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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835860

RESUMO

Purpose: To descriptively explore semen quality among Indian men with various types of malignancies. We evaluated semen parameters of male patients referred to our hospital before commencing their cancer treatment. Methods: Four hundred sixty-one male patients who were within the age range of 15-50 years were recruited with diagnosed malignancies. Pre-treatment semen analyses were performed on these patients to collect data on the volume, sperm concentration, motility, and normal forms (morphology). These semen parameters were compared between cancer groups (testicular cancer, hematological cancer, and other cancers). Further comparisons were also drawn to World Health Organization (WHO) semen parameter levels (2010, fifth edition) for normal outcomes. Results: There were no notable variations observed in semen volume (mL) and progressive motility (%) between cancer groups. These parameters were within the WHO normal semen criteria. Differences in normal forms (%) between cancer groups were not observed either; however, they were marginally lower compared with the WHO criteria. Sperm concentration was evidently lower in testicular cancer 34 × 106/mL (IQR: 10.1-60 × 106/mL) compared with hematological cancers 66 × 106/mL (IQR: 23-84.21 × 106/mL) and other cancers (IQR: 27-86.3 × 106/mL). Testicular cancer patients also presented with the largest semen disorder diagnosis (Asthenozoospermia, Oligoasthenozoospermia, Oligozoospermia, and Azoospermia) compared with two other groups. Conclusion: Males with testicular cancer have shown to have lower semen quality between cancer groups and compared with WHO criteria, increasing their likelihood of them being infertile. This study further allows us to understand these outcomes, particularly in the Indian subpopulation, propagating changes in guidelines in oncofertility and medical counseling. Clinical Trials Registry-India number: CTRI/2020/09/027720.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840036

RESUMO

Arsenic poisoning through groundwater is the world's greatest normal groundwater catastrophe which got an immense effect on worldwide general wellbeing. India is confronting the outcomes of arsenic poisoning in the zone of Ganga Brahmaputra alluvial plains. In Bihar, out of 38 districts, 18 districts are exceptionally influenced with groundwater arsenic defilement. In the present study, we have assessed the current situation of arsenic exposure in Sabalpur village of Saran district of Bihar after reporting of breast, renal, skin and thyroid cancer cases from this village along with typical symptoms of arsenicosis. Such cancer patients were identified at our institute and were taken for the study. The present investigation deals with the quantification of arsenic in groundwater, hair and nail samples of subjects as well as the survey of entire village to know the overall health status of the village people. A total of n=128 household handpump water samples as well as n=128 human hair and nail samples were collected from over n=520 households. Using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GF-AAS), all the samples were analysed. The investigation resulted that the 61% of the analysed samples particularly the groundwater had the arsenic levels more than the permissible limit of WHO (> 10 µg/L) with 244.20 µg/L as the highest arsenic contamination in one of the handpump water sample. The exposure effect of hair sample was worst as 88% of all the collected samples were having high arsenic levels more than the permissible limit (> 0.2 mg/Kg). In case of nail samples, 92% of the samples were having high arsenic concentration more than the permissible limit (> 0.5 mg/Kg). The health survey study revealed high magnitude of disease burden in the exposed population with symptoms such as asthma, anaemia, hepatomegaly, diabetes, cardiac problem, skin fungal infections, breathlessness and mental disability. Few cancer cases of renal, skin, breast and cervix were also found among the exposed population of this village. The percentage of cancer cases in this village was 0.94% that was low, but it would be an aggravated situation in the near future if people will continue drinking arsenic-contaminated water. Therefore, a mitigation intervention was carried out in March 2020 by installing an arsenic filter plant. The health situation in the village in the present scenario is hope to improve in the coming years. However, motivation and awareness among the village population are still required.

3.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807985

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing (AM) is replacing conventional manufacturing techniques due to its ability to manufacture complex structures with near-net shape and reduced material wastage. However, the poor surface integrity of the AM parts deteriorates the service life of the components. The AM parts should be subjected to post-processing treatment for improving surface integrity and fatigue life. In this research, maraging steel is printed using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process and the influence of grinding on the fatigue life of this additively manufactured material was investigated. For this purpose, the grinding experiments were performed under two different grinding environments such as dry and cryogenic conditions using a cubic boron nitride (CBN) grinding wheel. The results revealed that surface roughness could be reduced by about 87% under cryogenic condition over dry grinding. The fatigue tests carried out on the additive manufactured materials exposed a substantial increase of about 170% in their fatigue life when subjected to cryogenic grinding.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7787, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833339

