cromotripsia , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Diploide , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Taxa de Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Hemoglobin ; 42(5-6): 294-296, 2018 Sep - Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626236

RESUMO

Over the last 43 years, surveys of over 200,000 subjects in Jamaica have identified ß-thalassemia (ß-thal) mutations. In most, these genes were detected at birth in patients with sickle cell-ß-thal and so the prevalence and distribution would not be influenced by subsequent clinical course. There were two newborn populations, 100,000 deliveries in the corporate area between 1973-1981 and 84,940 in south and western Jamaica between 2008-2016. A third population, which derived from the Manchester Project in central Jamaica, screened 16,612 secondary school children, aged predominantly 15-19 years, and identified 150 students with the ß-thal trait and 11 with sickle cell [Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T)]- or Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A)-ß-thal. The latter patients may have been subject to symptomatic selection, but this should not have affected those with ß-thal trait. Of the 24 different molecular mutations, ß0-thal genes accounted for 10.0-27.0% of these groups and most common was IVS-II-849 (A>G) (HBB: c.316-2A>G). Of the ß+ mutations, seven subjects had severe genes with low levels of ß chain synthesis but the majority were benign mutations in the promoter region. The -29 (A>G) (HBB: c.-79A>G) mutation dominated in the newborn study in Kingston, similar to experiences in Guadeloupe and African Americans but the -88 (C>T) (HBB: c.-138C>T) mutation was more common among school students in central Jamaica. Caribbean populations are genetically heterogeneous but variations within different parts of Jamaica is of potential importance for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. This information may also be useful among the large Jamaican diaspora.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mutação , Talassemia beta/genética , Adolescente , Testes Genéticos/tendências , Geografia Médica/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
13.
EMBO J ; 36(20): 2968-2986, 2017 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899899

RESUMO

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a cellular surveillance pathway that recognizes and degrades mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTCs). The mechanisms underlying translation termination are key to the understanding of RNA surveillance mechanisms such as NMD and crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies for NMD-related diseases. Here, we have used a fully reconstituted in vitro translation system to probe the NMD proteins for interaction with the termination apparatus. We discovered that UPF3B (i) interacts with the release factors, (ii) delays translation termination and (iii) dissociates post-termination ribosomal complexes that are devoid of the nascent peptide. Furthermore, we identified UPF1 and ribosomes as new interaction partners of UPF3B. These previously unknown functions of UPF3B during the early and late phases of translation termination suggest that UPF3B is involved in the crosstalk between the NMD machinery and the PTC-bound ribosome, a central mechanistic step of RNA surveillance.


Assuntos
Terminação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido
16.
Blood ; 130(7): 875-880, 2017 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28559357

