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1.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664343

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the prevalence of Aeromonas species in freshwater fish farms, factors affecting their prevalence and virulence factors associated with each species. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cross-sectional study from 128 farms in four districts of Uttar Pradesh, India, 11 species of Aeromonas were identified by gyrB sequencing including the first report of Aeromonas crassostreae from fish. Four species of Aeromonas were more prevalent (MP) in fish farms, A. veronii bv. sobria (50.0%) was the highest, followed by A. caviae (18.8%), A. veronii bv. veronii (11.7%) and A. dhakensis (7.0%). The less prevalent (LP) species were A. hydrophila, A. media, A. jandaei, A. allosaccharophila, A. salmonicida, A. crassostreae and A. taiwanensis. Spatial variation in the prevalence of Aeromonas species was observed. Dominance of biovar sobria ranged from 33.3-68.6%, notably lesser in farms with on-farm biosecurity measures. The prevalence of biovar veronii was significantly associated with pangas fish, rainy season and farms with on-farm biosecurity measures. The prevalence of LP species was significantly higher in mrigal fish and winter season. Multiple virulence factors (>6) were detected in 70.2% of the Aeromonas species. Significant association of ß-hemolysin, DNase, slime production, act, ahh1, aexT, and lip was observed with different species of Aeromonas. Moreover, 75.8% of Aeromonas species possessed one or more enterotoxins genes (act/alt/ast). CONCLUSION: Significant association of spatio-temporal variables, host fish species and on-farm biosecurity measures were observed on the prevalence of some of the Aeromonas species in freshwater fish farms. Most of the Aeromonas species harboured virulence factors indicating their potential for pathogenicity. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first study that determined the prevalence and identified the factors that affect the prevalence of Aeromonas species in freshwater fish farms. This information will be useful in managing Aeromonas infection in fish and their risks to public health.

2.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 77(4): 382-389, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594064

RESUMO

Background: High-velocity missile injuries are commonly encountered in war or war-like situations. Aggressive resuscitation, early evacuation to neurosurgical center, and application of neurosurgical principles remain tenets of success. Methods: The spectrum of injuries and clinical profile of 14 such cases with craniocerebral missile injuries managed at our center in the northern sector were included. Site of injury, GCS at presentation, associated injuries, surgical intervention, duration of hospitalization, and recovery of the patient were analyzed. Results: Five patients had sustained gunshot wounds, and nine patients had sustained shrapnel injuries. Thirteen patients were deeply comatose, and one patient was conscious. The entry wound was in frontal lobe in eight patients, and in four patients, it was in the faciocranial area. Ten patients had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than 8 at presentation. Surgical intervention was required in 13 patients, including 11 decompressive craniectomies and anterior skull base repair in four patients with faciocranial entry wound. One patient expired during initial resuscitation, and one patient died in the postoperative period. Location of injury was the single most important determinant of outcome. Conclusion: An early decompressive craniectomy provides a reasonable chance of recovery. Aggressive debridement involving track explorations, lobectomies, or removal of retained shrapnels is not beneficial. Injuries to the skull base and violation of sinus spaces predispose these patients to cerebrospinal fluid leaks and infective sequelae. All these patients require aggressive postoperative intensive care and rehabilitation.

3.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 77(4): 403-407, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594067

RESUMO

Background: Soldiers native to lowlands, while sojourning at high altitude (HA), are referred to tertiary care centers with electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities. Exposure to HA may precipitate myocardial ischemia in subjects with underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Conversely, it may produce physiological ECG changes mimicking those of CAD, causing a diagnostic dilemma. This study sought to correlate the presence of CAD on coronary angiography (CAG) with a putative diagnosis of CAD based on clinical findings and ECG. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on patient's from HA areas, referred for evaluation for CAD to a single center at near-sea-level. Thirty-five minimally symptomatic/asymptomatic soldiers with ECG changes suggestive of CAD, underwent CAG. Correlation was sought between ECG and CAG evidence of CAD. Results: The association of CAD on CAG with clinical and ECG diagnosis of CAD was not significant, 4 of the 35 soldiers (11.4%) showing CAG evidence of CAD (chi square 3.849, p = 0.697). The association between symptoms and coronary artery lesions was, also, not significant, only four of twenty-three (17.4%) minimally symptomatic subjects having CAD on CAG. Conclusion: Insignificant numbers of previously healthy persons, who present with minimal symptoms and ECG changes suggestive of CAD while sojourning at HA, have coronary artery involvement on CAG. Those with incidental ECG changes, without symptomatology, do not have CAD on CAG.

