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1.
Bioorg Chem ; 104: 104326, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142431

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) epidemic has created an unprecedented medical and economic crisis all over the world. SARS-CoV-2 is found to have more contagious character as compared to MERS-CoV and is spreading in a very fast manner all around the globe. It has affected over 31 million people all over the world till date. This virus shares around 80% of genome similarity with SARS-CoV. In this perspective, we have explored three major targets namely; SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, RNA dependent RNA polymerase, and 3CL or Mpro Protease for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2. These targets have attracted attention of the medicinal chemists working on computer-aided drug design in developing new small molecules that might inhibit these targets for combating COVID-19 disease. Moreover, we have compared the similarity of these target proteins with earlier reported coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We have observed that both the coronaviruses share around 80% similarity in their amino acid sequence. The key amino acid interactions which can play a crucial role in designing new small molecule inhibitors against COVID-19 have been reported in this perspective. Authors believe that this study will help the medicinal chemists to understand the key amino acids essential for interactions at the active site of target proteins in SARS-CoV-2, based on their similarity with earlier reported viruses. In this review, we have also described the lead molecules under various clinical trials for their efficacy against COVID-19.

2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 205: 112666, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795767

RESUMO

Pyrazolines remain privileged heterocycles in drug discovery. 2-Pyrazoline scaffold has been proven as a ubiquitous motif which is present in a number of pharmacologically important drug molecules such as antipyrine, ramifenazone, ibipinabant, axitinib etc. They have been widely explored by the scientific community and are reported to possess wide spectrum of biological activities. For combating unprecedented diseases and worldwide increasing drug resistance, 2-pyrazoline has been tackled as a fascinating pharmacophore to generate new molecules with improved potency and lesser toxicity along with desired pharmacokinetic profile. This review aims to summarizes various recent advancements in the medicinal chemistry of pyrazoline based compounds with the following objectives: (1) To represent inclusive data on pyrazoline based marketed drugs as well as therapeutic candidates undergoing preclinical and clinical developments; (2) To discuss recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of pyrazoline derivatives with their numerous biological significances for the eradication of various diseases; (3) Summarizes structure-activity relationships (SAR) including in silico and mechanistic studies to afford ideas for the design and development of novel compounds with desired therapeutic implications.

3.
Bioorg Chem ; 101: 104010, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615464

RESUMO

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) represent a class of privilege scaffold in the modern era of medicinal chemistry as CNS active agents and BZD based drugs are used to treat different psychotic disorders. Inspired from the therapeutic potential of BZDs as promising CNS active agents, in the present work three different series of 1,5-benzodiazepines bearing various substitutions at position 2 and 4 of the benzodiazepine core were synthesized by condensing different substituted chalcones with o-phenylenediamine in the presence of piperidine as a base catalyst. Structural characterization of title compounds was done by using various analytical techniques such as IR, NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectral data. All the synthesized compounds (9a-d, 10a-e and 11a-c) were subjected to in vivo neuropharmacological studies to evaluate their CNS depressant and antiepileptic activity. Results of in vivo evaluation data showed that analogue 11b exhibited potent CNS depressant activity which was comparable to the standard drug diazepam. Compounds 10b and 10c displayed significant antiepileptic activity however they were less potent than the standard drug phenobarbitone. Molecular docking studies were performed using MOE software to find the interaction pattern and binding mode at the GABAA receptor (PDB Id: 6HUP). The results of the docking studies were in good agreement with the observed in vivo activity and revealed the satisfactory binding mode of the compounds within the binding site of the protein. The docking scores for the most promising candidates 10c, 11b and Diazepam were found to be -9.18, -9.46 and -9.88, respectively. Further, the compounds showed compliance with the Lipinski's 'rule of five' and exhibited favourable drug-likeness scores. The identified leads can be explored further for the design and development of new BZD based psychotropic agents.

