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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410440

RESUMO

The present work investigates the less explored thermoelectric properties of the n-type GaN semiconductor by combining both experimental and computational tools. The Seebeck coefficients of GaN epitaxial thin films were experimentally measured in the wide temperature range from 77 K to 650 K in steps of ∼10 K covering both low and high-temperature regimes as a function of the carrier concentration (2 × 1016, 2 × 1017, 4 × 1017 and 8 × 1017 cm-3). The measured Seebeck coefficient at room temperature was found to be highest (-374 µV K-1) at the lowest concentration of 4 × 1016 cm-3, and decreases in magnitude monotonically (-327.6 µV K-1, -295 µV K-1, -246 µV K-1 for 2 × 1017, 4 × 1017, 8 × 1017 cm-3, respectively) as the sample carrier concentration increases. The Seebeck coefficient remains negative in the entire temperature range under study indicating that electrons are the dominant carriers. To understand the temperature-dependent behaviour, we also carried out the electronic structure and transport coefficient calculations using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory implemented in WIEN2k and BoltzTraP code, respectively. The experimentally observed carrier concentrations were used in the calculations. The estimated results obtained under constant relaxation time approximations provide a very good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data of Seebeck coefficients in the temperature range from 260 to 625 K.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28891, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate risk stratification of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is essential as management can range from conservative in single system, low risk for central nervous system (CNS) involvement lesions to intensive chemotherapy for multisystem or high-risk disease. Additionally, being able to differentiate metabolically active from inactive lesions is essential for both prognostic reasons and to avoid potentially unnecessary treatment. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all patients with histopathology-confirmed LCH at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) between 2009 and 2019. RESULTS: One hundred seven positron emission tomography (PET)/computerized tomography (CT) images were included in the review. A discrepancy between PET/CT and conventional imaging occurred on 53 occasions. On 13 occasions, increased uptake was observed on PET in an area with no identifiable lesion on conventional imaging. On 40 occasions, lesions were found on conventional imaging where no increased uptake was observed on PET. On eight skeletal surveys, three other radiographs, four diagnostic CTs, five localization CTs, and one bone scan, no lesion was identified in an area with increased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. This occurred exclusively in bone. On nine skeletal surveys, one other radiograph, four diagnostic CTs, six localization CTs, 19 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and one bone scan, a lesion was identified in a location without increased FDG uptake. This occurred in bone, CNS, and lungs. CONCLUSION: F-18-FDG PET/CT is vital in the evaluation of LCH lesions given its ability to detect LCH lesions not detectable on conventional imaging modalities, as well as its ability to distinguish metabolically active from inactive disease. MRI and diagnostic CT are still useful adjunctive tests for identification of CNS and lung lesions.

3.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460604

RESUMO

Most of the trials investigating the role of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) across various strata of risk categories have excluded patients with bicuspid aortic stenosis (BAS) due to its anatomical complexities. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis with meta-regression of studies comparing clinical, procedural, and post-procedural echocardiographic outcomes in BAS versus tricuspid aortic stenosis (TAS) undergoing TAVI. We searched the PubMed and Cochrane databases for relevant articles from the inception of the database to October 2019. Continuous and categorical variables were pooled using inverse variance and Mantel-Haenszel method, respectively, using the random-effect model. To rate the certainty of evidence for each outcome, we used the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations) approach. Nineteen articles were included in the final analysis. There was no difference in the risk of 30-day mortality, 1-year mortality, 30-day cardiovascular mortality, major/life-threatening bleeding, major vascular complications, acute kidney injury, permanent pacemaker implantation, device success, annular rupture, post-procedural aortic valve area and mean pressure gradient between the two groups. BAS patients undergoing TAVI had a higher risk of 30-day stroke, conversion to surgery, need for second valve implantation, and moderate to severe paravalvular leak. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis supports the feasibility of TAVI in surgically ineligible patients with BAS. However, the incidence of certain procedural complications such as stroke, conversion to surgery, second valve implantation, and paravalvular leak is higher among BAS patients compared with TAS patients which must be discussed with the patient prior to undergoing TAVI procedure.