4.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 77(4): 413-418, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594069

RESUMO

Background: At our tertiary care cardiology center, we are receiving soldiers who sustained acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) during the strenuous Battle Field Efficiency Test (BPET) and other such activities. Methods: This was a single-center observational study to assimilate and analyze the precipitating causes, risk factors, symptoms, and the efficacy of the management protocols in soldiers sustaining STEMI during the BPET or other forms of strenuous military training. Results: All 25 soldiers with documented STEMI following strenuous military training presented with chest pain as the primary symptom. 88% had symptoms either during or within 1st hour of the strenuous activity. 76% underwent thrombolysis with an angiographic success rate of 95%. Primary PCI was possible in only 3/25 (12%) of the cases, of which 2 (66%) did not require stenting after thrombus aspiration; 88% of soldiers reported "training for the event" for less than four times/week. Conclusion: STEMI precipitated by strenuous unaccustomed military training have exclusively single vessel affection with an excellent response to thrombolysis and thrombus aspiration. Thus, the timely institution of pharmacological or mechanical revascularization therapy has dramatic results in the preservation of ventricular function. The lack of training for the strenuous event provides strong evidence for comprehensive, graded, physical training prior to strenuous military activities to prevent acute coronary syndromes.

5.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 12(3): 598-602, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658590

RESUMO

Only a few countries of the world have a population more than Bihar, but due to the lack of a cancer registry, authentic research, and publications, data regarding the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients from this state are scarce. The present study was aimed to report the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer patients at a tertiary care center in Bihar, India. This is a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of patients of breast cancer treated between January-2018 and March-2020. One hundred fifteen patients with breast carcinoma were included of which 112 (97.4%) were women. The mean age was 47.28 ± 11.62 years and 54.5% of women were postmenopausal. Most patients had a clinical stage of II or III (44.5% each) while 8.7% of patients had stage IV disease. Invasive ductal carcinoma no special type (IDC-NST) was the most common histology (85.2%). The majority of tumors were grade II (55.6%), lymphovascular invasion was seen in 45.6%, and perineural invasion in 18.4%. Estrogen receptor was found in 41.8%, progesterone receptor was positive in 47.3%, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/Neu) overexpression was observed in 39.8%. Triple-negative breast cancer was found in 26.2% of patients. The majority underwent mastectomy (71.3%) while breast conservation was done in 26%. All except one patient underwent axillary lymph node dissection for axillary staging. 43.5% patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 52.9% received adjuvant chemotherapy, while 3.5% patients received palliative chemotherapy. The clinicopathological profile of breast cancer patients from Bihar is similar to that reported from other parts of India except for a lower rate of distant metastasis.

6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(8): 2793-2797, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660407

RESUMO

Background: Snakebite, a medical emergency, faced by rural populations in tropical and subtropical countries assumes special significance in hilly terrains. Therefore, the hills provide a natural setting to study the challenges in the management of snakebite cases. Methodology: A hospital record-based retrospective descriptive study was conducted. Data were collected from the Medical Records Department of the 821-bedded, tertiary care hospital catering to the rural hilly population of the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. Information were recorded on details of demography, clinical profile treatment and outcome. Results: A total of 252 patients were analyzed. Maximum patients were in the age-group of 21-40 (43.7%) with mean and standard deviation of 30.52 ± 5.693 and 31.81 ± 7.117 for male and female, respectively. A small minority (17.06%) of patients reported to health facility within 4-6 h of the bite. Maximum bites were on lower limb (143;56.74). Overall mortality rate in our study was 2.38%. Conclusion: Large-scale studies on epidemiological determinants of snakebite coupled with research in venom biochemistry and bio-pharmacology of anti-snake venom (ASV) are needed. The study also provides insights into the role of primary care practitioners in creating an ecosystem favorable for snakebite management at local level.