4.
Curr Med Chem ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674727

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a ligand dependant transcription factor, is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily. PPAR exists in three isoforms i.e. PPAR alpha (PPARα), PPAR beta (PPARß), and PPAR gamma (PPARγ). These are multi-functional transcription factor and help in regulating inflammation, diabetes type 2, lipid concentration in the body, metastasis, and tumor growth or angiogenesis. Activation of PPARγ causes inhibition of growth of cultured human breast, gastric, lung, prostate, and other cancer cells. PPARγ is mainly involved in fatty acid storage, glucose metabolism, and homeostasis and adipogenesis regulation. A large number of natural and synthetic ligands bind to PPARγ and modulate its activity. Ligands such as thiazolidinedione, troglitazone, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone effectively bind to PPARγ however, most of these were found to display severe side effects such as hepatotoxicity, weight gain, cardiovascular complications and bladder tumor. Now the focus is shifted towards the development of dual-acting or pan PPAR ligands. The current review article describes the functions and role of PPARγ in various disease states. In addition, recently reported PPARγ ligands and pan PPAR ligands were discussed in detail. It is envisaged that the present review article may help in the development of potent PPAR ligands with no or minimal side effects.

5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 200: 112438, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485533

RESUMO

Most of the anti-inflammatory drugs in clinical practice are becoming outdated owing to their potential side and adverse effects. These are found to be highly unsafe for long term use. Thus, since last few years, new anti-inflammatory agents are being developed and number of them are in advanced stages of clinical trials. Heterocyclic molecules have gained great attention of chemists due to their similarity to different biological precursors. In the current review, we have highlighted the recent developments (2015 onwards) in designing and synthesis of various heterocyclic anti-inflammatory molecules along with detailed SAR studies. The principal objective of this review is to provide a profound overview of the recently explored heterocyclic anti-inflammatory agents belonging to various classes such as pyrazole, pyrimidine, benzimidazole, indole, and other related heterocyclic compounds. In addition, an enlarged view on potential interactions of synthetic preparations with target inflammatory enzymes or cytokines has been provided. We have also enlisted lead compounds undergoing different clinical trials against inflammation. The elementary aim of this review is to provide restructured knowledge regarding heterocyclic molecules which will be valuable for the scientists working in the field of anti-inflammatory chemistry. The authors believe that lead compounds mentioned in the report will help to design and develop novel anti-inflammatory drug molecules targeting various factors involved in the progression of inflammation.

6.
Curr Drug Targets ; 21(9): 864-891, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156235

RESUMO

Heterocyclic compounds play a significant role in various biological processes of the human body and many of them are in clinical use due to their diverse, chemical and biological properties. Among these, indole is one of the most promising pharmacologically active molecules. Due to its chemical reactivity, indole has been willingly modified to obtain a variety of new lead molecules, which has been successfully utilized to obtained novel drug candidates for the treatment of different pharmacological diseases. Indole-based compounds such as vincristine (anticancer), reserpine (antihypertensive), amedalin (antidepressant) and many more describe the medicinal and pharmacological importance of the indole in uplifting human life. In this review, we compiled various reports on indole derivatives and their biological significance, including antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiplatelet, anti- Alzheimer's, anti-Parkinson's, antioxidant and anticancer potential from 2015 onwards. In addition, structure-activity relationship studies of the different derivatives have been included. We have also discussed novel synthetic strategies developed during this period for the synthesis of different indole derivatives. We believe that this review article will provide comprehensive knowledge about the medicinal importance of indoles and will help in the design and synthesis of novel indole-based molecules with high potency and efficacy.

7.
J Org Chem ; 85(4): 2231-2241, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877044

RESUMO

Decarboxylative A3-coupling of ortho-hydroxybenzaldehydes, secondary amines, and alkynoic acids is performed under catalyst and solvent-free conditions. The developed methodology provided a waste-free method for the synthesis of hydroxylated propargylamines which are versatile precursors for various bioactive heterocyclic scaffolds. The experimental and density functional theory studies revealed that the in situ-formed ortho-quinonoid intermediate (formed from ortho-hydroxybenzaldehyde and amine) undergoes a concerted Eschweiler-Clarke type decarboxylation with alkynoic acids. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for MAO-A, MAO-B, and AChE inhibitory activities as potential drug candidates for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Compound 4f was found to be the most potent and selective MAO-B (high selectivity over MAO-A) and AChE inhibitor in the series with IC50 values of 4.27 ± 0.07 and 0.79 ± 0.03 µM, respectively.

