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1.
J Vasc Access ; : 1129729819879314, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proper vascular access is essential for the long-term survival of chronic haemodialysis patients. The preferred vascular access in terms of long-term function is the native arteriovenous fistula. The success of native arteriovenous fistula depends mainly on a sufficient vein diameter. Thus, any intervention that could increase vein diameter before arteriovenous fistula creation could improve its patency. We conduct a study to investigate the effect of local physical training, namely handgrip exercise, on the distal forearm cephalic vein diameter in patients with chronic renal disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 34 chronic renal disease patients (stage 3 and 4) were recruited in a randomized controlled trial. Handgrip exercise was performed for 8 weeks in the intervention group. Handgrip-strength measurement and distal forearm cephalic vein diameter of a non-dominant hand with and without tourniquet was recorded (measurement is taken 1 cm proximal to the radial styloid). RESULTS: After 8 weeks, the mean cephalic vein diameter in the intervention group increased from 1.77 and 1.97 mm to 2.15 and 2.43 mm, without and with a tourniquet, respectively (p < 0.05). There is also a significant change in the mean diameter of distal forearm cephalic vein (p < 0.05) in the intervention group when measured in both the absence (mean change 0.39 ± 0.06 mm vs 0.01 ± 0.02 mm) and the presence of tourniquet (mean change 0.47 ± 0.07 mm vs 0.01 ± 0.01 mm). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that non-invasive handgrip exercise can increase in the diameter of the distal forearm cephalic vein, thereby increasing the rate of successful arteriovenous fistula creation.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on prevalence and factors influencing psychological burden in pigmentary disorders are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine the point prevalence of anxiety disorder, depression and somatoform disorder in patients with melasma, vitiligo and acquired dermal macular hyperpigmentation (ADMH). METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 100 patients each of melasma, ADMH and vitiligo with lesions over exposed body parts, was conducted in the pigmentary clinic of a tertiary care referral centre from June 2015 to December 2017. Dermatology life quality index (DLQI), PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 were used for assessment of quality of life, psychiatric comorbidities, depression, general anxiety disorder, and somatoform disorders, respectively and correlate them with age, gender, occupation, marital status, severity and progression of the disease. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety disorder in patients of melasma, vitiligo and ADMH were 11.6%, 21% and 18.7% respectively. Depression was seen in 12.8%, 27% and 24.1% patients of melasma, vitiligo and ADMH respectively. Somatoform disorder was more common in vitiligo (17.9%) as compared to ADMH (14.3%) and melasma (8.1%). There were positive correlations between severity of disease and the point prevalence of anxiety and depression in all disorders. CONCLUSION: A high point prevalence of anxiety, depression and somatoform disorders was observed with pigmentary diseases, especially vitiligo and ADMH. The prevalence of anxiety and depression correlated with disease severity and activity. Future research involving comparison with general healthy population is required for a more affirmative conclusion.

3.
Biofouling ; 35(7): 768-784, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530181

RESUMO

Microbial biofilms on stainless steel surfaces exposed to water from a freshwater pond were dominated by manganese-oxidizing bacteria, as initially diagnosed by microscopy and elemental analysis. The application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed conspicuous sextet (six-line) patterns that intensified with immersion time, implying the gradual accumulation of Mn(II) in the biofilms. Correspondingly, cathodic polarization designated the manganese oxide (MnOx) reduction peak in the form of a distinctive 'nose', which grew increasingly more negative with biofilm growth. The progressive expansion of cathodic current densities and the concurrent area-under-the-curve also allowed the quantification of microbially mediated MnOx deposition. Furthermore, the merger of EPR and cathodic polarization techniques yielded key insights, in tandem with Mn speciation data, into the pathways of microbial manganese transformations in biofilms, besides providing meaningful interpretations of prevailing literature. Accordingly, the natural freshwater biofilm was inferred as one supporting a complete manganese cycle encompassing multiple redox states.