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is attributed to the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In recent years, increasing evidence suggests the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in oral carcinogenesis by acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. TSC1, as a component of the above pathway, regulates several cellular functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Downregulation of TSC1 is reported in oral as well as several other cancers and is associated with an unfavourable clinical outcome in patients. Here we show that oncogenic miR-130a binds to the 3'UTR of TSC1 and represses its expression. MiR-130a-mediated repression of TSC1 increases cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth and invasion of OSCC cells, which is dependent on the presence of the 3'UTR in TSC1. We observe an inverse correlation between the expression levels of miR-130a and TSC1 in OSCC samples, suggesting that their interaction is physiologically relevant. Delivery of antagomiR-130a to OSCC cells results in a significant decrease in xenograft size. Taken together, the findings of the study indicate that miR-130a-mediated TSC1 downregulation is not only a novel mechanism in OSCC, but also the restoration of TSC1 levels by antagomiR-130a may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OSCC.

5.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(3): 661-665, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) gene with adiposity measures is widely studied in European populations. Only six studies have investigated the role of MC4R gene with adiposity measures among Indian populations. We have evaluated the role of MC4R (rs17782313) gene polymorphism in influencing adiposity measures in India among children and adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present population based cross sectional study was conducted among 303 individuals (208 children and 95 adults) of age group 10-30 years, belonging to Rajasthan. Somatometric measurements (standing height, weight, and waist and hip girths) and blood samples were taken after obtaining written informed consent. Genotyping of MC4R rs17782313 single nucleotide polymorphism was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism method for polymerase chain reaction amplified fragments. We examined association between rs17782313 and different adiposity measures (height, weight, BMI, WHR, and waist and hip girths) using linear regression models. RESULTS: The MC4R variant (rs17782313) predicted increased body weight (0.15 kg, S.E ± 0.076, P = 0.043) among children. In combined population, the rs17782313 variant was moderately associated with body weight (0.13 kg, S.E ± 0.070, P = 0.057). This variant was not found to be associated with any other adiposity measure. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed to evaluate the association of MC4R variants through sequencing and functional genomics with different adiposity measures in Indian populations for understanding the genetic underpinnings of adiposity in India.

6.
Pharmacol Res ; 167: 105544, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722711

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the major global health problems, responsible for the second-highest number of deaths. The genetic and epigenetic changes in the oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes alter the regulatory pathways leading to its onset and progression. Conventional methods are used in appropriate combinations for the treatment. Surgery effectively treats localized tumors; however, it fails to treat metastatic tumors, leading to a spread in other organs, causing a high recurrence rate and death. Among the different strategies, the nanocarriers-based approach is highly sought for, but its nonspecific delivery can cause a profound side effect on healthy cells. Targeted nanomedicine has the advantage of targeting cancer cells specifically by interacting with the receptors overexpressed on their surface, overcoming its non-specificity to target healthy cells. Nanocarriers prepared from biodegradable and biocompatible materials are decorated with different ligands by encapsulating therapeutic or diagnostic agents or both to target cancer cells overexpressing the receptors. Scientists are now utilizing a theranostic approach to simultaneously evaluate nanocarrier bio-distribution and its effect on the treatment regime. Herein, we have summarized the recent 5-year efforts in the development of the ligands decorated biodegradable nanocarriers, as a targeted nanomedicine approach, which has been highly promising in the treatment of cancer.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247810, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661994

RESUMO

Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is an important food grain legume, but its production capacity is threatened by global warming, which can intensify plant stress and limit future production. Identifying new variation of key root traits in mungbean will provide the basis for breeding lines with effective root characteristics for improved water uptake to mitigate heat and drought stress. The AVRDC mungbean mini core collection consisting of 296 genotypes was screened under modified semi-hydroponic screening conditions to determine the variation for fourteen root-related traits. The AVRDC mungbean mini core collection displayed wide variations for the primary root length, total surface area, and total root length, and based on agglomerative hierarchical clustering eight homogeneous groups displaying different root traits could be identified. Germplasm with potentially favorable root traits has been identified for further studies to identify the donor genotypes for breeding cultivars with enhanced adaptation to water-deficit stress and other stress conditions.