8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 177: 221-234, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151057

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurological disorder involving complex pathogenesis. Single target directed drugs proved ineffective and since last few years' different pharmacological strategies including multi-targeting agents are being explored for the effective drug development for AD. A total of 19 dipropargyl substituted diphenylpyrimidines have been synthesized and evaluated for the monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition potential. All the compounds were found to be selective and reversible inhibitors of MAO-B isoform. These compounds also displayed good AChE inhibition potential with IC50 values in low micromolar range. AVB4 was found to be the most potent MAO-B inhibitor with IC50 value of 1.49 ±â€¯0.09 µM and AVB1 was found to be the most potent AChE inhibitor with IC50 value of 1.35 ±â€¯0.03 µM. In the ROS protection inhibition studies, AVB1 and AVB4 displayed weak but interesting activity in SH-SY5Y cells. In the cytotoxicity studies involving SH-SY5Y cells, both AVB1 and AVB4 were found to be non-toxic to the tissue cells. In the molecular dynamic simulation studies of 30 ns, the potent compounds were found to be quite stable in the active site of MAO-B and AChE. The results suggested that AVB1 and AVB4 are promising dual inhibitors and have the potential to be developed as anti-Alzheimer's drug.


Assuntos
Alquinos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Alquinos/síntese química , Alquinos/química , Alquinos/toxicidade , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 10(1): 252-265, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296051

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with multifactorial pathogenesis. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetylcholinesterase enzymes (AChE) are potential targets for the treatment of AD. A total of 15 new propargyl containing 4,6-diphenylpyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and screened for the MAO and AChE inhibition activities along with ROS production inhibition and metal-chelation potential. All the synthesized compounds were found to be selective and potent inhibitors of MAO-A and AChE enzymes at nanomolar concentrations. VB1 was found to be the most potent MAO-A and BuChE inhibitor with IC50 values of 18.34 ± 0.38 nM and 0.666 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. It also showed potent AChE inhibition with an IC50 value of 30.46 ± 0.23 nM. Compound VB8 was found to be the most potent AChE inhibitor with an IC50 value of 9.54 ± 0.07 nM and displayed an IC50 value of 1010 ± 70.42 nM against the MAO-A isoform. In the cytotoxic studies, these compounds were found to be nontoxic to the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells even at 25 µM concentration. All the compounds were found to be reversible inhibitors of MAO-A and AChE enzymes. In addition, these compounds also showed good neuroprotective properties against 6-OHDA- and H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. All the compounds accommodate nicely to the hydrophobic cavity of MAO-A and AChE enzymes. In the molecular dynamics simulation studies, both VB1 and VB8 were found to be stable in the respective cavities for 30 ns. Thus, 4,6-diphenylpyrimidine derivatives can act as promising leads in the development of dual-acting inhibitors targeting MAO-A and AChE enzymes for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/enzimologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
ChemMedChem ; 13(7): 705-712, 2018 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29534334

RESUMO

Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors are potential drug candidates for the treatment of various neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease. A total of 20 new propargyl-containing 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and screened for MAO inhibition using Amplex Red assays. All the synthesized compounds were found to be reversible and selective inhibitors of the MAO-B isoform at sub-micromolar concentrations. MVB3 was the most potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.38±0.02 µµ, whereas MVB6 (IC50 =0.51±0.04 µµ) and MVB16 (IC50 =0.48±0.06 µµ) were the most selective for MAO-B with a selectivity index of more than 100-fold. In cytotoxic studies, these compounds were found to be nontoxic to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations of 25 µm. MVB6 was found to decrease the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species to 68 % at 10 µm concentration, whereas other compounds did not produce significant changes in reactive oxygen species levels. In molecular modeling studies, MVB3 displayed strong binding affinity for the MAO-B isoform with a dock score of -10.45, in agreement with the observed activity. All the compounds fitted well in the hydrophobic cavity of MAO-B. Thus, propargyl-substituted pyrimidine derivatives can be promising leads in the development of potent, selective and reversible MAO-B inhibitors for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Alquinos/farmacologia , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Alquinos/síntese química , Alquinos/química , Alquinos/toxicidade , Antiparkinsonianos/síntese química , Antiparkinsonianos/química , Antiparkinsonianos/toxicidade , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Bioorg Chem ; 78: 130-140, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554587