4.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122062, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494436

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate biopolymer production using two bacterial strains, Acinetobacter junii BP25 and Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, and their co-culture. Batch experiments were evaluated using acetate and butyrate as carbon sources in feast and famine strategy. Feast phase was studied using carbon, nitrates and phosphate in the ratio of 100:8:1 and famine phase was limited with the phosphate and nitrates. Co-culture resulted in highest specific growth rate (0.30 h-1) in the feast phase and the famine phase accounted the maximum polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation (2.46 g PHB/L), followed by Acinetobacter junii BP25 (0.25 h-1 and 1.82 g PHB/L) and Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966 (0.17 h-1 and 1.12 g PHB/L). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) structural analysis confirmed as PHB. PHB production using the co-culture could be integrated with biohydrogen process using volatile fatty acids (VFA) as a carbon source in the biorefinery framework.

5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 741-750, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426216

RESUMO

Hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial consortium that utilizes crude oil as carbon and energy source was isolated from marine sediment collected at a depth of 2100 m. Molecular characterization by 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that these isolates as Oceanobacillus sp., Nesiotobacter sp., Ruegeria sp., Photobacterium sp., Enterobacter sp., Haererehalobacter sp., Exiguobacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp. Self-immobilized consortium degraded more than 85% of total hydrocarbons after 10 days of incubation with 1% (v/v) of crude oil and 0.05% (v/v) of Tween 80 (non-ionic surfactant) at 28 ±â€¯2 °C. The addition of nitrogen and phosphorus sources separately i.e. 0.1% (v/v) of CO (NH2)2 or K2HPO4 enhanced the hydrocarbon utilization percentage. The pathways of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons were confirmed by FTIR, GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy analyses. These results demonstrated a novel approach using hydrocarbonoclastic self-immobilized deep sea bacterial consortium for eco-friendly bioremediation.

7.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; : 106371, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421986

RESUMO

High ambient temperature exhibits a retrograde effect on buffalo reproduction because of heat stress. Moreover, melatonin is known to regulate reproductive changes in seasonally reproductive animals by binding to high affinity, G protein-coupled receptors. The MTNR1A gene is a prime receptor, mediating the effect of melatonin at the neuroendocrine level to control seasonal reproduction. In sheep, the role of melatonin is well known; however, studies have not been conducted in buffalo to determine its effect during favorable and unfavorable breeding seasons. Therefore, the present study aimed to (1) determine the expression of MTNR1A, ERα, ERß, and PR gene transcripts in the ovarian follicles of buffalo during the summer and winter seasons and (2) analyze melatonin, 17ß-estradiol, and progesterone concentrations in the follicular fluid of buffalo during both seasons. Murrah buffalo ovaries were collected during both the summer (May-June) and winter (December-January) seasons. All visible ovarian follicles were allocated into one of three groups: (1) small (8-9.9 mm); (2) medium (10-11.9 mm); and (3) large (12-14 mm). Follicular fluid was aspirated from each group of follicles for hormone analyses. The granulosa cells were processed for RNA extraction. Furthermore, they were subjected to real-time quantitative PCR to analyze the expression (relative quantification) of MTNR1A, ERα, ERß, and PR in each follicular group. The expression of MTNR1A gene transcript decreased with the increasing size of the follicle and intrafollicular melatonin concentration. Expression of ERα and PR remained unaffected by the season and was similar (P > 0.05) in all groups. Expression of ERß was higher (P < 0.05) in summer than winter; nevertheless, small-sized follicles from the summer exhibited higher (P < 0.05) expressions than medium- and large-sized follicles. The overall intrafollicular melatonin concentration was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with 17ß-estradiol and progesterone concentrations. In conclusion, the decreased expression of MTNR1A and increased concentration of intrafollicular melatonin with the increasing size of the follicle indicates a probable role in folliculogenesis and ovulation in buffalo.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 140: 393-400, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425761

