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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131988, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523438

RESUMO

Alkali metals have been known for their intercalation properties and can be employed for the separation of stacking in sheet-like materials. In this work, alkali metals (Na, K, Rb and Cs) have been systematically incorporated in varying concentrations in g-C3N4 sheets and their effect on resulting optical, surface and photocatalytic properties have been explored in detail. It was observed that the optical, electronic and surface properties of g-C3N4 were altered upon the incorporation of different alkali metal ions. The band gap and specific surface area of resulting materials were decreased as compared to the pristine g-C3N4. In addition, the alkali metal incorporation in g-C3N4 sheets showed the formation of cyanide groups and nitrogen vacancies in the resulted materials. Further, the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 and alkali metal incorporated g-C3N4 was calculated by studying the degradation of acid red 94 dye under visible light irradiation. It was observed that the photocatalytic activity of pristine g-C3N4 sheets was decreased with an increase in the concentration of alkali salt used during the synthesis of alkali metal incorporated g-C3N4. This decrease in the activity could arise due to the decreased surface area, detrimental amount of nitrogen vacancies and high concentration of alkali metal ions incorporated in the structural framework of g-C3N4 sheets. This work provides a unique example of the adverse effect of alkali metal ions on photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 and paves future directions for the improvement of the performance of g-C3N4 based materials.

2.
J Oral Biol Craniofac Res ; 12(1): 22-26, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745860

RESUMO

Background/Purpose: This research aimed to compare the effects of systemically prescribed Lycopene as a monotherapy and as an alternative to scaling and root planing in patients with chronic gingivitis. Materials and methods: The participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: the experimental group (n = 50), which received 10 mg of Lycopene a day for two weeks, or the control group (n = 50) received a placebo for two weeks. For each category, quadrant distribution was randomized, with two quadrants receiving oral prophylaxis (OP) and two quadrants receiving no care (non-OP). At baseline, 1st, and 2nd weeks, the sulcus bleeding index, plaque index, gingival index, and salivary uric acid level were measured. Results: All clinical criteria, including SBI, PI, GI, and salivary uric acid levels, showed a statistically significant decline in all patient types. Both clinical parameters were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in the OP-lycopene group relative to the non-OP-placebo group and non-OP lycopene group (p < 0.05). The PI value in the OP-lycopene group was statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in the non-OP-placebo group; there was no statistically significant difference in the other groups. Salivary uric acid levels in the OP- and non-OP- lycopene groups were significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in the non-OP-placebo population. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, Lycopene seems to have a bright future as a treatment option for plaque-induced generalized chronic marginal gingivitis. More research with a broad sample size and multicentre trials is required. Clinical relevance: The article reveals the positive relationship between Lycopene and gingivitis. The analysis shows that a combination of systemically administered Lycopene with oral prophylaxis can be a valuable tool in treating chronic gingivitis and controlling respiratory oxidative stress.

3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108319, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740079

RESUMO

The weaponry possessed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in the form of immunodominant antigens hijack the host immune system to give a survival advantage to this intracellular fiend, but the mechanism of this control is not entirely known. Since we have previously reported the mechanism of autophagy inhibition by early secreted antigenic target 6 kDa (ESAT-6) through microRNA (miR)-30a-3p in Calcimycin treated differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) cells, the present study was undertaken to deduce the effect of miR-30a on the immunomodulatory profile of ESAT-6 treated cells and the mechanism involved thereof, if any. Initially, the effect of recombinant ESAT-6 (rESAT-6) on the immunomodulatory profile in Calcimycin-treated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) dTHP-1 cells was checked. Later, transfection studies using miR-30a-3p inhibitor or -5p mimic highlighted the contrary roles of different arms of the same miRNA in regulating IL-18 response by ESAT-6 in dTHP-1 cells after Calcimycin treatment. By using either IL-18 neutralizing antibody or inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/NF-κB/phagosome-lysosome fusion in the miRNA-30a transfected background, IL-18 mediated signaling and intracellular killing of mycobacteria was reversed in the presence of ESAT-6. Overall, the results of this study conclusively prove the contrary roles of miR-30a-3p and miR-30a-5p in regulating IL-18 signaling by ESAT-6 in dTHP-1 cells upon Calcimycin treatment that affected phagosome-lysosome fusion and intracellular survival of mycobacteria.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22360, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785720