RESUMO

We report 5 individuals in 3 unrelated families with severe thrombocytopenia progressing to trilineage bone marrow failure (BMF). Four of the children received hematopoietic stem cell transplants and all showed poor graft function with persistent severe cytopenias even after repeated transplants with different donors. Exome and targeted sequencing identified mutations in the gene encoding thrombopoietin (THPO): THPO R99W, homozygous in affected children in 2 families, and THPO R157X, homozygous in the affected child in the third family. Both mutations result in a lack of THPO in the patients' serum. For the 2 surviving patients, improvement in trilineage hematopoiesis was achieved following treatment with a THPO receptor agonist. These studies demonstrate that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in THPO cause BMF, which is unresponsive to transplant due to a hematopoietic cell-extrinsic mechanism. These studies provide further support for the critical role of the MPL-THPO pathway in hematopoiesis and highlight the importance of accurate genetic diagnosis to inform treatment decisions for BMF.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Medula Óssea/patologia , Mutação/genética , Trombopoetina/genética , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Receptores Fc/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Trombopoetina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Sarcoma Res ; 7: 9, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histone 3.3 (H3.3) hotspot mutations in bone tumors occur in the vast majority of giant cell tumors of bone (GCTBs; 96%), chondroblastomas (95%) and in a few cases of osteosarcomas. However, clinical presentation, histopathological features, and additional molecular characteristics of H3.3 mutant osteosarcomas are largely unknown. METHODS: In this multicentre, retrospective study, a total of 106 conventional high-grade osteosarcomas, across all age groups were re-examined for hotspot mutations in the H3.3 coding genes H3F3A and H3F3B. H3.3 mutant osteosarcomas were re-evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner and analyzed for genome-wide DNA-methylation patterns and DNA copy number aberrations alongside H3.3 wild-type osteosarcomas and H3F3A G34W/L mutant GCTBs. RESULTS: Six osteosarcomas (6/106) carried H3F3A hotspot mutations. No mutations were found in H3F3B. All patients with H3F3A mutant osteosarcoma were older than 30 years with a median age of 65 years. Copy number aberrations that are commonly encountered in high-grade osteosarcomas also occurred in H3F3A mutant osteosarcomas. Unlike a single osteosarcoma with a H3F3A K27M mutation, the DNA methylation profiles of H3F3A G34W/R mutant osteosarcomas were clearly different from H3.3 wild-type osteosarcomas, but more closely related to GCTBs. The most differentially methylated promoters between H3F3A G34W/R mutant and H3.3 wild-type osteosarcomas were in KLLN/PTEN (p < 0.00005) and HIST1H2BB (p < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: H3.3 mutations in osteosarcomas may occur in H3F3A at mutational hotspots. They are overall rare, but become more frequent in osteosarcoma patients older than 30 years. Osteosarcomas carrying H3F3A G34W/R mutations are associated with epigenetic dysregulation of KLLN/PTEN and HIST1H2BB.

18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(7)2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) in Germany is currently changing fundamentally with ongoing immigration. Here, we address the challenges resulting from the increased frequency, that is, the morbidity, and mortality of SCD in this population. PROCEDURE: The number of immigrants with SCD was estimated based on the data of the German central registry of migrants (2007-2015) and published epidemiologic data. Additional data analysis was based on nationwide aggregated data from the diagnosis-related groups' (DRG) statistics of the German Federal Statistical Office. RESULTS: The total number of patients with SCD among migrants was estimated at 2,016 in 2007 and 3,216 in 2015, thus showing a 60% increase, which was particularly remarkable during 2014 and 2015. The countries of origin included those of West sub-Saharan Africa, followed by Syria, and other countries of the Middle East. In parallel, the number of SCD inpatient treatments increased from 780 in 2002 to 1,340 in 2015. Between 2012 and 2014, 42 patients with SCD died in hospital, mostly at an age of less than 5 years (n = 7) or over 30 years (n = 29). CONCLUSION: More than 3,000 patients with SCD are estimated to live among the immigrant population in Germany. In addition, the number of SCD patients of German nationality is not known. The increasing number of inpatient treatments and the death of young children from SCD indicate the need for a general newborn screening program and an increased awareness of this disease among medical practitioners in a country in which SCD used to be rare.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(26): 42398-42413, 2017 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28415578

RESUMO

ERG-related leukemia is a B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) subtype characterized by aberrant expression of DUX4 and ERG transcription factors, and highly recurrent ERG intragenic deletions. ERG-related patients have remarkably favorable outcome despite a high incidence of inauspicious IKZF1 aberrations.We describe clinical and genomic features of the ERG-related cases in an unselected cohort of B-other BCP ALL pediatric patients enrolled in the AIEOP ALL 2000 therapeutic protocol. We report a small noncoding RNA signature specific of ERG-related group, with up-regulation of miR-125b-2 cluster on chromosome 21 and several snoRNAs in the Prader-Willi locus at 15q11.2, including the orphan SNORD116 cluster.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Família Multigênica , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/metabolismo , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , Regulador Transcricional ERG/metabolismo , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/patologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Deleção de Sequência , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética , Transcriptoma , Resultado do Tratamento
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