RESUMO

In this study, gum of Araucaria heterophylla was collected. The collected gum was subjected for extraction of polysaccharide using solvent extraction system. Thus, extracted polysaccharide was further purified using solvent method and was characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Phenol sulfuric acid assay, FTIR, TGA, TLC and GC-MS. The gum derived polysaccharide was found to have the following sugars Rhamnose, Allose, Glucosinolate, Threose, Idosan, Galactose and Arabinose. The extracted polysaccharide was tested for various in-vitro bioactive studies such as antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity. The polysaccharide was found to have antioxidant and anticancer activity. Further, the polysaccharide was subjected for carboxymethylation to favor the nanocarrier synthesis, where it was chelated using Sodium Tri Meta Phosphate (STMP) to form nanocarriers. The nanocarriers so formed were loaded with curcumin and were characterized using FTIR, SEM, EDX and AFM. Both the loaded and unloaded nanocarriers were studied for its in-vitro cytotoxic effect against the MCF7 human breast cancer cell lines. The nanocarriers were found to deliver the drug efficiently against the cancer cell line used in this study.

9.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(2): 981-984, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is an increase in basal metabolic rate (BMR) which is associated with level of glycaemic control. Women with postmenopausal osteoporosis have decreased BMR. The aim of the present study is to find the BMR using Meffin-St Jeor predictive equation in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who have attained menopause with osteoporosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: 100 women who have attained menopause, who were diagnosed to have osteoporosis with type 2 diabetes mellitus were assessed for BMR using Meffin-St Jeor predictive equation. Detailed history of diabetes and menopause were obtained. Blood glucose value was measured using standard glucometers. Body composition for visceral fat (VF) was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Level of physical activity of the participants was measured using global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ). RESULTS: The median BMR of the participants was 1.075 (714, 1483.25). Statistically significant correlation was found between BMR and GPAQ (rs = 0.731), BMR and VF (rs = 0.678). However BMR was not correlated with FBS (rs = 0.083) duration of diabetes (rs = -0.046). CONCLUSION: There is a decrease in BMR in women with T2DM with postmenopausal osteoporosis. BMR was significantly correlated with level of physical activity and visceral fat.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 295-304, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276997

RESUMO

We report the first ambient measurements of thirteen VOCs for investigations of emissions and air quality during fog and non-fog wintertime conditions at a tower site (28.57° N, 77.11° E, 220 m amsl) in the megacity of Delhi. Measurements of acetonitrile (biomass burning (BB) tracer), isoprene (biogenic emission tracer in daytime), toluene (a traffic exhaust tracer) and benzene (emitted from BB and traffic), together with soluble and reactive oxygenated VOCs such as methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were performed during the winters of 2015-16 and 2016-17, using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Remarkably, ambient VOC composition changes during fog were not governed by solubility. Acetaldehyde, toluene, sum of C8-aromatics (e.g. xylenes), sum of C9-aromatics (e.g. trimethyl benzenes) decreased by ≥30% (>95% confidence interval), whereas acetonitrile and benzene showed significant increases by 20% (>70% confidence interval), even after accounting for boundary layer dilution. During fog, the lower temperatures appeared to induce an emissions feedback from enhanced open BB within Delhi for warming, releasing both gaseous and aerosol pollutants with consequences for fog chemistry, sustenance and intensity. The potential feedback is important to consider for improving current emission parametrizations in models used for predicting air quality and fog in such atmospheric environments.