8.
J Mol Neurosci ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687621

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to a pattern recognition receptor class which is an integral part of innate immunity. During Parkinson's disease (PD), activation of the immune response is a well-established feature in both, the periphery and the brain. The role of TLR is considered to be a salient part of the established framework during inflammation and neurodegenerative disease such as PD. The link between inflammation-mediated TLR expression and the molecular hallmark of PD pathogenesis is well established. Various evidence in support of the review has proved the presence of α-synuclein-positive inclusions, inciting the activated microglia to promote the expression of microglial and neuronal TLRs. Thus, the long-established inflammatory environment is considered as the pivotal element in the progression of the PD pathology. This review aims to delineate the importance of TLRs (TLR2/4) and their altered signaling in the pathogenesis of PD via cascade of proinflammatory pathways and the new therapeutic propositions to modulate the TLR expression. The microglia-mediated inflammatory pathway and aggregated α-synuclein potentiates multiple mechanisms through which inflammation contributes to progression of neurodegeneration in PD via upregulation of TLR2 and TLR4. TLR targeting is a site of interest to facilitate effective treatment for PD.

9.
Malar J ; 20(1): 139, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria control system (MCS), an Information technology (IT)-driven surveillance and monitoring intervention is being adopted for elimination of malaria in Mangaluru city, Karnataka, India since October 2015. This has facilitated 'smart surveillance' followed by required field response within a timeline. The system facilitated data collection of individual case, data driven mapping and strategies for malaria elimination programme. This paper aims to present the analysis of post-digitization data of 5 years, discuss the current operational functionalities of MCS and its impact on the malaria incidence. METHODS: IT system developed for robust malaria surveillance and field response is being continued in the sixth year. Protocol for surveillance control was followed as per the national programme guidelines mentioned in an earlier publication. Secondary data from the malaria control system was collated and analysed. Incidence of malaria, active surveillance, malariogenic conditions and its management, malariometric indices, shrinking malaria maps were also analysed. RESULTS: Smart surveillance and subsequent response for control was sustained and performance improved in five years with participation of all stakeholders. Overall malaria incidence significantly reduced by 83% at the end of 5 years when compared with year of digitization (DY) (p < 0.001). Early reporting of new cases (within 48 h) was near total followed by complete treatment and vector control. Slide positivity rate (SPR) decreased from 10.36 (DY) to 6.5 (PDY 5). Annual parasite incidence (API) decreased from 16.17 (DY) to 2.64 (PDY 5). There was a negative correlation between contact smears and incidence of malaria. Five-year data analyses indicated declining trends in overall malaria incidence and correlation between closures by 14 days. The best impact on reduction in incidence of malaria was recorded in the pre-monsoon months (~ 85%) compared to lower impact in July-August months (~ 40%). CONCLUSION: MCS helped to micromanage control activities, such as robust reporting, incidence-centric active surveillance, early and complete treatment, documentation of full treatment of each malaria patient, targeted mosquito control measures in houses surrounding reported cases. The learnings and analytical output from the data helped to modify strategies for control of both disease and the vector, heralding the city into the elimination stage.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693649

RESUMO

Isolated Microspherophakia (MSP) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by a smaller than normal spherical lens. Till date, LTBP2 is the only gene shown to cause MSP. We used homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing and identified a homozygous mutation, c.1148C > T (p.Pro383Leu), in the WDR8 (or WRAP73) gene in two Indian MSP families. In vitro experiments showed that the missense mutation renders the protein unstable. WDR8 is a centriolar protein that has important roles in centrosomal assembly, spindle pole formation, and ciliogenesis. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments from HeLa cells indicated that the mutation interferes with the interaction of WDR8 with its binding partners. In zebrafish, both morpholino-mediated knockdown and CRISPR/Cas knockout of wdr8 resulted in decreased eye and lens size. The lack of wdr8 affected cell cycle progression in the retinal cells, causing a reduction in cell numbers in the retina and lens. The reduction in eye size and the cell cycle defects were rescued by exogenous expression of the human wild type WDR8. However, the human mutant WDR8 (p.Pro383Leu) was unable to rescue the eye defects, indicating that the missense mutation abrogates WDR8 protein function. Thus, our zebrafish results suggested that WDR8 is the causative gene for MSP in these Indian families.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247864, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711039