7.
Genomics ; 113(6): 3935-3950, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606916

RESUMO

Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) are the essential mineral nutrients for plant growth and development. However, the molecular interaction of the Fe and P pathways in crops remained largely obscure. In this study, we provide a comprehensive physiological and molecular analysis of hexaploid wheat response to single (Fe, P) and its combinatorial deficiencies. Our data showed that inhibition of the primary root growth occurs in response to Fe deficiency; however, growth was rescued when combinatorial deficiencies occurred. Analysis of RNAseq revealed that distinct molecular rearrangements during combined deficiencies with predominance for genes related to metabolic pathways and secondary metabolite biosynthesis primarily include genes for UDP-glycosyltransferase, cytochrome-P450s, and glutathione metabolism. Interestingly, the Fe-responsive cis-regulatory elements in the roots in Fe stress conditions were enriched compared to the combined stress. Our metabolome data also revealed the accumulation of distinct metabolites such as amino-isobutyric acid, arabinonic acid, and aconitic acid in the combined stress environment. Overall, these results are essential in developing new strategies to improve the resilience of crops in limited nutrients.

8.
Mol Divers ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671895

RESUMO

Some urea-thiazole/benzothiazole hybrids with a triazole linker were synthesized via Cu(I)-catalysed click reaction. After successfully analysed by various spectral techniques including FTIR, NMR and HRMS, antimicrobial screening of the synthesized hybrids along with their precursors was carried out against two Gram (+) bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus endophyticus), two Gram (-) bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Rhizopus oryzae). All the synthesized compounds (4a-4l) displayed better biological response than the standard fluconazole against both of the tested fungi. Compounds 4h and 4j were found to be the most active compounds against R. oryzae and C. albicans, respectively. Molecular docking of hybrid 4j and its alkyne precursor 1b in the active site of C. albicans target sterol 14-α demethylase was also performed and was also supported by molecular dynamics studies. In silico ADME prediction of synthesized urea-thiazole/benzothiazole hybrids with a triazole linker and their alkyne precursors was also predicted.

9.
3 Biotech ; 11(10): 428, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513551

RESUMO

Proteases are ubiquitous enzymes, having significant physiological roles in both synthesis and degradation. The use of microbial proteases in food fermentation is an age-old process, which is today being successfully employed in other industries with the advent of 'omics' era and innovations in genetic and protein engineering approaches. Proteases have found application in industries besides food, like leather, textiles, detergent, waste management, agriculture, animal husbandry, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. With the rising demands and applications, researchers are exploring various approaches to discover, redesign, or artificially synthesize enzymes with better applicability in the industrial processes. These enzymes offer a sustainable and environmentally safer option, besides possessing economic and commercial value. Various bacterial and fungal proteases are already holding a commercially pivotal role in the industry. The current review summarizes the characteristics and types of proteases, microbial source, their current and prospective applications in various industries, and future challenges. Promoting these biocatalysts will prove significant in betterment of the modern world.

10.
3 Biotech ; 11(10): 426, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567931

RESUMO

Extreme cold environments are potential reservoirs of microorganisms producing unique and novel enzymes in response to environmental stress conditions. Such cold-adapted enzymes prove to be valuable tools in industrial biotechnology to meet the increasing demand for efficient biocatalysts. The inherent properties like high catalytic activity at low temperature, high specific activity and low activation energy make the cold-adapted enzymes well suited for application in various industries. The interest in this group of enzymes is expanding as they are the preferred alternatives to harsh chemical synthesis owing to their biodegradable and non-toxic nature. Irrespective of the multitude of applications, the use of cold-adapted enzymes at the industrial level is still limited. The current review presents the unique adaptive features and the role of cold-adapted enzymes in major industries like food, detergents, molecular biology and bioremediation. The review highlights the significance of omics technology i.e., metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics in enzyme bioprospection from extreme environments. It further points out the challenges in using cold-adapted enzymes at the industrial level and the innovations associated with novel enzyme prospection strategies. Documentations on cold-adapted enzymes and their applications are abundant; however, reports on the role of omics tools in exploring cold-adapted enzymes are still scarce. So, the review covers the aspect concerning the novel techniques for enzyme discovery from nature.