12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(4): 1172-1183, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329353

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to develop a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-based sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for species-specific detection of Phytophthora nicotianae, a global plant pathogen. Another objective was to develop a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of P. nicotianae and huanglongbing-causing bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas) in citrus roots using the developed SCAR marker and a previously published 16SrDNA-based CaLas-specific primer set. METHODS AND RESULTS: The RAPD primer, OPA4, amplified a specific fragment of c. 400 bp only in P. nicotianae isolates. The fragment was eluted, purified, cloned and sequenced. One set of SCAR primers (SCAR4F/SCAR4R1), developed from the sequence information of the fragment, was found specific to P. nicotianae and produced an amplicon of 330 bp size, and was found non-specific to the five Phytophthora species (P. citrophthora, P. palmivora, P. lacustris, P. boehmeriae and P. insolita) and five other pathogens (Mycosphaerella citri, Alternaria alternata, Septobasidium pseudopedicillatum, Phytopythium vexans and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) isolated from the citrus agroecosystem. The sensitivity of the primer pair was 5 pg µl-1 of mycelial DNA. Furthermore, the specific SCAR primers coupled with a previously reported CaLas-specific primer set were used effectively in developing a multiplex PCR assay to detect P. nicotianae and CaLas simultaneously in root tissues of citrus plants. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid method using a RAPD-based SCAR marker for the detection of P. nicotianae was developed. Furthermore, a multiplex PCR assay was established for simultaneous detection of P. nicotianae and CaLas in citrus roots. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: A RAPD-SCAR marker-based detection system and the one-step multiplex PCR method developed in this study can be applied to index citrus trees infected (individually or conjointly) with P. nicotianae and CaLas. The present technique developed would also be useful in monitoring disease epidemiology and phytosanitary surveillance.

13.
Int J Biometeorol ; 63(10): 1331-1346, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280374

RESUMO

A supplement which ameliorates temperature-humidity menace in food producing livestock is a prerequisite to develop climate smart agricultural packages. A study was conducted to investigate the heat stress ameliorative efficacy of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in male Murrah water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Eighteen animals (293.61 ± 4.66Kg Bwt) were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 6); NHSC (non-heat-stressed control), HS (heat-stressed) and HSLA (heat-stressed-supplemented with ALA@32 mg/kg Bwt orally) based on the temperature humidity index (THI) and ALA supplementation. HS and HSLA were exposed to simulated heat challenge in a climatically controlled chamber (40 °C) for 21 consecutive days, 6 h daily. Physiological responses viz. Respiration rate (RR), Pulse rate (PR) and Rectal temperature (RT) were recorded daily before and after heat exposure. Blood samples were collected at the end of heat exposure on days 1, 6, 11, 16, and 21 and on day 28 (7th day post exposure which is considered as recovery) for peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) separation, followed by RNA and Protein extraction for Real time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis respectively, of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Two-way repeated measure ANOVA was performed between groups at different experimental periods. RR (post exposure) in HS and HSLA was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than NHSC from day 1 onwards but HSLA varied significantly from the HS 8th day onwards. Post exposure RT and PR in both HS and HSLA varied (P < 0.05) from NHSC throughout the study; but between HS and HSLA, RT significantly varied on initial 2 days and last 6 days (from days 16 to 21). HSP70 mRNA expression significantly up regulated in high THI groups with respect to the low THI group throughout the experimental period. During chronic stress (days 16 and 21) HSP70 significantly (P < 0.05) increased in HS but not in HSLA (P > 0.05) with respect to NHSC. ALA supplementation up-regulates and sustains (P < 0.05) the expression of HSP90 in HSLA in comparison to the HS and NHSC. HSP105 expression was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) in HS on days 16 and 21 (during long-term exposure) but only on day 21 (P < 0.05) in HSLA. HSP70, HSP90, and HSP105 protein expression dynamics were akin to the mRNA transcript data between the study groups. In conclusion, supplementing ALA ameliorates the deleterious effect of heat stress as reflected by improved physiological and cellular responses. ALA supplementation improved cellular antioxidant status and sustained otherwise easily decaying heat shock responses which concertedly hasten the baton change from a limited window of thermo tolerance to long run acclimatization.