RESUMO

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important food crop that is grown and consumed worldwide. The growth and productivity of this crop are severely affected by various abiotic stresses. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) in plants are well known for their function during growth and development. However, systematic and in-depth identification and functional characterization of the bZIP gene family of potato is lacking. In the current study, we identified a total of 90 bZIPs (StbZIP) distributed on 12 linkage groups of potato. Based on the previous functional annotation and classification of bZIPs in Arabidopsis, wheat, and rice, a phylogenetic tree of potato bZIPs was constructed and genes were categorized into various functional groups (A to I, S, and U) as previously annotated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analyses of the transcript sequence (RNA-seq) data led to identifying a total of 18 candidate StbZIPs [four in roots, eight in the tuber, six in mesocarp and endocarp] that were expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Differential expression analysis under the various abiotic conditions (salt, mannitol, water, and heat stress) and treatment with phytohormones (ABA, GA, IAA, and BAP) led to the identification of forty-two [thirteen under salt stress, two under mannitol stress, ten under water stress, and eighteen under heat stress], and eleven [eight and three StbZIPs upon treatment with ABA, and IAA, respectively] candidate StbZIPs, respectively. Using sequence information of candidate StbZIPs, a total of 22 SSR markers were also identified in this study. In conclusion, the genome-wide identification analysis coupled with RNA-Seq expression data led to identifying candidate StbZIPs, which are dysregulated, and may play a pivotal role under various abiotic stress conditions. This study will pave the way for future functional studies using forward and reverse genetics to improve abiotic stress tolerance in potato.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 145175, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647666

RESUMO

This study developed a framework termed as "mixNanohealthrisk" hereafter, for the first time as per literature review, to provide exposure limit or reference dose for co-occurring nanoparticles (NPs) in water for different regions of the world. The effect of interaction of NPs on (i) NP occurrence in environment and (ii) toxic effects were incorporated for estimating NP exposure dose and associated risks (in terms of risk quotient (RQ) and hazard index (HI). Reference dose (RfD) values for SiO2, CeO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CNT, C60, ZnO and CuO NPs were calculated for the first time in this study based on toxicity studies. RfD values for top three risk-posing nanoparticles when co-occurring together were found to be 0.1 mg/kg/d (CuO), 0.12 mg/kg/d (ZnO) and 0.19 mg/kg/d (TiO2). Calculated maximum allowable concentration values for these nanoparticles were found to be 70.8, 84.4 and 136 mg/L for CuO, ZnO and TiO2 NPs. Exposures to nanoparticles aggregate (ZnO NP + CuO NP) in mixture suspension was found to have allowable ZnO and CuO concentration values of 24.7 mg/L and 175.2 mg/L respectively when present as aggregate. Top three regions identified with highest risk quotient were found to be USA followed by Switzerland and whole of Europe. During use of NP-interaction data for estimating risks, Ag, TiO2 and CuO NPs were found to have lowest maximum allowable concentration values. The identified top three risk-posing NPs can be used for conducting toxicity studies for mixture of NPs and long-term monitoring so that it can be used for setting up guideline concentration values for NPs in mixture for water environment.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the proven benefits of enhanced recovery protocols (ERP) after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), their implementation has become a well-accepted clinical practice across the major pancreatic surgery centres of the world. The impact of age on the execution of ERP has remained an area of ambiguity. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of age on the feasibility of various postoperative elements of ERP after PD. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted which included 548 patients undergoing PD, managed using ERP, from March 2013 to September 2020. Patients were divided into two groups: < 70 years and ≥ 70 years. Compliance to recovery parameters and postoperative outcomes, including, the incidence of major complications, length of stay (LOS), mortality rates and re-admissions, were compared between the two groups. The impact of age, as a continuous variable, was also studied on the feasibility of each postoperative element. RESULTS: One-fifth (113/548) of the cohort comprised of patients aged 70 years and above. The 'elderly' patients had a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiac disease. They were also more likely to get admitted to the intensive care unit for postoperative monitoring (p < 0.001). The median LOS was 8.0 days in the young and 9.0 days in the elderly (p = 0.253). Rate of major complications (age < 70, n = 37 (8.5%) vs age ≥ 70, n = 7 (6.2%), p = 0.421) and 30-day mortality (age < 70, n = 15 (3.4%) vs age ≥ 70, n = 7 (6.2%), p = 0.185) was not statistically different between the two groups. Compliance of various postoperative elements was similar between the two groups. When studied as a continuous variable, age did not seem to be associated with higher non-compliance of any of the postoperative recovery elements. CONCLUSION: Age is not a barrier in the safe implementation of postoperative element of ERPs after PD. Enhanced recovery protocols do not need to be modified for the aged.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543433