4.
Scand Cardiovasc J ; : 1-9, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is one of the paramount hurdles for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) since it impedes stent delivery and complete expansion. This study intended to evaluate the short-term clinical and procedural outcomes comparing rotational atherectomy (RA) and orbital atherectomy (OA) in patients with heavily calcified coronary lesions undergoing PCI. Design: This systematic review and meta-analysis included all head-to-head published comparisons of coronary RA versus OA. Procedural endpoints and post-procedural clinical outcomes (30 days/in-hospital), were compared. RevMan 5.3 software was used for data analysis. Results: Seven retrospective observational investigations with a total of 4623 patients, including 3203 patients in the RA group and 1420 patients in the OA group, were incorporated. Compared with OA, the RA group was associated with a higher incidence of myocardial infarction at short-term follow-up (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.07-2.29, p = .02, I 2 = 0%). No difference was noted among other short-term post-procedural clinical outcomes including all-cause mortality, target vessel revascularization, or major adverse cardiac events. Among procedural complications, RA was associated with reduced coronary artery dissection and arterial perforation. Increased fluoroscopy time was observed in the RA cohort as compared with OA (MD: 4.78, 95% CI: 2.25-7.30, p = .0002, I 2 = 80%). Conclusion: RA was associated with fewer vascular complications, but at a cost of higher incidence of myocardial infarction and higher fluoroscopy time compared with OA, at short term follow-up. OA is a safe and effective alternative for the management of CAC.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103192, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States is currently facing an opioid crisis. Novel tools to better comprehend dynamic molecular changes in the brain associated with the opioid abuse are limited. Recent studies have suggested the usefulness of plasma exosomes in better understanding CNS disorders. However, no study has ever characterized exosomes (small extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin) secreted by brain cells to understand the potential neurodegenerative effects of long-term oxycodone self-administration (SA). METHODS: MRI of Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was performed to assess alterations in gray matter volumes with oxycodone SA. We isolated total exosomes (TE) from the plasma of these monkeys; from TE, we pulled-out neuron-derived exosomes (NDE), astrocytes-derived exosomes (ADE), and microglia-derived exosomes (MDE) using surface biomarkers L1CAM (L1 cell adhesion molecule), GLAST (Glutamate aspartate transporter) and TMEM119 (transmembrane protein119), respectively. FINDINGS: We observed a significantly lower gray matter volume of specific lobes of the brain (frontal and parietal lobes, and right putamen) in monkeys with ∼3 years of oxycodone SA compared to controls. Higher expression of neurodegenerative biomarkers (NFL and α-synuclein) correlates well with the change in brain lobe volumes in control and oxycodone SA monkeys. We also identified a strong effect of oxycodone SA on the loading of specific miRNAs and proteins associated with neuro-cognitive disorders. Finally, exosomes subpopulation from oxycodone SA group activated NF-κB activity in THP1- cells. INTERPRETATION: These results provide evidence for the utility of brain cells-derived exosomes from plasma in better understanding and predicting the pro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative consequence of oxycodone SA. FUNDING: NIH.

7.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 101: 106272, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nucleotide analogue prodrug remdesivir was among the first antiviral therapies to be tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for COVID-19. We performed a meta-analysis to understand efficacy and safety. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases (from January 1, 2020 to November 5, 2020). We included RCTs comparing the efficacy and safety of remdesivir to control/placebo in COVID-19. Two independent investigators abstracted data, assessed the quality of evidence, and rated the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 4 RCTs with 7334 patients with COVID-19 were included. At a follow-up of 28-29 days from randomization, very low certainty evidence showed that use of remdesivir compared with control group (placebo and/or standard of care) was not associated with a significant decrease in time to clinical improvement (standardized mean difference -0.80 day; [CI, -2.12, 0.53]). However, moderate certainty of evidence showed that remdesivir was associated with higher rates of recovered patients (risk difference [RD] 0.07 [0.05, 0.08]) and discharged patients (RD 0.07 [0.03, 0.11]) and lower rates of developing serious adverse events (RD -0.05 [-0.10, -0.01]) compared with control. Moderate and very low certainty of evidence showed there was no significant difference in deaths at 28-29 days follow-up (RD -0.01 [-0.03, 0.01]) and developing any adverse events (RD 0.01 [-0.17, 0.19]) between both groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients given remdesivir are more likely to demonstrate recovery and were associated with higher rates of hospital discharge, but not with significant reduction in mean time to clinical improvement or mortality.

