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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in bouts of <10 minutes protects against disability risks or if only 10 minutes bouts of MVPA is critical. Additionally, it is unclear whether light physical activity (LPA) or its accumulation patterns is associated with functional disability. METHODS: A total of 1,678 adults aged ≥65 years and without functional disability at baseline were followed up for 6 years. Functional disability was identified using the database of Japan's Long-term Care Insurance System. Physical activity was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer secured to the waist. RESULTS: Functional disability was identified in 274 participants (16.3%). When examined as quartiles, higher levels of all MVPA measures were dose-dependently associated with lower risk of functional disability. Associations of MVPA in ≥10 and <10 minutes bouts remained significant in a mutually adjusted model. Neither total LPA nor LPA in bout of ≥10 minutes, but LPA in bouts of <10 minutes was associated with functional disability. Analyses using restricted cubic spline functions showed that associations of all MVPA measures and LPA in bouts of <10 minutes with functional disability were linear (p for nonlinear >.05). The hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for functional disability per 10 minutes increment of total MVPA and LPA in bout of <10 minutes were 0.86 (0.81-0.92) and 0.96 (0.93-0.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher MVPA, regardless accumulation patterns, or LPA in bouts of <10 minutes was associated with lower risk of functional disability in a linear dose-response manner in older adults.

2.
J Sports Sci Med ; 19(1): 166-174, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132840

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured patterns of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) and frailty status in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. Data was from 65-75 years older adults from the baseline of Itoshima Frail Study were used. Frailty was assessed using a Japanese version of the FRAIL scale. SB and PA were measured using an accelerometer. Multinomial logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to investigate the associations of SB and PA patterns with frailty status. Of the total 819 older adults, half were female (51.8%). The prevalence of robust, pre-frailty and frailty was 60.2%, 27.8%, and 12.0%, respectively. SB variables including total sedentary time, sedentary time in bouts of ≥ 10 min and ≥ 30 min, and mean sedentary bout duration were not associated with frailty status. Except LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in bouts of < 10 min, PA variables including total MVPA time, MVPA in bouts of ≥ 10 min (bouted MVPA), and steps were significantly associated with lower prevalence of frailty. Area under the curves (AUCs) of total MVPA time, bouted MVPA, and steps were 0.64 (P < 0.001), 0.67 (P < 0.001), and 0.66 (P < 0.001), respectively. The optimal cut-off value of total MVPA time, bouted MVPA, and steps to discriminate between frailty and non-frailty were 43.25 min/day, 9.13 min/day, and 3841 steps/day, respectively. Higher levels of total MVPA time, bouted MVPA, and daily steps were negatively associated with frailty. Lower amounts of bouted MVPA (70 min/week) or steps (4000 steps/day) may be achievable initial targets in older adults for frailty management.

3.
J Anat ; 236(6): 1101-1111, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052433

RESUMO

Age-related regression of myelinated fibers in peripheral nerves of the lower limbs is strongly influenced by capillaries and results in balance dysfunction and falls. However, the temporal relationships between alteration patterns of myelinated fibers and capillaries have not yet been clarified. This study aimed to investigate age-related morphological and histological changes of both myelinated fibers and capillaries in peripheral nerves to clarify whether myelinated fibers or capillaries change earlier. Seven male Wistar rats each were randomly selected at 20 weeks (young group), 70 weeks (middle group), and 97 weeks (old group) for histological evaluations. The left and right tibial nerves were removed morphologically and histologically to examine myelinated fibers and capillaries. Axon diameter and myelin thickness were almost unaltered in the middle group compared with the young group but were significantly reduced in the old group when compared with the other two groups. However, the capillary diameter and number of microvascular branch points were substantially reduced in the middle group. The current study demonstrates that myelinated fibers of peripheral nerves show signs of regression in elderly rats, whereas capillaries start to reduce in middle-aged animals. In normal aging of the tibial nerve, capillaries may regress before myelinated fibers.