RESUMO

The dynamic synergy of genes and pathways in muscles in relation to age affects the muscle characteristics. Investigating the temporal changes in gene expression will help illustrate the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development. Here we report the gene expression changes in skeletal muscles through successive age groups in Bandur, a meat type sheep of India. RNA sequencing data was generated from the longissimus thoracis muscles from four age groups, ranging from lamb to adult. Analysis of 20 highest expressed genes common across the groups revealed muscle protein, phosphorylation, acetylation, metal binding and transport as significant functions. Maximum differentiation was observed after 2.5-3 years on transition from lambs to adult. Transcriptional regulation by the TFAP2 transcription factors, IL-6 signaling and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways were enriched in younger animals. The gene-protein network demarcated key interactive genes involved in muscle development and proliferation that can be used as candidates for future research on improvement of muscle characteristics.

5.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze trends of 30-day readmission and find high-risk patients associated with increased risk of mortality, resource use, and readmission after primary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Limited data exist on the contemporary trends of readmission rates and patients at a higher risk of worse outcomes after LVAD implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a retrospective study of adults from the Nationwide Readmission Database who underwent primary durable LVAD implantation from 2010 to 2018. The main outcomes were 30-day readmission rates and their trends in patients with primary durable LVAD implantation from 2010 to 2018. This study also sought to identify patients at the highest risk for readmission, in-hospital mortality, and resource use. A total of 31,002 adults with primary durable LVAD implantation were included in the present analysis. Overall, 3808 patients (12.3%) died and 27,168 (87.6%) were discharged alive. Of those discharged alive, 8303 patients (30.6%) were readmitted within 30 days. The trend of 30-day all-cause readmission among LVAD implantation patients remained similar from 2010 to 2018 (P = .809). The in-hospital mortality rate during the index hospitalization decreased significantly (P = .014), and the mean cost of an index hospitalization increased (P = .031) during the study period. The patients with post-LVAD in-hospital cardiac, vascular, and thromboembolic complications (ie, high-risk patients) had the highest mortality, resource use, and readmission rates compared with patients without major complications. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the readmission rates associated with LVAD implantation did not change from 2010 to 2018 and identified high-risk patients who may benefit from closer monitoring after primary LVAD implantation.

6.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783280

RESUMO

For the detection of BCR-ABL1-like ALL cases, two methodologies, specifically Gene expression profiling (GEP) or Next-generation targeted sequencing (NGS) and TaqMan based low-density (TLDA) card, are being used. NGS is very costly and TLDA is not widely commercially available. In this study, we quantified the expression of 8 selected overexpressed genes in 536 B-ALL cases. We identified 26.67% (143/536) BCR-ABL1-like ALLs using hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis. BCR-ABL1-like ALL cases were significantly older at presentation (p = 0.036) and had male preponderance (p = 0.047) compared to BCR-ABL1-negative ALL cases. MRD-positivity and induction failure were more commonest in BCR-ABL1-like ALL cases (30.55 vs.19.35% in BCR-ABL1-negative ALL cases). Lastly, we built a PHi-RACE classifier (sensitivity = 95.2%, specificity= 83.7%, AUC= 0.927) using logistic regression to detect BCR-ABL1-like ALL cases promptly at diagnosis. This classifier is beneficial for hematologists in quick decision making at baseline to start tailored treatment regimes.