14.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 30(8): 525-541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331203

RESUMO

Diabetes, obesity and other diseases related to metabolism are worldwide health problems. These syndromes can be well treated when a particular enzyme-based therapy is developed. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT; EC 2.3.1.20) is a microsomal enzyme which is responsible for the synthesis of triglycerides from 1,2-diacylglycerol by catalyzing the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation. The obesity and type-II diabetes can be checked by the inhibition of DGAT1 enzyme. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling is an essential technique in drug design and development. To study the aspect of DGAT1 inhibitors, Monte-Carlo method-based QSAR was developed for 197 DGAT1 inhibitors. QSAR models were derived by using the optimal descriptor based on SMILES notation. Different statistical parameters including the novel index of ideality of correlation were applied to validate the generated QSAR models. Four random splits were prepared from the data set. The statistical criteria r2 = 0.8129, CCC = 0.8979 and Q2 = 0.7962 of the validation set of split 1 were the best; therefore, the developed QSAR model of split 1 was decided to be the leading model. The molecular fragments, which were promoter of endpoint increase or decrease were also determined. Thirteen new DGAT1 inhibitors were designed from the lead compound DGAT011.

15.
Animal ; : 1-7, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317862

RESUMO

Pre-weaning animals exit a flock through death induced by various reasons, causing significant economic losses to the goat producers. In this study, we investigated the survival from birth to weaning of Sirohi goat kids within framework of the survival analysis. Kid records were accessed from 1997 to 2017, with the information on 4417 pre-weaning animals of farmed Sirohi goat native to the Rajasthan State of India. A multivariable Cox regression was fitted to the data after checking the assumptions of regression. The explanatory variables were sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight, doe weight at kidding and year of birth. Model selection eliminated doe weight from the model, and sex, type of birth, season of birth, birthweight and year of birth were retained in the model. With model calibration also, these five covariates were retained in the model. The mortality on the first day after birth was 0.3%, constituting 3.5% of all pre-weaning mortality. The mortality until the end of weaning period was 7.8%. Regression analysis revealed that the higher birthweight at kidding was associated with reduced hazard of death among the kids. Male kids had higher hazards of death compared with female kids. The single-born kids had lower risks of death compared with twin-born kids after accounting for heterogeneity. The winter season had a very high adverse effect on the survival of the kids. With each passing year, risks of death decreased. The results of this study indicate that better survival of kids can be achieved by controlling both environmental and animal-related factors.

16.
J Virol Methods ; 272: 113705, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351167

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes severe neurological disease in humans, especially among children. The disease is endemic in several South Asian countries including India. Swine play a major role as amplifier host for JEV and act as a source of infection to humans through mosquito bite. Early detection of either virus or antibodies in swine will aid to undertake control measures to prevent virus spread to humans. Swine seldom show symptoms of JEV infection and the viraemic phase lasts for a short period of 3 to 4 days indicating the potential of detection of antibodies, which remain for relatively longer period, as a suitable alternative. Cost effective and sensitive assays for the detection of JEV antibodies in swine are not available indigenously. Hence, we have developed a recombinant nonstructural protein 1 (rNS1) based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of IgG antibodies against JEV in swine. The test is robust, highly sensitive (91%), specific (97%), reproducible and affordable. Field validation of the assay was done by screening 3628 swine Serum samples collected from different parts of India. The overall sero-positivity was found to be 32.22%. The developed ELISA can be readily incorporated into surveillance programs for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus activity in swine population thereby aiding in prediction of outbreaks in humans.