4.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 21(2): 272-276.e1, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a Fried Frailty Phenotype Questionnaire (FFPQ) and a Japanese FRAIL (fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and loss of weight) scale (FRAIL-J) and to evaluate the reliability and validity of both questionnaires in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of Itoshima Frail Study (IFS). SETTING: The IFS is an ongoing community-based prospective study in Itoshima (Japan). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 858 older adults age 65-75 years. METHODS: The FRAIL-J comprises 5 existing items comparable to those in original FRAIL scale but with broader utilization in the Japanese healthcare system. In FFPQ, resistance, ambulation, and loss of weight were the same as those in FRAIL-J. Fatigue was the same with exhaustion in FFP and inactivity was assessed using a yes or no question. Data including demographics, and physical and cognitive functions, and objective physical activity was collected and analyzed in relation to both questionnaires. RESULTS: The FFPQ and FRAIL-J showed low internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson formula 20 coefficients = 0.32 and 0.29) and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.79 and 0.72). The correlations ranged from -0.22 to 0.49 when correlating each item with cross-sectional outcomes. Using FFP as a criterion, the ares under the curve for FRAIL-J and FFPQ were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. The optimal cut-off for FRAIL-J was 2, with a higher Youden index (66.7% vs 20.3% for 3) and a high negative predictive value (99.5%) but low positive predictive value (13.1%). As for FFPQ, either 2 or 3 was evaluated as cut-off because the Youden index (62.2% vs 58.5%) and negative predictive value (99.7% vs 99.2%) were similar although the positive predictive value was low (9.7% vs 33.3%). Using a 2-point cut-off, both questionnaires had slight agreement with FFP. The highest agreement (kappa = 0.42) was found between FFP and FFPQ using a 3-point cut-off. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The FFPQ and FRAIL-J can be used for frailty screening in Japanese community-dwelling older adults.

5.
Sports Med ; 50(2): 403-413, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides physical activity as a target for dementia prevention, sedentary behaviour is hypothesized to be a potential target in its own right. The rising number of persons with dementia and lack of any effective treatment highlight the urgency to better understand these modifiable risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher levels of sedentary behaviour are associated with reduced global cognitive functioning and slower cognitive decline in older persons without dementia. METHODS: We used five population cohorts from Greece, Australia, USA, Japan, and Singapore (HELIAD, PATH, SALSA, SGS, and SLAS2) from the Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium. In a coordinated analysis, we assessed the relationship between sedentary behaviour and global cognitive function with the use of linear mixed growth model analysis (mean follow-up range of 2.0-8.1 years). RESULTS: Baseline datasets combined 10,450 older adults without dementia with a mean age range between cohorts of 66.7-75.1 years. After adjusting for multiple covariates, no cross-sectional association between sedentary behaviour and cognition was found in four studies. One association was detected where more sedentary behaviour was cross-sectionally linked to higher cognition levels (SLAS2, B = 0.118 (0.075; 0.160), P < 0.001). Longitudinally, there were no associations between baseline sedentary behaviour and cognitive decline (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results do not suggest an association between total sedentary time and lower global cognition in older persons without dementia at baseline or over time. We hypothesize that specific types of sedentary behaviour may differentially influence cognition which should be investigated further. For now, it is, however, too early to establish undifferentiated sedentary time as a potential effective target for minimizing cognitive decline in older adults without dementia.

6.
BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med ; 5(1): e000592, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749982

RESUMO

Background: A triaxial accelerometer with an algorithm that could discriminate locomotive and non-locomotive activities in adults has been developed. However, in the elderly, this accelerometer has not yet been validated. The aim were to examine the validity of this accelerometer in the healthy elderly, and to compare the results with those derived in a healthy younger sample. Methods: Twenty-nine healthy elderly subjects aged 60-80 years (Elderly), and 42 adults aged 20-59 years (Younger) participated. All subjects performed 11 activities, including locomotive and non-locomotive activities with a Douglas bag while wearing the accelerometer (Active style Pro HJA-750C). Physical activity intensities were expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs). The relationship between the METs measured using the Douglas bag and METs predicted using the accelerometer was evaluated. Results: A significant correlation between actual and predicted METs was observed in both Elderly (r=0.85, p<0.001) and Younger (r=0.88, p<0.001). Predicted METs significantly underestimated compared with actual METs in both groups (p<0.001). The mean of the errors was -0.6±0.6 METs in Elderly and -0.1±0.5 METs in Younger. The degree of underestimation increased with increasing METs in Elderly (p<0.001). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that predicted METs, age, and weight were related to actual METs in both groups. Conclusion: The degree of correlation between predicted and actual METs was comparable in elderly and younger participants, but the prediction errors were greater in elderly participants, particular at higher-intensity activities, which suggests that different predicting equations may be needed for the elderly.