7.
Cureus ; 13(10): e18469, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754635

RESUMO

Introduction Sclerotherapy offers an alternative to surgery to treat an aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). The present study's main objective was to assess the radiological efficacy of sclerotherapy in the healing of the cyst cavity secondary to biopsy-proven ABC on X-rays and assess clinical efficacy on pain, recurrence, and complications. Materials and methods Between 2016 and 2018, 26 patients (12 females, 14 males) with biopsy-proven ABC treated by sclerotherapy were included. All patients received an injection of polidocanol 3% intralesional as standard treatment under fluoroscopic guidance. Ossification was assessed on plain X-ray, and the pain was evaluated on a visual analog scale (VAS). Results Ossification was complete in 24 (92.3%) patients and partial in two (7.7%) patients. Eighteen patients (70%) were pain-free at the end of three months. There was an improvement in the VAS score, and clinically, there was a significant reduction in pain and swelling. Two patients developed recurrence within two years of follow-up, treated successfully by the re-application of intralesional polidocanol 3% injection. Discussion Sclerotherapy provides an effective, minimally invasive treatment for ABC and is particularly useful for deep lesions, challenging access for surgery and potentially damaging vital structures. The use of percutaneous polidocanol 3% under fluoroscopic control seems to improve the risk/benefit ratio. Its clinical and radiological efficacy makes sclerotherapy an alternative treatment option in ABC.  Level of evidence IV, prospective study.

9.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607500

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if smartphone photography could be a useful adjunct to blindness prevalence surveys by providing an accurate diagnosis of corneal opacity. METHODS: A total of 174 patients with infectious keratitis who had undergone corneal culturing over the past 5 years were enrolled in a diagnostic accuracy study at an eye hospital in South India. Both eyes had an ophthalmologist-performed slit lamp examination, followed by anterior segment photography with a handheld digital single lens reflex (SLR) camera and a smartphone camera coupled to an external attachment that provided magnification and illumination. The diagnostic accuracy of photography was assessed relative to slit lamp examination. RESULTS: In total, 90 of 174 enrolled participants had a corneal opacity in the cultured eye and no opacity in the contralateral eye, and did not have a penetrating keratoplasty or missing photographs. Relative to slit lamp examination, the sensitivity of corneal opacity diagnosis was 68% (95%CI 58-77%) using the smartphone's default settings and 59% (95%CI 49-69%) using the SLR, and the specificity was 97% (95%CI 93-100%) for the smartphone and 97% (95%CI 92-100%) for the SLR. The sensitivity of smartphone-based corneal opacity diagnosis was higher for larger scars (81% for opacities 2 mm in diameter or larger), more visually significant scars (100% for eyes with visual acuity worse than 20/400), and more recent scars (85% for eyes cultured in the past 12 months). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic performance of a smartphone coupled to an external attachment, while somewhat variable, demonstrated high specificity and high sensitivity for all but the smallest opacities.

10.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(8): 3021-3028, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660441

RESUMO

Background: Nursing fraternity are at an increased risk of acquiring hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections mainly attributable to occupational risk and close contact with the patients while treatment. However, unawareness and negligence about the severity, mode of transmission and preventive measures about the disease can further predispose the nursing fraternity to a higher risk of infection. To overcome these lacunae in knowledge, a training program named Project PRAKASH was initiated for in-service nurses across the country. The objective of the program was to impart up-to-date knowledge to the nursing professionals in the management of viral hepatitis and to assess the effectiveness of the training program through pre-post-knowledge assessment survey. Methodology: One-day training program titled 'Hepatitis Induction Program' was conducted for a period of 2 years (2018-2020) among nursing professionals. It was accompanied by administration of 54-item knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire with four sections: demographic details, knowledge (30 items), attitude (11 items) and practice (13 items), followed by post-knowledge assessment. An Impact Assessment Survey (IAS) was also administered to assess the change in attitude and practice among 10% of the attendees, at least 6 months post training. Result: A total of 32 one-day training programmes were organised which witnessed the training of 5,253 nursing professionals from 292 institutions across 12 states. A data of 4,474 participants were included in the final analysis: improvement in the knowledge score was significant (P-value < 0.001) with mean knowledge score of 19.3 ± 4.4 in pre-test and 25.7 ± 3.9 in the post-test. Conclusion: The one-day training resulted in improvement of knowledge and significant changes in the attitude and practices of the nursing professionals.