RESUMO

A number of pyrimidine bridged combretastatin derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for anticancer activities against breast cancer (MCF-7) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines using MTT assays. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed good anticancer activity with IC50 values in low micro-molar range. Compounds 4a and 4p were found most potent in the series with IC50 values of 4.67 µM & 3.38 µM and 4.63 µM & 3.71 µM against MCF7 and A549 cancer cell lines, respectively. Biological evaluation of these compounds showed that selective cancer cell toxicity (in vitro using human lung and breast cancer cell lines) might be due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes instigating elevated ROS levels which triggers intrinsic apoptotic pathways. These compounds were found nontoxic to the normal human primary cells. Compound 4a, was found to be competitive inhibitor of colchicine and in the tubulin binding assay it showed tubulin polymerization inhibition potential comparable to colchicine. The molecular modeling studies also showed that the synthesized compounds fit well in the colchicine-binding pocket.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bibenzilas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibenzilas/síntese química , Bibenzilas/química , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colorimetria , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Polimerização/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
12.
Bioorg Chem ; 77: 252-262, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421700

RESUMO

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are potential drug candidates for the treatment of various neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression. In the present study, two series of 4-substituted phenylpiperazine and 1-benzhydrylpiperazine (1-21) derivatives were synthesized and screened for their MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitory activity using Amplex Red assay. Most of the synthesized compounds were found selective for MAO-B isoform except compounds 3, 7, 8, 9 and 13 (MAO-A selective) while compound 11 was non-selective. In the current series, compound 12 showed most potent MAO-B inhibitor activity with IC50 value of 80 nM and compound 7 was found to be most potent MAO-A inhibitor with IC50 value of 120 nM and both the compounds were found reversible inhibitors. Compound 8 was found most selective MAO-A inhibitor while compound 20 was found most selective inhibitor for MAO-B isoform. In the cytotoxicity evaluation, all the compounds were found non-toxic to SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 cells at 25 µM concentration. In the ROS studies, compound 8 (MAO-A inhibitor) reduced the ROS level by 51.2% while compound 13 reduced the ROS level by 61.81%. In the molecular dynamic simulation studies for 30 ns, compound 12 was found quite stable in the active cavity of MAO-B. Thus, it can be concluded that phenyl- and 1-benzhydrylpiperazine derivatives are promising MAO inhibitors and can act as a lead to design potent, and selective MAO inhibitors for the treatment of various neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Piperazina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/síntese química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Piperazina/síntese química , Piperazina/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Curr Med Chem ; 24(42): 4729-4752, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393696

RESUMO

Cancer is a multifactorial disease and its genesis and progression are extremely complex. The biggest problem in the anticancer drug development is acquiring of multidrug resistance and relapse. Classical chemotherapeutics directly target the DNA of the cell, while the contemporary anticancer drugs involve molecular-targeted therapy such as targeting the proteins possessing abnormal expression inside the cancer cells. Conventional strategies for the complete eradication of the cancer cells proved ineffective. Targeted chemotherapy was successful in certain malignancies however, the effectiveness has often been limited by drug resistance and side effects on normal tissues and cells. Since last few years, many promising drug targets have been identified for the effective treatment of cancer. The current review article describes some of these promising anticancer targets that include kinases, tubulin, cancer stem cells, monoclonal antibodies and vascular targeting agents. In addition, promising drug candidates under various phases of clinical trials are also described. Multi-acting drugs that simultaneously target different cancer cell signaling pathways may facilitate the process of effective anti-cancer drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química
14.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets ; 17(4): 357-375, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of chemically diverse substances bind to the tubulin and inhibit cell proliferation by disrupting microtubule dynamics. There are four binding sites for the ligands binding to the tubulin; taxane/epothilone and laulimalide/peloruside binding ligands stabilize microtubule while vinca and colchicine binding site agents promote microtubule depolymerization. Most of the tubulin binding ligands disturb the tubulin-microtubule dynamic equilibrium but these may exhibit anticancer activities through different mechanisms. Taxanes and epothilones are widely used cytotoxic agents and are found effective against different types of human malignancies. However, taxanes are susceptible to pgp mediated multi-drug resistance, dose limiting hematopoietic toxicity and cumulative neurotoxicity. Vinca alkaloids are already in clinical practice, but ligands binding to the colchicine site are still in the different stages of clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: In the current review article, plausible mechanistic details about the interactions of ligands at the binding pocket and subsequent changes in the tubulin structure are described. The review article also illustrated different formulations of the tubulin binding agents in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents and their therapeutic potential against various human malignancies. CONCLUSION: Tubulin targeting agents emerged as one of the most successful anticancer drugs and a number of structurally different chemical compounds are in advance stages of clinical development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Ligantes , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Polimerização
15.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 17(2): 148-161, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27280465