8.
Gene ; 764: 145101, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877747

RESUMO

India is the world's largest milk producing country because of massive contribution made by cattle and buffaloes. In the present investigation, comprehensive comparative profiling of transcriptomic landscape of milk somatic cells of Sahiwal cattle and Murrah buffaloes was carried out. Genes with highest transcript abundance in both species were enriched for biological processes such as lactation, immune response, cellular oxidant detoxification and response to hormones. Analysis of differential expression identified 377 significantly up-regulated and 847 significantly down-regulated genes with fold change >1.5 in Murrah buffaloes as compared to Sahiwal cattle (padj <0.05). Marked enrichment of innate and adaptive immune response related GO terms and higher expression of genes for various host defense peptides such as lysozyme, defensin ß and granzymes were evident in buffaloes. Genes related to ECM-receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and keratinization pathway showed more abundant expression in cattle. Network analysis of the up-regulated genes delineated highly connected genes representing immunity and haematopoietic cell lineage (CBL, CD28, CD247, PECAM1 and ITGA4). For the down-regulated dataset, genes with highest interactions were KRT18, FGFR1, GPR183, ITGB3 and DKK3. Our results lend support to more robust immune mechanisms in buffaloes, possibly explaining lower susceptibility to mammary infections as compared to cattle.


Assuntos
Búfalos/imunologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Imunidade/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Búfalos/genética , Bovinos/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Linhagem da Célula/imunologia , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Feminino , Hematopoese/genética , Hematopoese/imunologia , Índia , Lactação/genética , Lactação/imunologia , Leite/citologia , Leite/imunologia , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 246: 119019, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068899

RESUMO

In this work, we are reporting facile hydrothermal synthesis of a highly photoluminescent doped carbon nitride quantum dots (CxNyQDs) and implied it for direct detection of hydroquinone (H2Q) by photoluminescence quenching phenomenon. Oxygen and sulphur moieties are regarded as dopant species in CxNyQDs and sourced from cheap solid precursors viz. cysteine and maleic acid. Morphological studies of CxNyQDs have done by SEM and TEM techniques, while structural analysis has carried out using FTIR, XPS, EDS and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The strong tendency of dispersivity of this QD in water has revealed by its zeta potential value of -32.4 mV. Optical properties of the as-prepared QDs have optimized at different excitation wavelengths. The photoluminescence stability of the dispersion is tested in various pH solutions and under continuous UV irradiation (365 nm). After that, sensing property is observed in quenching of photoluminescence feature of as-prepared QDs by direct addition of various concentrations of H2Q. We obtained lower detection limit (LOD) of 50 nM (S/N = 3) in linear range from 12 to 57.5 µM. The reduction in photoluminescence of QDs may be attributed to electron transfer from QDs to oxidized H2Q via -S- and -COO- groups present at its surface. Further, as-prepared QDs matrix exhibited high selectivity for hydroquinone over a range of potential interfering agents. Thus, the present work shows cost-effective facile synthesis of highly stable O- and S-doped carbon nitride (CxNy) quantum dots as promising photoluminescent sensor for pollutant hydroquinone without help of any enzyme or polymer assisted system.