7.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
8.
J Phys Act Health ; 16(2): 165-171, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe changes in physical activity volumes and sedentary time over 3 years in the middle-aged and older Japanese population. METHODS: Study participants included 1151 Japanese community-dwelling residents aged ≥40 years in 2009 who underwent 2 sets of health examinations (2009 and 2012). Using a triaxial accelerometer, longitudinal changes in sedentary time, light physical activity volume, moderate to vigorous physical activity volume, number of steps, and total physical activity volume were evaluated according to sex, age (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, and ≥80 y), and obese (nonobese and obese) categories. RESULTS: Sedentary time significantly increased, and all physical activity volumes significantly decreased among all participants. Although most variables did not change significantly in the 40-49 and 50-59 year age categories, similar changes as all participants were observed across all other categories. In the correlation analyses, changes in sedentary time correlated, at most, only modestly for each change in physical activity volumes, indicating that increased physical activity volume does not always lead to decreased sedentary time, and vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to reduce sedentary time and promote physical activity are needed in Japan, particularly for people aged ≥60 years.

9.
J Diabetes Investig ; 10(3): 809-816, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387322

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to examine cross-sectional associations between objectively measured sedentary time and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a general Japanese population, and to elucidate possible mediating roles of diet, obesity and insulin resistance in this relationship. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,758 community-dwelling individuals aged 40-79 years wore an accelerometer for ≥7 days and underwent a comprehensive health examination in 2012. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. The associations of sedentary time with the presence of diabetes mellitus and the levels of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were estimated by logistic and linear regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, participants who spent ≥10 h in sedentary time had a significantly higher odds ratio of the presence of diabetes than those who spent <6 h in sedentary time (odds ratio 1.84, 95% confidence interval 1.02-3.31). This significant association remained after adjusting for overall and central obesity (as measured by body mass index and waist circumference), but weakened after adjusting for dietary energy intake or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Sedentary time was positively associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels among non-diabetic participants after adjusted for obesity or energy intake (P for trend <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Longer sedentary time was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a general Japanese population. Insulin resistance appeared to be mainly involved in this association. These results highlight the importance of public health strategies targeting reductions in sedentary time for the primary prevention of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 125(4): 1051-1061, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024334

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether aerobic exercise (AE) in old age contributes to improving the morphologies of myelinated fibers (MFs) in peripheral nerves as well as capillaries. Furthermore, we investigated whether such processes are associated with complementary activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the circulating blood and peripheral nerve tissue. Fourteen male Wistar rats (age: 95 wk) were randomly divided into moderate AE ( n = 8) and sedentary (SED; n = 6) groups. Rats in the AE group performed treadmill running for 1 h per day for 2 wk, following which the bilateral tibial nerves of the two groups were removed to examine MF and capillary structure. Levels of BDNF and VEGF in the serum and peripheral nerves were analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Myelin thickness, axon diameter, and capillary luminal diameter were significantly larger in the AE group than in the SED group ( P < 0.0001). Levels of serum BDNF and VEGF were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in the AE group than in the SED group ( P < 0.001). Conversely, BDNF and VEGF levels in tibial nerve tissue were significantly higher, respectively, and lower in the AE group than in the SED group ( P < 0.001). In conclusion, our study indicates that regular AE induces enlargement of the capillaries and thickens the myelin in aged peripheral nerves, likely via a complementary process involving BDNF and VEGF. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Accumulating evidence indicates that age-related sarcopenia is accompanied by the degeneration of myelinated fibers (MFs) in peripheral nerves. Our study indicates that regular aerobic exercise contributes to increased thickness of the myelin surrounding MFs and enlargement of the capillaries, likely via a complementary process involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Our findings demonstrate that regular, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise may help to prevent and reverse peripheral nerve regression in older adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Nervo Tibial/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Animais , Capilares/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Nervo Tibial/irrigação sanguínea
11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 2894247, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765493