RESUMO

The present study investigated the variation in leachate pollution index (LPI) of four municipal solid waste (MSW) dumping sites: non-engineered (Okhla, Ghazipur, Bhalswa) and engineered (Narela-Bawana) of Delhi, India. A review of 142 screened studies from Google Scholar database was done for synthesis of information on LPI parameters. Further, the rate constant determination and human health risk assessment for various leachate parameters was done. Results showed the following LPI trends: Okhla landfill: irregular with exceedance to threshold value; Bhalswa landfill: exponential increase; and Narela-Bawana landfill: linear increase. Parameters such as pH, dissolved solids, copper, nickel, zinc, and chromium of Bhalswa landfill, exhibited an exponential decay with LPI variation. Whereas, for Narela-Bawana's leachate BOD and COD parameters, an exponential decay in LPI vs zinc and linear increase for LPI vs lead was observed. For all dumping sites, a positive correlation was observed between heavy metals and LPI. In case of human health risk assessment, order of oral risk posed by Okhla's metals was cadmium > chromium > nickel > lead, with maximum hazard quotient (HQ) of 1.61 for cadmium. For Ghazipur and Bhalswa landfills, cancer risk values for both adult and child sub-populations were observed to be maximum for cadmium followed by nickel, chromium, and minimum for lead. For Narela-Bawana landfill, the order of cancer risk was as follows: chromium > nickel > lead. HQ for Pb-contaminated groundwater exceeded the threshold limit in Ghazipur and Bhalswa landfills. For dermal groundwater exposure, cadmium for Okhla (adult 2.3 × 10-4 and child 1.4 × 10-4), Ghazipur (adult 9 × 10-5 and child 5.2 × 10-5), and Bhalswa (adult 1.5 × 10-4 and child 8.6 × 10-5) was observed to have maximum cancer risk. The analyzed year-wise LPI trend, calculated rate constants, and human health risk values from present study provide a basis to waste managers and regulators for understanding various waste sources.

15.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575875

RESUMO

Since its initial discovery as the gene altered in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant disorder, the interest in TSC1 (Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 1) has steadily risen. TSC1, an essential component of the pro-survival PI3K/AKT/MTOR signaling pathway, plays an important role in processes like development, cell growth and proliferation, survival, autophagy and cilia development by co-operating with a variety of regulatory molecules. Recent studies have emphasized the tumor suppressive role of TSC1 in several human cancers including liver, lung, bladder, breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. TSC1 perceives inputs from various signaling pathways, including TNF-α/IKK-ß, TGF-ß-Smad2/3, AKT/Foxo/Bim, Wnt/ß-catenin/Notch, and MTOR/Mdm2/p53 axis, thereby regulating cancer cell proliferation, metabolism, migration, invasion, and immune regulation. This review provides a first comprehensive evaluation of TSC1 and illuminates its diverse functions apart from its involvement in TSC genetic disorder. Further, we have summarized the physiological functions of TSC1 in various cellular events and conditions whose dysregulation may lead to several pathological manifestations including cancer.

16.
Waste Manag ; 123: 97-110, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581641

RESUMO

The upcoming end-of-life solar photovoltaics (PV) waste stream is a huge concern before solid waste professionals due to presence of hazardous metals like lead or cadmium. The objective of present study was to understand the metal dissolution from PVs under four standard waste characterization regulatory tests of U.S., Germany, and Japan and their representativeness with actual landfill leachate. Modules were exposed to real municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate for extended extraction duration, agitation and diluted leachate to investigate the effect of various parameters on metal dissolution. The results indicated that extractions using landfill leachates resulted in lower metal release than standard methods. The leached metal concentrations were found to be within the threshold limits except for cadmium, copper, lead and selenium, with maximum lead release from amorphous-PV of 8.68 mg/L and 6.91 mg/L with respect to TCLP and WET tests, respectively. Arsenic showed negligible release with maximum concentration of 0.046 mg/L from copper indium gallium de-selenide(CIGS) PV. Regardless of small size (1-2 cm pieces) and agitation, Germany and Japan's standard tests resulted in minimal release except of copper from copper indium gallium de-selenide PV. Leaching without agitation, showed negligible release from all photovoltaics whereas when agitation is applied to diluted leachate, significant release was observed with aluminum and copper leached up to 145.32 mg/L (multi-crystalline silicon) and 139.01 mg/L (amorphous-PV), respectively. CIGS was found to be most hazardous with a Metal Hazard Score (calculated on the basis of magnitude of leached metals with respect to their threshold limit and subsequent health effects) of 23.19, when exposed to standard tests. For all scenarios, increased metal release was observed with decrease in sample size and increase in leachate dilution and thus, leaching in highly acidic conditions are by no means representative for modules dumping in realistic conditions.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Japão , Padrões de Referência , Resíduos Sólidos , Solubilidade , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Dalton Trans ; 50(8): 2705-2721, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527949