12.
Am J Prev Cardiol ; 7: 100182, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611632

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the association between vegetarian versus non-vegetarian diet on mortality due to ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or all-cause mortality. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane databases, and ClinicalTrials.Gov from the inception of the databases to October 2019 with no language restriction. Randomized controlled trials or prospective observational studies comparing the association between vegetarian versus non-vegetarian diets among adults and reporting major adverse cardiovascular outcomes were selected. We used Paule-Mandel estimator for tau2 with Hartung-Knapp adjustment for random effects model to estimate risk ratio [RR] with 95% confidence interval [CI].The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome was ischemic heart disease mortality. Results: Eight observational studies (n = 131,869) were included in the analysis. Over a weighted mean follow-up of 10.68 years, very low certainty of evidence concluded that a vegetarian diet compared with a non-vegetarian diet was associated with similar risk of all-cause (RR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.65-1.07, I2 : 97%) or cerebrovascular mortality (RR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.63-1.14, I2 : 90%), but was associated with a reduced risk of ischemic heart disease mortality (RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.55-0.89, I2 : 82%). Conclusion: A vegetarian diet, compared with a non-vegetarian diet, was associated with a reduced risk of ischemic heart disease mortality, whereas it had no effect on all-cause and cerebrovascular mortality. However, the results are to be considered with caution considering the low certainty of evidence. Despite recent studies supporting no restriction on animal protein intake gaining wide media attention and public traction, consideration for vegetarianism amongst those with risk factors for coronary artery disease should be contemplated.

13.
Turk J Haematol ; 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617433

RESUMO

Objective: Based upon the immunophenotype, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) can be categorized into B or T cell lineage (B-cell ALL or T-cell ALL). B-cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL) cases show various genetic/molecular abnormalities and varying frequencies of chimeric fusion transcripts in BCP-ALL cases are reported from different parts of the world. We studied the immunophenotypic aberrancy profiles of a large number of BCP-ALL cases with respect to various common chimeric fusion transcripts. Materials and Methods: Flowcytometric Immunophenotyping and Multiplex RT-PCR assay were performed in 986 BCP-ALL cases. Results: Among 986 BCP-ALL cases, the incidence of various fusion transcripts was 38.36% in adult cases and 20.68% in pediatric cases. Adult BCP-ALL cases harbouring t(9;22)(BCR-ABL1) fusion transcripts and having expression of aberrant myeloid markers, were significantly older at presentation (age, p=0.0218) and had male preponderance (male, p=0.0246), as compared to those without aberrant myeloid expression. In pediatric cases expressing t(12;21)(ETV6-RUNX1) chimeric fusion transcript, aberrant expression of CD13 was observed in 39.13%, CD33 in 36.95% and CD117 in 8.69% patients respectively. Pediatric BCP-ALL cases harbouring ETV6-RUNX1 fusion transcript and having expression of aberrant myeloid markers were not significantly different as compared to those without, with respect to their demographic and clinico-hematological characteristics (p=0.5955). Aberrant myeloid markers were rarely/never expressed in pediatric and adult BCP-ALL patients harbouring t(4;11)(KTM2A-AF4) and t(1;19)(TCF3-PBX1) fusion transcripts. Conclusion: Aberrant myeloid markers were frequently expressed among BCP-ALL patients harbouring t(9;22)(BCR-ABL1) and t(12;21)(ETV6-RUNX1) fusion transcripts. However BCP-ALL patients harbouring t(4;11)(KTM2A-AF4) and t(1;19)(TCF3-PBX1) fusion transcripts rarely/ never expressed aberrant myeloid markers. Aberrant myeloid CD markers can be used in predicting chimeric fusion transcripts at baseline, so as to plan desirable TKI therapy in BCP-ALL cases with specific chimeric fusion transcripts. This study delineates the relationship of chimeric fusion transcripts with the aberrant expression of myeloid markers in a large cohort of BCP-ALL cases.