10.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(12)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260899

RESUMO

The application of multi-dimensional population balance equations (PBEs) for the simulation of granulation processes is recommended due to the multi-component system. Irrespective of the application area, numerical scheme selection for solving multi-dimensional PBEs is driven by the accuracy in (size) number density prediction alone. However, mixing the components, i.e., the particles (excipients and API) and the binding liquid, plays a crucial role in predicting the granule compositional distribution during the pharmaceutical granulation. A numerical scheme should, therefore, be able to predict this accurately. Here, we compare the cell average technique (CAT) and finite volume scheme (FVS) in terms of their accuracy and applicability in predicting the mixing state. To quantify the degree of mixing in the system, the sum-square χ2 parameter is studied to observe the deviation in the amount binder from its average. It has been illustrated that the accurate prediction of integral moments computed by the FVS leads to an inaccurate prediction of the χ2 parameter for a bicomponent population balance equation. Moreover, the cell average technique (CAT) predicts the moments with moderate accuracy; however, it computes the mixing of components χ2 parameter with higher precision than the finite volume scheme. The numerical testing is performed for some benchmarking kernels corresponding to which the analytical solutions are available in the literature. It will be also shown that both numerical methods equally well predict the average size of the particles formed in the system; however, the finite volume scheme takes less time to compute these results.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297315

RESUMO

The burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei causes scabies in humans or mange in animals. It infests a wide range of mammalian species including livestock, companion animals, wild animals, and humans. Differential diagnosis of Sarcoptes varieties is key for epidemiological studies and for formulation of an eradication program. Host-parasite interaction at the systemic level is very important to understand the pathogenicity of the mite. This communication deals with the preliminary report on the genetic characterization of S. scabiei from India. Moreover, the effect of S. scabiei infestation on host physiology with special emphasis on serum biochemical parameters, lipid profile, oxidant/antioxidant balance, stress parameters, and immune responses were evaluated in a porcine model. Cytochrome C oxidase 1 and voltage-sensitive sodium channel based phylogenetic study could distinguish human and animals isolates but could not distinguish host or geographical specific isolates belonging to animal origin. An absence of host-specific cluster among animal isolates argues against the hypothesis of delineating S. scabiei as per host origin. Elevated levels of markers of liver function such as albumin, AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH in infested animals indicated impaired liver function in infested animals. S. scabiei infestation induced atherogenic dyslipidemia indicated by elevated levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and a decreased level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Oxidative stress in infested animals was indicated by a high level of nitric oxide and serum MDA as oxidative stress markers and low antioxidant capacity. S. scabiei triggered stress response and elevated levels of serum cortisol and heat shock proteins were recorded in infested animals. S. scabiei infestation increased the serum concentration of immunoglobulins and was associated with up-regulation of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, and IL-4 indicating both Th1 and Th2 response. The results of the study will be helpful for a better understanding of host-parasite interaction at the systemic level in crusted scabies in pigs.

12.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; Publish Ahead of Print2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic unprecedented in over a century, with ≈35 million cases, and more than 1 million deaths globally. Though predominantly a lower respiratory illness, other organ injuries are well-recognized. Among these, liver injury is of major interest. OBJECTIVE: To define prevalence, pattern, predictors, and impact of liver injury among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and biochemical data were collected retrospectively among patients admitted to St. Luke's University Hospital with COVID-19 between 1 March and 18 April 2020. Association of liver tests (LTs) with mortality and need for mechanical ventilation, adjusted for demographic, clinical and biochemical predictors, was examined. RESULTS: Data were available on 551 patients. Prevalence of any or ≥3 × upper limit of normal transaminase elevation on was 61.2 and 9.4% on admission, and 72.1 and 22.4% at peak. Bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase elevations were less common on admission (11.4 and 12.6%, respectively), and at peak (17.7 and 22%, respectively). All liver test (LT) elevations were consistently predicted by inflammatory markers. Hyperbilirubinemia predicted mortality on admission and at peak. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) had opposite impact on mortality with AST positively, and ALT negatively associated with mortality. Hence, besides hyperbilirubinemia, AST:ALT ratio emerged as the best marker for mortality among the LTs. CONCLUSION: LT elevations among patients presenting with COVID-19 are very common, though majority are mild. Admission and peak bilirubin ≥1 mg/dl, as well as admission and peak AST:ALT ratio were significant predictors of mortality, along with age, myocardial injury, and chronic medical illness.