17.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(6): 1065-1066, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184660

RESUMO

Correction for 'Responses of deposition and bioaccumulation in the Great Lakes region to policy and other large-scale drivers of mercury emissions' by J. A. Perlinger et al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2018, 20, 195-209.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(27): 14605-14611, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206119

RESUMO

Reactive flows inside porous media play an important role in a number of geophysical and industrial processes. Here, we present three-dimensional experimental measurements on how precipitation and flow patterns change with the flow rate inside a model porous medium consisting of monodisperse glass beads. The sample is initially filled with an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate into which a solution of barium chloride is injected at a constant flow rate. Upon contact and reaction, the two reactants produce water-insoluble barium carbonate which precipitates onto the glass beads. This precipitate then modifies the flow morphology which in turn changes the spatial distribution of the precipitate. We discuss the influence of the flow rate on the morphology of the flow pattern and demonstrate that neither viscous fingering nor the Rayleigh-Taylor instability have any significant influence in our model system.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between first-line drug concentrations and clinically-important outcomes among patients with tuberculosis (TB) remain poorly understood. METHODS: We enrolled a prospective cohort of patients with new pulmonary TB receiving thrice-weekly treatment in India. Maximum plasma concentration of each drug was determined at month 1 and 5 using blood samples drawn 2 hours post-dose. Sub-therapeutic cut-offs were: rifampicin <8µg/mL; isoniazid <3µg/mL; pyrazinamide <20µg/mL. Factors associated with lower log-transformed drug concentrations, unfavourable outcomes (composite of treatment failure, all-cause mortality, and recurrence) as well as individual outcomes were examined using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Among 404 participants, rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide concentrations were sub-therapeutic in 85%, 29%, and 12% at month 1 (with similar results for rifampicin and isoniazid at month 5). Rifampicin concentrations were lower with HIV co-infection (1.6 µg/ml vs 4.6 µg/ml; p = 0.015). Unfavourable outcome was observed in 19%; a 1 ug/ml decrease in rifampicin concentration was independently associated with unfavourable outcome (aIRR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.47) and treatment failure (aIRR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.05 - 1.28). A 1 ug/ml decrease in pyrazinamide concentration was associated with recurrence (aIRR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.11). CONCLUSIONS: Rifampicin concentrations were sub-therapeutic in most Indian patients taking a thrice-weekly TB regimen, and low rifampicin and pyrazinamide concentrations were associated with poor outcomes. Higher or more frequent dosing is needed to improve TB treatment outcomes in India.

20.
Psychiatriki ; 30(1): 32-38, 2019 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115352

RESUMO

Domestic abuse is prevalent in all strata of society and has been associated with various mental health problems. However, the severity of abuse in women with mental illness has not been studied much. The amount of distress experienced often depends on the severity of domestic abuse. Ability to tolerate distress may buffer the effect of abuse-this determines the perceived level of abuse. Both the severity of abuse and distress tolerance may in turn determine adherence behaviour towards treatment in mentally ill women. There is a paucity of research examining these variables. Hence this study was undertaken to examine the severity of abuse and distress tolerance and their relationship with medication adherence in women with mental illness. This study took place on an outpatient basis in the department of psychiatry at a tertiary care centre in South India. One hundred women with a mental illness currently in remission for at least two months -living in the community with family members after an episode of mental illness- were consecutively recruited by purposive sampling method after obtaining an informed consent. Due to issues related to reliability, patients with a diagnosis of mental retardation or dementia or psychotic symptoms were not included. All participants were initially assessed using socio-demographic and clinical forms. The severity of abuse was assessed with Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) and the level of distress tolerance was evaluated with Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS). Medication adherence status was assessed with the commonly used Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). There was a high level of abuse (mean 20.33, SD=20.55) and distress tolerance (mean 26.80, SD=12.07) in this sample as compared to those in general population. Scores in domestic abuse had a significant positive association with Tolerance (p=0.001) and Absorption (p=0.014) subscales of distress tolerance. Scores in domestic abuse had no statistically significant association with level of medication adherence. With the findings of this study, it can be concluded that women with mental illness face considerable level of domestic abuse and they have a higher capacity to tolerate distress. Severity of domestic abuse is inversely associated with their perceived ability to tolerate emotional distress; and positively associated with the level of attention being absorbed by negative emotions. The study was constrained by its cross-sectional design and small sample size, and further replication of data is needed with bigger sample size and control group.

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