14.
ACS Nano ; 15(10): 15461-15470, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633174

RESUMO

Graphene research has steadily increased, and its commercialization in many applications is becoming a reality because of its superior physicochemical properties and advances in synthesis techniques. However, bulk-scale production of graphene still requires large amounts of solvents, electrochemical treatment, or sonication. Recently, a method was discovered to convert bulk quantities of carbonaceous materials to graphene using flash Joule heating (FJH) and, so named, flash graphene (FG). This method can be used to turn various solid wastes containing the prerequisite element carbon into FG. Globally, more than 2 billion tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) are generated every year and, in many municipalities, are becoming unmanageable. The most commonly used waste management methods include recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, and landfill disposal. However, around 70% of global waste ends up in landfills or open dumps, while the rest is recycled, composted, or incinerated. Even the various waste valorization techniques, such as pyrolysis and gasification, produce some waste residues that have their ultimate destination in landfills. Thus, technologies that can minimize waste volume or convert waste into valuable products are required. The thermal treatment process of FJH for FG production provides both waste volume reduction and valorization in the form of FG. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of FJH and its possible applications in various types of waste conversion/valorization. We describe the typical current MSW management system as well as the potential for creating FG at various stages and propose a schematic plan for the incorporation of FG in MSW management. We also analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of MSW as an FG precursor in terms of technical, economic, environmental, and social sustainability. This valuable waste valorization and management strategy can help achieve near-zero waste and an economy-boosting MSW management system.


Assuntos
Grafite , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112302, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678731

RESUMO

Malaria eradication is still a major global health problem in developing countries, which has been of more concern ever since the malaria parasite has developed resistance against frontline antimalarial drugs. Historical evidence proves that the plants possess a major resource for the development of novel anti-malarial drugs. In the present study, the bioactivity guided fractionation of the oleogum-resin of Boswellia serrata Roxb. yielded the optimum activity in the ethyl acetate fraction with an IC50 of 22 ± 3.9 µg/mL and 26.5 ± 4.5 µg/mL against chloroquine sensitive (NF54) and resistant (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum respectively. Further, upon fractionation, the ethyl acetate fraction yielded four major compounds, of which 3-Hydroxy-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid (KBA) was found to be the most potent with IC50 values 4.5 ± 0.60 µg/mL and 6.25 ± 1.02 µg/mL against sensitive and resistant strains respectively. KBA was found to inhibit heme detoxification pathways, one of the most common therapeutic targets, which probably lead to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) detrimental to P. falciparum. Further, the induced intracellular oxidative stress affected the macromolecules in terms of DNA damage, increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. However, it did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect in VERO cells. Under in vivo conditions, KBA exhibited a significant reduction in parasitemia, retarding the development of anaemia, resulting in an enhancement of the mean survival time in Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (chloroquine-resistant) infected mice. Further, KBA did not exhibit any abnormality in serum biochemistry of animals that underwent acute oral toxicity studies at 2000 mg/kg body weight.

17.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586554

RESUMO

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency is an inherited primary immunodeficiency characterized by chronic inflammasome overactivity and associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with fully myeloablative conditioning may be curative but has been associated with poor outcomes. Reports of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimens suggest these approaches are well tolerated, but outcomes are not well established. Retrospective data were collected from an international cohort of 40 patients with XIAP deficiency who underwent HCT with RIC or RTC. Thirty-three (83%) patients had a history of HLH, and thirteen (33%) patients had IBD. Median age at HCT was 6.5 years. Grafts were from HLA-matched (n = 30, 75%) and HLA-mismatched (n = 10, 25%) donors. There were no cases of primary graft failure. Two (5%) patients experienced secondary graft failure, and three (8%) patients ultimately received a second HCT. Nine (23%) patients developed grade II-IV acute GVHD, and 3 (8%) developed extensive chronic GVHD. The estimated 2-year overall and event-free survival rates were 74% (CI 55-86%) and 64% (CI 46-77%), respectively. Recipient and donor HLA mismatch and grade II-IV acute GVHD were negatively associated with survival on multivariate analysis with hazard ratios of 5.8 (CI 1.5-23.3, p = 0.01) and 8.2 (CI 2.1-32.7, p < 0.01), respectively. These data suggest that XIAP patients tolerate RIC and RTC with survival rates similar to HCT of other genetic HLH disorders. Every effort should be made to prevent acute GVHD in XIAP-deficient patients who undergo allogeneic HCT.