13.
Biosci Rep ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320186

RESUMO

The peptidoglycan (PG) layer is an intricate and dynamic component of the bacterial cell wall, which requires a constant balance between its synthesis and hydrolysis. FtsEX complex present on the inner membrane is shown to transduce signals to induce PG hydrolysis. FtsE has sequence similarity with the nucleotide-binding domain (NBDs) of ABC transporters. The NBDs in most of the ABC transporters couple ATP hydrolysis to transport molecules inside or outside the cell. Also, this reaction cycle is driven by the dimerization of NBDs. Though extensive studies have been carried out on the E. coli FtsEX complex, it remains elusive regarding how FtsEX complex helps in signal transduction or transportation of molecules. Also, very little is known about the biochemical properties and ATPase activities of FtsE. Because of its strong interaction with the membrane-bound protein FtsX, FtsE stays insoluble upon overexpression in E. coli, and thus, most studies on E. coli FtsE in the past have used refolded FtsE. Here in this paper, for the first time, we report the soluble expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of FtsE from E. coli. The purified soluble FtsEexhibits high thermal stability, exhibits ATPase activity and has more than one ATP-binding site. We have also demonstrated a direct interaction between FtsEand the cytoplasmic loop of FtsX. Together, our findings suggest that during bacterial division, the ATPase cycle of FtsE and its interaction with the FtsX cytoplasmic loop may help to regulate the peptidoglycan hydrolysis at the mid cell.

14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; : 115353, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301752

RESUMO

Background Host-directed therapy is considered a novel anti-tuberculosis strategy in tackling the tuberculosis burden through autophagy induction by various inducers to curtail the growth of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods In this study, we investigated the anti-tubercular role of soybean lectin, a lectin isolated from Glycine max (Soybean). Effect of SBL on intracellular mycobacterial viability through autophagy and the mechanism involved in differentiated THP-1 cells was studied using different experimental approaches. Results We initially performed a time kinetic experiment with the non-cytotoxic dose of SBL (20 µg/ml) and observed autophagy induction after 24 h of treatment. Abrogation of autophagy in the presence of 3-MA and an increase in LC3 puncta formation upon Baf-A1 addition elucidated the specific effect on autophagy and autophagic flux. SBL treatment also led to autophagy induction in mycobacteria infected macrophages that restricted the intracellular mycobacterial growth, thus emphasizing the host defensive role of SBL induced autophagy. Mechanistic studies revealed an increase in P2RX7 expression, NF-κB activation and reactive oxygen species generation upon SBL treatment. Inhibition of P2RX7 expression suppressed NF-κB dependent ROS level in SBL treated cells. Moreover, SBL induced autophagy was abrogated in the presence of either different inhibitors or P2RX7 siRNA, leading to the reduced killing of intracellular mycobacteria. Conclusion Taken together, these results conclude that SBL induced autophagy exerts an anti-mycobacterial effect in P2RX7-NF-κB dependent manner through the generation of ROS. General significance This study has provided a novel anti-mycobacterial role of SBL, which may play an important role in devising new therapeutic interventions.

16.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297740

RESUMO

Two new iridoids namely valerialloside A and valerianoside A (1 and 2) along with five known compounds (3-7) were isolated from the roots of Valeriana jatamansi Jones. The structure of new compounds were determined using 1D and 2D NMR including 1H- 1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic techniques.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352208