RESUMO

The current study examined the effect of aging and long-term wheel-running on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP), redox regulation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in tibialis anterior (T.A.) and soleus muscle of mice. Male mice were divided into young (Y, 3-month-old), old-sedentary (OS, 24-month-old), and old-exercise (OE, 24-month-old) groups. The OE group started voluntary wheel-running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Aging was associated with a higher thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNiP) level, lower thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) to TxNiP ratio-a determinant of redox regulation and increased CHOP, an indicator of ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in both muscles. Notably, GRP78, a key indicator of ER stress, was selectively elevated in T.A. Long-term exercise decreased TxNiP in T.A. and soleus muscles and increased the TRX-1/TxNiP ratio in soleus muscle of aged mice. Inducible HSP70 and constituent HSC70 were upregulated, whereas CHOP was reduced after exercise in soleus muscle. Thus, our data demonstrated that aging induced oxidative stress and activated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in skeletal muscle, whereas long-term wheel-running improved redox regulation, ER stress adaptation and attenuated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling. These findings suggest that life-long exercise can protect against age-related cellular stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Idoso , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
12.
J Epidemiol ; 28(5): 260-265, 2018 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe the patterns and levels of sedentary time and physical activity (PA) in a general Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 1,740 community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥40 years participated in this study. Sedentary time and PA were assessed for 7 consecutive days using a tri-axial accelerometer. Daily patterns and levels of sedentary time and PA were calculated by sex, age group (40-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years), and body mass index (BMI; <25 and ≥25 kg/m2). RESULTS: Participants spent half of their waking time being sedentary, 32.7% of which was accumulated in prolonged bouts ≥30 minutes, versus only 54.4 minutes/day (7% of waking time) as moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (11.8 minutes/day in bouts ≥10 minutes). In addition to total sedentary time, men had longer prolonged sedentary bouts and fewer breaks per sedentary hour than women. Similar trends were observed in participants aged ≥75 years and those with a higher BMI (≥25 kg/m2) compared to those with a younger age and lower BMI. Moreover, participants aged ≥75 years and those with a higher BMI accumulated fewer MVPA minutes in bouts ≥10 minutes. Only 34.8% of the population met the recommended level of ≥150 minutes/week MVPA in bouts ≥10 minutes. CONCLUSION: Japanese adults accumulated a large proportion of total sedentary time in prolonged bouts but few minutes in sustained bouts of MVPA, and few of them met the current PA guideline.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
13.
PLoS Med ; 14(3): e1002261, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of dementia varies around the world, potentially contributed to by international differences in rates of age-related cognitive decline. Our primary goal was to investigate how rates of age-related decline in cognitive test performance varied among international cohort studies of cognitive aging. We also determined the extent to which sex, educational attainment, and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) carrier status were associated with decline. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data for 14 cohorts from 12 countries (Australia, Brazil, France, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Spain, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States), for a total of 42,170 individuals aged 54-105 y (42% male), including 3.3% with dementia at baseline. The studies began between 1989 and 2011, with all but three ongoing, and each had 2-16 assessment waves (median = 3) and a follow-up duration of 2-15 y. We analyzed standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and memory, processing speed, language, and executive functioning test scores using linear mixed models, adjusted for sex and education, and meta-analytic techniques. Performance on all cognitive measures declined with age, with the most rapid rate of change pooled across cohorts a moderate -0.26 standard deviations per decade (SD/decade) (95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.35, -0.16], p < 0.001) for processing speed. Rates of decline accelerated slightly with age, with executive functioning showing the largest additional rate of decline with every further decade of age (-0.07 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.10, -0.03], p = 0.002). There was a considerable degree of heterogeneity in the associations across cohorts, including a slightly faster decline (p = 0.021) on the MMSE for Asians (-0.20 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.28, -0.12], p < 0.001) than for whites (-0.09 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.16, -0.02], p = 0.009). Males declined on the MMSE at a slightly slower rate than females (difference = 0.023 SD/decade, 95% CI [0.011, 0.035], p < 0.001), and every additional year of education was associated with a rate of decline slightly slower for the MMSE (0.004 SD/decade less, 95% CI [0.002, 0.006], p = 0.001), but slightly faster for language (-0.007 SD/decade more, 95% CI [-0.011, -0.003], p = 0.001). APOE*4 carriers declined slightly more rapidly than non-carriers on most cognitive measures, with processing speed showing the greatest difference (-0.08 SD/decade, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.01], p = 0.019). The same overall pattern of results was found when analyses were repeated with baseline dementia cases excluded. We used only one test to represent cognitive domains, and though a prototypical one, we nevertheless urge caution in generalizing the results to domains rather than viewing them as test-specific associations. This study lacked cohorts from Africa, India, and mainland China. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive performance declined with age, and more rapidly with increasing age, across samples from diverse ethnocultural groups and geographical regions. Associations varied across cohorts, suggesting that different rates of cognitive decline might contribute to the global variation in dementia prevalence. However, the many similarities and consistent associations with education and APOE genotype indicate a need to explore how international differences in associations with other risk factors such as genetics, cardiovascular health, and lifestyle are involved. Future studies should attempt to use multiple tests for each cognitive domain and feature populations from ethnocultural groups and geographical regions for which we lacked data.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Genótipo , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 888, 2016 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the associations between time spent in prolonged and non-prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We used data from a prospective study of Japanese workers. Baseline examination was conducted between 2010 and 2011. A total of 430 office workers (58 women) aged 40-64 years without metabolic syndrome were followed up by annual health checkups until 2014. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having ≥ 3 out of 5 diagnostic criteria from the Joint Interim Statement 2009 definition. Sedentary time was assessed using a tri-axial accelerometer. Time spent in total, prolonged (accumulated ≥ 30 min) and non-prolonged sedentary bouts (accumulated < 30 min) was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 3 years, 83 participants developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, and family income, positive associations were observed between time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts and the development of metabolic syndrome. After additional adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, those in the three highest quartiles of time spent in prolonged sedentary bouts showed higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to the lowest quartile group, with adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) of 2.72 (1.30 - 5.73), 2.42 (1.11 - 5.50), and 2.85 (1.31 - 6.18), respectively. No associations were seen for time spent in total and non-prolonged sedentary bouts. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary behavior accumulated in a prolonged manner was associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. In devising public health recommendations for the prevention of metabolic disease, the avoidance of prolonged uninterrupted periods of sedentary behavior should be considered.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Sleep Disord ; 2016: 8737654, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27042358