11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7651-7660, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568962

RESUMO

Among gut microbiota-derived metabolites, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is receiving increased attention due to its possible role in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In spite of numerous reports implicating TMAO with CRC, there is a lack of empirical mechanistic evidences to concretize the involvement of TMAO in the carcinogenesis of CRC. Possible mechanisms such as inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and protein misfolding by TMAO have been discussed in this review in the light of the latest advancements in the field. This review is an attempt to discuss the probable correlation between TMAO and CRC but this linkage can be concretized only once we get sufficient empirical evidences from the mechanistic studies. We believe, this review will augment the understanding of linking TMAO with CRC and will motivate researchers to move towards mechanistic study for reinforcing the idea of implicating TMAO with CRC causation. KEY POINTS: • TMAO is a gut bacterial metabolite which has been implicated in CRC in recent years. • The valid mechanistic approach of CRC causation by TMAO is unknown. • The article summarizes the possible mechanisms which need to be explored for validation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Metilaminas , Humanos , Óxidos
12.
Case Rep Surg ; 2021: 7139109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527385

RESUMO

Background: Fibro lipoma of the spermatic cord is a very rare tumor with few cases reported in literature. Atypical presentation and site of swelling mystifies the diagnosis and creates bewildering situation intraoperatively. Case Summary. A 30-year-old farmer presented with an elastic firm nonreducible, nontender swelling at inguinoscrotal region with positive cough impulse and history of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair 3 years ago. Ultrasonography of the swelling revealed a heteroechoic lesion of size 7 × 6 centimeter with probable features of lipoma or desmoid. Fine needle aspiration drawn in consideration of the diagnostic dilemma reported a benign lipomatous swelling which on final histopathology turned out to be a fibro lipoma of size 7 × 6 × 5 cm. Conclusion: Considering the age and presentation of the patient, it was astonishing. It provided an insight to the occurrence of fibro lipoma even in younger age group which in fact is the first case of its kind as per best of our knowledge. Malignancy should be ruled out in such cases, and complete excision is the treatment of choice.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(37): 43892-43903, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516076

RESUMO

Despite technological advancement, nosocomial infections are prevalent due to the rise of antibiotic resistance. A combinatorial approach with multimechanistic antibacterial activity is desired for an effective antibacterial medical device surface strategy. In this study, an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, is immobilized onto biomimetic nitric oxide (NO)-releasing medical-grade silicone rubber (SR) via mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) as a bonding agent to reduce the risk of infection. Immobilization of nisin on NO-releasing SR (SR-SNAP-Nisin) and the surface characteristics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The NO release profile (7 days) and diffusion of SNAP from SR-SNAP-Nisin were quantified using chemiluminescence-based nitric oxide analyzers and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. Nisin quantification showed a greater affinity of nisin immobilization toward SNAP-doped SR. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis on surface nisin leaching for 120 h under physiological conditions demonstrated the stability of nisin immobilization on PDA coatings. SR-SNAP-Nisin shows versatile in vitro anti-infection efficacy against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus in the planktonic and adhered states. Furthermore, the combination of NO and nisin has a superior ability to impair biofilm formation on polymer surfaces. SR-SNAP-Nisin leachates did not elicit cytotoxicity toward mouse fibroblast cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, indicating the biocompatibility of the material in vitro. The preventative and therapeutic potential of SR-SNAP-Nisin dictated by two bioactive agents may offer a promising antibacterial surface strategy.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523789

RESUMO

Corroles, macrocycles that owe their name to the cobalt-chelating prosthetic group of vitamin B12 and share numerous features with the iron-chelating porphyrin present in heme proteins/enzymes, constantly cross new boundaries ever since stable derivatives became easily accessible. Particularly important is the increasing utilization of corroles and the corresponding metal complexes for the benefit of mankind, in terms of new drug candidates for treating various diseases and as catalysts for sustainable energy relevant processes. One challenge is to gain access to the plain macrocycle, as to allow for full elucidation of the most fundamental properties of corroles. We have obtained the substituent-free corrole by several surprising and conceptually different pathways. Selected features of the corresponding metal complexes are illuminated, for pointing towards unique phenomena that are anticipated to largely expand the horizon regarding their utilization for contemporary catalysis.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18145, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518587