RESUMO

Curcumin, a natural yellow phenolic compound, is present in various types of herbs, particularly in Turmeric, Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae family) rhizomes. Curcumin is a polyphenolic natural compound with diverse and attractive biological activities. In the last decade curcumine and its various synthetic analogues have been prepared and evaluated for various pharmacological activities that prove it as a lead molecule against several biological targets. It is a natural antioxidant and exhibited many pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anticancer, anti-Alzheimer in both preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, Curcumin and its analogues have anti-tubercular, cardioprotective, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, antirheumatic and anti-viral activities. The substitutions of 1,6-heptadiene linkage moiety via carbonyl group sustituion and addition of heterocyclic linker; isoxazole, 1H-pyrazole, cyclopentanone, piperidin-4-one, N-methylpiperidin-4-one enhance biological activities. The structure activity relationship of various curcumin analogues is studied for medicinal purposes and it reveals that monocarbonyl linkage analogues have anticancer properties. The current review gives an insight of the history, chemistry, analogues and most interesting in vitro and in vivo studies on the biological effects of Curcumin and its analogues.


Assuntos
Curcumina/síntese química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
16.
Curr Drug Targets ; 18(1): 87-97, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26648064

RESUMO

The monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme is responsible for the deamination of monoamine neurotransmitters and regulates their concentration in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Imbalance in the concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain and central nervous system is linked with the biochemical pathology of various neurogenic disorders. Irreversible MAO inhibitors were the first line drugs developed for the management of severe depression but most of these were withdrawn from the clinical practice due to their fatal side effects including food-drug interactions. New generations of MAO inhibitors were developed which were reversible and selective for one of the enzyme isoform and showed improved pharmacological profile. The discovery of crystal structure of MAO-A & MAO-B isoforms helped in understanding the drug-receptor interactions at the molecular level and designing of ligands with selectivity for either of the isoforms. The current article provides an overview on the MAO enzyme as potential drug target for different disease states. The article describes catalytic mechanism of MAO enzyme, crystal structures of the two MAO isoforms, traditional MAO inhibitors and various problems associated with their use, new developments in the MAO inhibitors and their potential as therapeutic agents especially in neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/uso terapêutico , Monoaminoxidase/química , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Domínio Catalítico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/classificação , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/classificação , Isoformas de Proteínas/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem ; 16(4): 465-89, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26286663

RESUMO

1,2,4-triazole is an important nucleus present in a large number of compounds. More than thirty-five compounds containing this nucleus are introduced into the market. 1,2,4-triazole nucleus is stable to metabolism and acts as an important pharmacophore by interacting at the active site of a receptor as hydrogen bond acceptor and as a donor. Due to its polar nature, the triazole nucleus can increase the solubility of the ligand and it can significantly improve the pharmacological profile of the drug. A large number of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives are reported to possess a wide range of bioactivities including anti-cancer activity. This review article describes the role of 1,2,4-triazole nucleus in different types of anti-cancer agents such as nucleoside based anti-cancer agents, kinase inhibitors, tubulin modulators, aromatase and steroid sulfatase inhibitors, methionine aminopeptidase inhibitors, tankyrase inhibitors and metal complex based anti-cancer agents. It is expected that the current review article will provide insight into various ligand-receptor interactions and help in the rational design and development of novel 1,2,4-triazole based anti-cancer drugs with improved selectivity for cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/química
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