RESUMO

Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE) study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n = 507) reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16), and 5.8% (n = 115) reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30), sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes), and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation.

16.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 31(3): 267-74, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857126

RESUMO

We investigated the long-term influence of physical activity on the risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population. A total of 803 community-dwelling elderly Japanese individuals without dementia aged ≥65 years were followed prospectively for 17 years. Physically active status was defined as engaging in exercise at least one or more times per week during leisure time, and participants were divided into an active group and an inactive group by the presence or absence of such physical activity. The risk estimates of physical activity on the development of all-cause dementia and its subtypes were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up, 291 participants developed all-cause dementia. Of these, 165 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 93 had vascular dementia (VaD), and 47 had other dementia. Compared with the inactive group, the active group showed significantly lower crude incidence of AD (21.8 vs. 14.2 per 1000 person-years, p = 0.01), but no significant differences were observed for all-cause dementia (35.6 vs. 30.5, p = 0.17), VaD (11.3 vs. 9.8, p = 049), and other dementia (4.6 vs. 7.1, p = 0.15). After adjusting for potential confounders, the relationship between physical activity and risk of AD remained significant (adjusted hazard ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.84, p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that physical activity reduces the long-term risk of dementia, especially AD, in the general Japanese population.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Demência/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 63(12): 727-737, 2016.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100892