RESUMO

Periodic structures exhibit unique band gap characteristics by virtue of which they behave as vibro-acoustic filters thereby allowing only waves within a certain frequency range to pass through. In this paper, lateral and vertical flexural wave propagation and vibration control of a railway track periodically supported on rigid sleepers using fastenings are studied in depth. The dispersion relations in both lateral and vertical directions are obtained using the Floquet-Bloch theorem and the resulting dispersion curves are verified using finite element models. Afterwards, tuned mass dampers (TMDs) with different mass ratios are designed to control vibrations of the examined rail in both the directions. Moreover, the influence of damping of rail and resonators on band gap characteristics is investigated. As a replacement to the conventional TMD, a novel possibility to control vibration relies on using another existing rail as a lateral distributed resonator (LDR). Although the effectiveness of LDR is lower than that of localized resonators, the former represents a simple and promising way to control vibrations. Efficacy of the proposed control methods is finally verified by applying a random Gaussian white noise input. The study presented here is useful to understand the propagation and attenuation behavior of flexural waves and to develop efficient and novel vibration control strategies for track structures.

16.
J Orthod Sci ; 10: 10, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568206

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the stress changes in the maxilla during fixed functional appliance use using three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) stress analysis. SETTINGS AND SAMPLE POPULATION: A three-dimensional finite element model of the maxilla was constructed using the images generated from the cone-beam computed tomography of a patient treated for Class II malocclusion with a fixed functional orthodontic appliance. The FEM was used to study the stress changes seen in the maxilla, which were evaluated in the form of highest von Mises stress and maximum principal stress before and after the application of fixed functional appliance. RESULTS: Higher areas of stress were seen in the model of the maxilla with the fixed functional appliance (140 MPa) compared to that in the resting stage (58.99 MPa). CONCLUSIONS: An increase in the maximum principal stress and von Mises stress in the posterior regions of the maxilla and maxillary teeth was seen. The stresses seen were double than that without the appliance. A high distalization force on the maxilla was seen with the fixed functional appliance.

17.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 727863, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532346

RESUMO

Eukaryotic Elongation Factor-2 Kinase (eEF2K) acts as a negative regulator of protein synthesis, translation, and cell growth. As a structurally unique member of the alpha-kinase family, eEF2K is essential to cell survival under stressful conditions, as it contributes to both cell viability and proliferation. Known as the modulator of the global rate of protein translation, eEF2K inhibits eEF2 (eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2) and decreases translation elongation when active. eEF2K is regulated by various mechanisms, including phosphorylation through residues and autophosphorylation. Specifically, this protein kinase is downregulated through the phosphorylation of multiple sites via mTOR signaling and upregulated via the AMPK pathway. eEF2K plays important roles in numerous biological systems, including neurology, cardiology, myology, and immunology. This review provides further insights into the current roles of eEF2K and its potential to be explored as a therapeutic target for drug development.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 670772, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512679