RESUMO

The present article focuses on fluorescent probes based on Ru(ii)-polypyridyl fragments connected to different chelates, their significant roles in coordination chemistry and their applications in the selective recognition of biorelevant Cu2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ ions. A critical analysis of the detection of metal ions by both "turn-on" and "turn-off" emission, properties, mechanism and applications of these sensors is presented. Emphasis has also been laid on the efficiency, selectivity and specificity of these sensors towards biologically important Cu2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ ions.

18.
Protoplasma ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598755

RESUMO

Aluminum stress deteriorates lentil production under acidic soils. Enhanced insight into Al tolerance traits is needed to improve its productivity. Therefore, Al-resistant (L-4602, PAL-8) and Al-sensitive (BM-4, EC-223229) cultivars along with a resistant wild (ILWL-15) were characterized for morpho-physiological traits viz. seedling root architecture (SRA), Al accumulation, and localization via fluorescent and non-fluorescent staining under control and Al-treated conditions. Also, antioxidant activities and organic acid secretion were quantified, and expressions of 10 associated genes were analyzed. Roots of Al-resistant cultivars and wild genotype showed higher root growth, antioxidant enzyme activities, and organic acid secretion than Al-sensitive ones. Among these traits, higher organic acid secretion was influenced by enhanced expression of genes, especially-aluminum sensitive-3 (ALS 3), aluminum-activated malate transporter (ALMT), multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE), citrate synthase (CS), and phospho enol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)-which helped in reducing Al and callose accumulation. These genes were located on lentil chromosomes via sequence alignment with lentil draft genome. A strong link between morpho-physiological variation and organic acid secretion was noted which reinforced the prominence of exclusion mechanism. It was complemented by enhanced antioxidant activities at seedling stage which mitigated Al stress effects on SRA. Wild outperformed over cultivars indicating its impregnable evolution which can be exploited to better understand tolerance mechanisms. Al-resistant cultivars had significantly higher seed yield than Al-sensitive and national checks on Al-toxic fields, confirming-tolerance is sustained till reproductive stage in lentil. This study elucidated role of gene families in eliminating Al toxicity that will assist breeders to formulate strategies for developing Al-resistant cultivars.

19.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397264

RESUMO

One of the most common form of neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease poses a great threat to the patients all over the globe with about 5.7 million cases estimated by the Alzheimer's Association Report of 2018. The disorder is a result of ß-amyloid deposition in the brain, deteriorating the cognitive ability and learning processes, commonly in geriatric patients. The review significantly elaborates the superiority of nanotechnological formulations over conventional therapeutic strategies which exhibit numerous side effects, poor pharmacokinetic profiles and limited efficacy, as compared to the nano-medicinal approach. The review recognizes the need to establish an understanding of the transport mechanisms across the blood brain barrier, prior to the nanoparticle studies, followed by discussion on various nano-formulations, evi-dently supported by the outcome of various studies conducted to investigate the drug delivery portfolio of nanomedicines. Furthermore, the review portrays the challenges to overcome in future studies, like nanoparticle fabrication, drug loading capacity, blood residency time, toxicity regime, monitoring long term effects, in-vivo compatibility and production tech-niques, in order to enable the development of an optimized form of drug delivery process, which would achieve significant heights in the biomedical applications and bring about a revolution in the field of medicine and science.

20.
Obes Surg ; 31(5): 2344-2345, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469860

RESUMO

Incidental gastric and small bowel lesions are commonly encountered during bariatric surgery. Resection of these lesions with negative margins in the same sitting is curative; however, this may necessitate intraoperative change of plan. We present a 44-year-old super obese lady in whom an exophytic jejunal mass was found at 80 cm from the ligament of Treitz, which necessitated a change of procedure from one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The final pathology was ectopic pancreatic tissue. Running the small bowel during initial diagnostic laparoscopy should be a routine step before division of stomach, to avoid technical complexities when operative plan is changed in order to resect an incidentaloma. Bariatric surgeons should be well versed with all the standard bariatric procedures.

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