RESUMO

Purpose This study aimed to examine the relationship between participation in social activity and both, composite and individual measures of physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults.Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from the Sasaguri Genkimon Study (SGS), a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 2011. Participants were 1,365 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or above, who did not require certified nursing care and who resided in Sasaguri, a town located east of the Fukuoka metropolitan area. Participation in social activity was assessed by asking participants whether they engaged in any of eight social activities. Physical fitness tests assessed participants' handgrip strength and knee extension strength as measures of muscle strength, and their one-leg standing time, 5-m maximum gait speed, and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate as measures of their physical performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between participation in social activity and each measure of physical fitness, adjusting for sex; age; body mass index; socioeconomic status; solitary living; exercise, habitual drinking and smoking; accelerometer-measured, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; cognitive function; instrumental activities of daily living; distress; social network; and comorbidities.Results A total of 83.6% of the participants were engaged in at least one social activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, engagement in social activity was positively associated with a higher composite physical fitness score, faster gait speed and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate, and longer one-leg standing time (P=0.008, P=0.030, P=0.034, and P=0.009, respectively).Conclusion Participation in social activity was significantly associated with physical fitness, specifically those related to locomotive function. These associations were independent of various confounders including socioeconomic status, and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Aptidão Física , Comportamento Social , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Japão , Masculino , Força Muscular , Classe Social
18.
J Phys Act Health ; 13(3): 303-9, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26181652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study was performed to examine associations of objectively measured sedentary time (ST) and breaks in sedentary time (BST) with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The sample comprised 1634 older adults (mean age: 73.3 y, men: 38.4%). Sedentary behavior was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Disability was defined as inability in at least 1 of the IADL tasks using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), longer ST was significantly associated with higher likelihood of IADL disability, whereas a greater number of BST was associated with lower likelihood of IADL disability. ST and BST remained statistically significant after mutual adjustment with odds ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI)], 1.00-1.70) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65-0.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study first demonstrated that shorter ST and more BST were associated with lower risk of IADL disability independent of MVPA and that the association for ST was independent of BST and vice versa. These findings suggest not only total ST but also the manner in which it is accumulated may contribute to the maintenance of functional independence in older adults.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Atividade Motora , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Acelerometria , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Características de Residência
19.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 16(6): 729-36, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26082148

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the associations of global cognitive performance with frailty and pre-frailty in non-demented community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out using data from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study in 2011. The study sample consisted of 1565 older adults with complete data and no evidence of dementia. Global cognitive performance was evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Frailty state was defined using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria, based on five components: unintentional weight loss, low grip strength, exhaustion, low gait speed and low physical activity. RESULTS: Total MoCA and MMSE scores, and their domain-specific scores decreased across the non-frail, pre-frail and frail groups. Poorer total MoCA and MMSE scores, as well as their domain-specific scores, were associated with the greater likelihood of being frail, but not with pre-frailty after full adjustment. The strength of the association with frailty was greater for total MoCA score than for total MMSE score. Domain-specific scores for visuospatial abilities and attention domains in both of the MoCA and MMSE were consistently associated with the likelihood of pre-frailty and frailty, even after being mutually adjusted for all domains. CONCLUSIONS: The MoCA performance is more strongly associated with the odds of frailty than the MMSE performance in the relatively functional and non-demented older adult population. The present findings could contribute to further exploration of possible common pathways that can be targeted in the prevention and management for both of these two conditions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; ●●: ●●-●●.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Vida Independente/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
J Sports Sci Med ; 14(3): 507-14, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26336336

RESUMO

Knowledge regarding accelerometer-derived physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SED) levels is scarce for Japanese older adults. The aims of this study were therefore to 1) describe levels of PA and SED in Japanese community-dwelling older adults, using tri-axial accelerometer; 2) examine the variation of PA and SED with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Participants of this study were from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study, who were 65 years or older and not certified as those requiring long-term care. PA was assessed objectively for seven consecutive days using tri-axial accelerometer. A total of 1,739 participants (median age: 72 years, men: 38.0%) with valid PA data were included. Overall, participants in the present study spent 54.5% of their waking time being sedentary and 45.5% being active, of which 5.4% was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Women accumulated more minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and MVPA compared with men. In contrast, men spent more time being sedentary. Mean steps per day did not differ between sexes. Furthermore, participants with higher BMI (BMI ≥25) had lower PA levels, and longer SED compared with those with lower BMI (BMI <). PA levels were lower and SED was longer with age. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the levels of PA and SED differed by sex, age, and BMI in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. In particular, women were more active compared with men, providing unique insight into the current level of PA in older adults. Data presented in the study will enable further investigation of additional determinants of PA and SED in order to develop effective population-based intervention strategies to promote PA and reduce prolonged SED in the Japanese population and possibly other rapidly aging societies. Key pointsAccelerometer, that is capable to assess PA more precisely in large scale epidemiological studies, provides opportunity for improving understanding of daily PA in older adults.This study first demonstrated that the levels of PA and SED differed by sex, age, and BMI in Japanese community-dwelling older people.Women were more active compared with men, in terms of more minutes of MVPA.

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