18.
Microbiol Res ; 253: 126862, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563853

RESUMO

Trichoderma virens produces viridin/viridiol, heptelidic (koningic) acid, several volatile sesquiterpenes and gliotoxin (Q strains) or gliovirin (P strains). We earlier reported that deletion of the terpene cyclase vir4 and a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, designated as vGPD) associated with the "vir" cluster abrogated the biosynthesis of several volatile sesquiterpene metabolites. Here we show that, the deletion of this GAPDH also impairs the biosynthesis of heptelidic acid (a non-volatile sesquiterpene), viridin (steroid) and gliovirin (non-ribosomal peptide), indicating regulation of non-volatile metabolite biosynthesis by this GAPDH that is associated with a secondary metabolism gene cluster. To gain further insights into the details of this novel form of regulation, we identified the terpene cyclase gene responsible for heptelidic acid biosynthesis (hereafter designated as has1) and prove that the expression of this gene is regulated by vGPD. Interestingly, deletion of has1 impaired biosynthesis of heptelidic acid (HA), viridin and gliovirin, but not of volatile sesquiterpenes. Deletion of the vir cluster associated terpene cyclase gene (vir4), located next to the vGPD gene, did not impair biosynthesis of HA, viridin or gliovirin. We thus unveil a novel circuitry of regulation of secondary metabolism where an HA-tolerant GAPDH isoform (vGPD) regulates HA biosynthesis through the transcriptional regulation of the HA-synthase gene (which is not part of the "vir" cluster). Interestingly, impairment of HA biosynthesis leads to the down-regulation of biosynthesis of other non-volatile secondary metabolites, but not of volatile secondary metabolites. We thus provide evidence that the "vir" cluster associated, HA-tolerant GAPDH in T. virens participates in the biosynthesis of volatile sesquiterpenes as a biosynthetic enzyme, and regulates the production of non-volatile metabolites via regulation of HA biosynthesis. The orthologue of the "vir" cluster in Aspergillus oryzae was earlier reported to synthesize HA by another group. Our study thus proves that the same gene cluster can code for unrelated metabolites in different species.

20.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding clinical outcomes of valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) following the United States Food and Drug Administration approval of ViV TAVI in 2015. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate in-hospital, 30-day, and 6-month outcomes of ViV TAVI versus repeat surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with a failed aortic bioprosthetic valve. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study identified patients who underwent ViV TAVI or repeat SAVR utilising the Nationwide Readmission Database from 2016 to 2018. Primary outcomes were all-cause readmission (at 30 days and 6 months) and in-hospital death. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital stroke, pacemaker implantation, 30-day/6-month major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and mortality during readmission. Propensity score-matching (inverse probability of treatment weighting) analyses were implemented. RESULTS: Out of 6,769 procedures performed, 3,724 (55%) patients underwent ViV TAVI, and 3,045 (45%) underwent repeat SAVR. ViV TAVI was associated with lower in-hospital all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20-0.90, p=0.026) and a higher rate of 30-day (hazard ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI: 1.13-1.90, p=0.004) and 6-month all-cause readmission (HR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.10, p=0.006) compared with repeat SAVR. All secondary outcomes were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: ViV TAVI was associated with lower in-hospital mortality but higher 30-day and 6-month all-cause readmission. However, there was no difference in risk of in-hospital stroke, post-procedure pacemaker implantation, MACE, and mortality during 30-day and 6-month readmission compared with repeat SAVR, suggesting that ViV TAVI can be performed safely in carefully selected patients.

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