RESUMO

The role of the 9-lipoxygenase (9-LOX)-derived oxylipins in plant defense is mainly known in solanaceous plants. In this work, we identify the functional role of the tomato divinyl ether synthase (LeDES) branch, which exclusively converts 9-hydroperoxides to the 9-divinyl ethers (DVEs) colneleic acid (CA) and colnelenic acid (CnA), during infection by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Analysis of LeDES expression in roots indicated a concurrent response to nematode infection, demonstrating a sharp increase in expression during the molting of third/fourth-stage juveniles, 15 days after inoculation. Spatiotemporal expression analysis using an LeDES promoter:GUS tomato line showed high GUS activity associated with the developing gall; however the GUS signal became more constricted as infection progressed to the mature nematode feeding sites, and eventually disappeared. Wounding did not activate the LeDES promoter, but auxins and methyl salicylate triggered LeDES expression, indicating a hormone-mediated function of DVEs. Heterologous expression of LeDES in Arabidopsis thaliana rendered the plants more resistant to nematode infection and resulted in a significant reduction in third/fourth-stage juveniles and adult females as compared to a vector control and the wild type. To further evaluate the nematotoxic activity of the DVEs CA and CnA, recombinant yeast that catalyzes the formation of CA and CnA from 9-hydroperoxides was generated. Transgenic yeast accumulating CnA was tested for its impact on M. javanica juveniles, indicating a decrease in second-stage juvenile motility. Taken together, our results suggest an important role for LeDES as a determinant in the defense response during M. javanica parasitism, and indicate two functional modes: directly via DVE motility inhibition effect and through signal molecule-mediated defense reactions to nematodes that depend on methyl salicylate.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 714730, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512695

RESUMO

Environmental concerns related to synthetic pesticides and the emphasis on the adoption of an integrated pest management concept as a cardinal principle have strengthened the focus of global research and development on botanical pesticides. A scientific understanding of the mode of action of biomolecules over a range of pests is key to the successful development of biopesticides. The present investigation focuses on the in silico protein-ligand interactions of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a major constituent of black mustard (Brassica nigra) essential oil (MEO) against two pests, namely, Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), that cause severe yield losses in agricultural crops, especially in vegetables. The in vitro bioassay results of MEO against Mi exhibited an exposure time dependent on the lethal concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) values of 47.7, 30.3, and 20.4 µg ml-1 at 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure, respectively. The study revealed short-term nematostatic activity at lower concentrations, with nematicidal activity at higher concentrations upon prolonged exposure. Black mustard essential oil displayed excellent in vitro Fol mycelial growth inhibition, with an effective concentration to cause 50% inhibition (EC50) value of 6.42 µg ml-1. In order to decipher the mechanism of action of MEO, its major component, AITC (87.6%), which was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was subjected to in silico docking and simulation studies against seven and eight putative target proteins of Mi and Fol, respectively. Allyl isothiocyanate exhibited the highest binding affinity with the binding sites of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), followed by odorant response gene-1 (ODR1) and neuropeptide G-protein coupled receptor (nGPCR) in Mi, suggesting the possible suppression of neurotransmission and chemosensing functions. Among the target proteins of Fol, AITC was the most effective protein in blocking chitin synthase (CS), followed by 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid decarboxylase (6m53) and trypsinase (1try), thus inferring these as the principal molecular targets of fungal growth. Taken together, the study establishes the potential of MEO as a novel biopesticide lead, which will be utilized further to manage the Mi-Fol disease complex.

20.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(4): 11-12, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep quality is poorly understood in the Indian population. Lack of a suitable tool to assess sleep quality in Hindi language is the main reason behind this. Pittsburg sleep quality index (PSQI) is widely used in different population groups to assess subjective sleep quality over last one month. OBJECTIVES: To assess the reliability and validity of the Hindi translated version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-H). gt;Methods: The PSQI-H was developed from PSQI according to following steps: (a) translation, (b) back-translation, (c) comparison between translation and back-translation performed by a group of experts, and (d) pre-pilot test in intended population. The PSQI-H was applied to 105 bilingual individuals knowing Hindi and English. The internal consistency of PSQI-H was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. For test-retest reliability assessment intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured between PSQI-H at baseline and PSQI after 4 weeks. The Pearson's coefficient was used to assess the correlation between the score of the questions and the PSQI-H scores. RESULTS: The seven components of PSQI-H shows acceptable level of internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.776. There is good test-retest reliability between PSQI-H and PSQI as measured by ICC of 0.979. The score of individual items and global scores of PSQI-H were highly correlated with each other (p< 0.001). The mean of the seven individual components score and global scores of PSQI-H at baseline and original PSQI after 4 weeks did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: This study results demonstrate that the PSQI-H is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of sleep quality. PSQI-H can be used for the assessment of sleep quality in the predominantly Hindi speaking population.


Assuntos
Idioma , Sono , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
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