RESUMO

Cardiac involvement in amyloidosis is associated with a poor prognosis. Data on the burden of arrhythmias in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) during hospitalization are lacking. We identified the burden of arrhythmias using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from January 2016 to December 2017. We compared patient characteristics, outcomes, and hospitalization costs between CA patients with and without documented arrhythmias. Out of 5,585 hospital admissions for CA, 2,020 (36.1%) had concurrent arrhythmias. Propensity-score matching for age, sex, income, and co-morbidities was performed with 1,405 CA patients with arrhythmias and 1,405 patients without. The primary outcome of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in CA patients with arrhythmia than without(13.9% vs 5.3%, p-value <0.001). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was the most common (72.2%) arrhythmia in CA patients with concurrent arrhythmia. The secondary outcomes of AF-related mortality (11.95% vs 9.16%, p-value = 0.02) and acute and acute on chronic as heart failure (HF) exacerbation (32.38% vs 24.91%, p-value <0.0001) were significantly higher in CA and concurrent arrhythmia compared with CA patients without. The total length of hospital stay (6[3 to 12] vs 5[3 to 10], p-value <0.001) and cost of hospitalization were ($ 15,086[7,813 to 30,373] vs $ 12,219[6,865 to 23,997], p-value = 0.001) were significantly greater among CA with arrhythmia compared with those without. These data suggest that the presence of arrhythmias in CA patients during hospital admission is associated with a poorer prognosis and may reflect patients with a higher risk of HF exacerbation and mortality.

19.
Heart Lung ; 50(2): 244-251, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) has been associated with various behavioral risk factors such as tobacco, alcohol, and/or substances abuse. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to describe the national trends and burden of tobacco and substance abuse in AF hospitalizations. Also, this study identifies potential population who are more vulnerable to these substance abuse among AF hospitalizations. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample database from 2007 to 2015 was utilized and the hospitalizations with AF were identified using the international classification of disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code. They were stratified into without abuse, tobacco use disorder (TUD), substance use disorder (SUD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drug use disorder (DUD). RESULTS: Of 3,631,507 AF hospitalizations, 852,110 (23.46%) had TUD, 1,851,170 (5.1%) had SUD, 155,681 (4.29%) had AUD and 42,667 (1.17%) had DUD. The prevalence of TUD, SUD, AUD, and DUD was substantially increased across all age groups, races, and gender during the study period. Female sex was associated with lower odds TUD, SUD, AUD, and DUD. Among AF hospitalizations, the black race was associated with higher odds of SUD, and DUD. The younger age group (18-35 years), male, Medicare/Medicaid as primary insurance, and lower socioeconomic status were associated with increased risk of both TUD and SUDs. CONCLUSION: TUD and SUD among AF hospitalizations in the United States mainly affects males, younger individuals, white more than black, and those of lower socioeconomic status which demands for the development of preventive strategies to address multilevel influences.

20.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192236

RESUMO

The hardware-software co-optimization of neural network architectures is a field of research that emerged with the advent of commercial neuromorphic chips, such as the IBM TrueNorth and Intel Loihi. Development of simulation and automated mapping software tools in tandem with the design of neuromorphic hardware, whilst taking into consideration the hardware constraints, will play an increasingly significant role in deployment of system-level applications. This paper illustrates the importance and benefits of co-design of convolutional neural networks (CNN) that are to be mapped onto neuromorphic hardware with a crossbar array of synapses. Toward this end, we first study which convolution techniques are more hardware friendly and propose different mapping techniques for different convolutions. We show that, for a seven-layered CNN, our proposed mapping technique can reduce the number of cores used by 4.9-13.8 times for crossbar sizes ranging from 128 × 256 to 1,024 × 1,024, and this can be compared to the toeplitz method of mapping. We next develop an iterative co-design process for the systematic design of more hardware-friendly CNNs whilst considering hardware constraints, such as core sizes. A python wrapper, developed for the mapping process, is also useful for validating hardware design and studies on traffic volume and energy consumption. Finally, a new neural network dubbed HFNet is proposed using the above co-design process; it achieves a classification accuracy of 71.3% on the IMAGENET dataset (comparable to the VGG-16) but uses 11 times less cores for neuromorphic hardware with core size of 1,024 × 1,024. We also modified the HFNet to fit onto different core sizes and report on the corresponding classification accuracies. Various aspects of the paper are patent pending.

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