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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682044

RESUMO

The Indian Western Himalayas (IWHs) are a world famous tourist spot, and every year millions of tourists visit this area in fossil fuel-driven vehicles. Emissions from these vehicles persistently deteriorate the pristine environment of the IWHs. Therefore, in the current study, efforts were made to assess the compromised environmental conditions of Manali, Himachal Pradesh, India that resulted from the inflow of tourists and the activities undertaken by them. This study revealed that Manali could sustainably accommodate only 0.305 M tourists/month, and this threshold was reported to be crossed in the months of April, May and June. Furthermore, to augment these findings, water and ambient air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of elemental carbon (EC) from one of the medium tourism potential regions of Manali, i.e., the Hamta glacier. The tributary receiving water from the Hamta glacier and the ambient air of the area was observed to be contaminated with 42 ± 12 ppb and 880 ± 43 µg m-3 of EC, respectively. It was observed that the inhalation and ingestion of EC-contaminated air and water could jeopardize human health due to a high lifetime cancer risk. However, without the intervention of eco-tourism in the study area, higher environmental health effects were also speculated. The observations made in this study are expected to trigger the interests of the researchers, international scientific community and regional authorities working towards the unsustainable development of the IWHs and deteriorating environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Neoplasias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Água
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9586, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688926

RESUMO

The resistance to cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Woll.) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was studied using 114 doubled haploid lines from a novel ITMI mapping population. These lines were screened for nematode infestation in a controlled environment for two years. QTL-mapping analyses were performed across two years (Y1 and Y2) as well as combining two years (CY) data. On the 114 lines that were screened, a total of 2,736 data points (genotype, batch or years, and replication combinations) were acquired. For QTL analysis, 12,093 markers (11,678 SNPs and 415 SSRs markers) were used, after filtering the genotypic data, for the QTL mapping. Composite interval mapping, using Haley-Knott regression (hk) method in R/QTL, was used for QTL analysis. In total, 19 QTLs were detected out of which 13 were novel and six were found to be colocalized or nearby to previously reported Cre genes, QTLs or MTAs for H. avenae or H. filipjevi. Nine QTLs were detected across all three groups (Y1, Y2 and CY) including a significant QTL "QCcn.ha-2D" on chromosome 2D that explains 23% of the variance. This QTL colocalized with a previously identified Cre3 locus. Novel QTL, QCcn.ha-2A, detected in the present study could be the possible unreported homeoloci to QCcn.ha-2D, QCcn.ha-2B.1 and QCcn.ha-2B.2. Six significant digenic epistatic interactions were also observed. In addition, 26 candidate genes were also identified including genes known for their involvement in PPNs (plant parasitic nematodes) resistance in different plant species. In-silico expression of putative candidate genes showed differential expression in roots during specific developmental stages. Results obtained in the present study are useful for wheat breeding to generate resistant genetic resources against H. avenae.


Assuntos
Cistos , Tylenchida , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Grão Comestível , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/genética
3.
JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol ; 9(2): e33521, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring and modifying movement-related joint loading is integral to the management of lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA). Although traditional approaches rely on measurements made within the laboratory or clinical environments, inertial sensors provide an opportunity to quantify these outcomes in patients' natural environments, providing greater ecological validity and opportunities to develop large data sets of movement data for the development of OA interventions. OBJECTIVE: This narrative review aimed to discuss and summarize recent developments in the use of inertial sensors for assessing movement during daily activities in individuals with hip and knee OA and to identify how this may translate to improved remote health care for this population. METHODS: A literature search was performed in November 2018 and repeated in July 2019 and March 2021 using the PubMed and Embase databases for publications on inertial sensors in hip and knee OA published in English within the previous 5 years. The search terms encompassed both OA and wearable sensors. Duplicate studies, systematic reviews, conference abstracts, and study protocols were also excluded. One reviewer screened the search result titles by removing irrelevant studies, and 2 reviewers screened study abstracts to identify studies using inertial sensors as the main sensing technology and a primary outcome related to movement quality. In addition, after the March 2021 search, 2 reviewers rescreened all previously included studies to confirm their relevance to this review. RESULTS: From the search process, 43 studies were determined to be relevant and subsequently included in this review. Inertial sensors have been successfully implemented for assessing the presence and severity of OA (n=11), assessing disease progression risk and providing feedback for gait retraining (n=7), and remotely monitoring intervention outcomes and identifying potential responders and nonresponders to interventions (n=14). In addition, studies have validated the use of inertial sensors for these applications (n=8) and analyzed the optimal sensor placement combinations and data input analysis for measuring different metrics of interest (n=3). These studies show promise for remote health care monitoring and intervention delivery in hip and knee OA, but many studies have focused on walking rather than a range of activities of daily living and have been performed in small samples (<100 participants) and in a laboratory rather than in a real-world environment. CONCLUSIONS: Inertial sensors show promise for remote monitoring, risk assessment, and intervention delivery in individuals with hip and knee OA. Future opportunities remain to validate these sensors in real-world settings across a range of activities of daily living and to optimize sensor placement and data analysis approaches.

4.
Arch Bone Jt Surg ; 10(2): 141-152, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655740

RESUMO

Modern advances in techniques and implants have allowed for a better operative fixation for distal femoral fractures. Both locked plating and retromedullary nail have allowed surgeons to stabilize these fractures with minimal soft tissue dissection and preserve blood supply. Although both the implants have been used extensively for such types of fractures, the superiority of one implant over the other is still doubtful. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to compare locked plating and retrograde intramedullary nailing in distal femoral fractures. Based on prisma guidelines, electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Ovid Medline were searched using a well-defined search strategy. Outcome measures which were studied included blood loss, implant failure, infection, knee range of motion, malunion, non-union, pain, surgical duration and union time Surgical duration (95% CI 2.90 to 17.13, p <0.01) and blood loss (95% CI 69.60 to123.18, p <0.01) favoured plating group and the difference is significant. But while analysing parameters like implant failure, knee range of motion, non-union and union time, our analysis favoured nailing group, but the difference is not significant. Overall, both locked plating and retrograde intramedullary nailing are comparable with respect to union and complications in distal femur fractures, but we need further larger and high quality randomized studies to evaluate the difference.

5.
JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol ; 9(2): e33489, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increasing adoption of high-speed internet and mobile technologies by older adults, digital health is a promising modality to enhance clinical care for people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), including those with knee replacement (KR). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to summarize the current use, cost-effectiveness, and patient and clinician perspectives of digital health for intervention delivery in KOA and KR. METHODS: In this narrative review, search terms such as mobile health, smartphone, mobile application, mobile technology, ehealth, text message, internet, knee osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty, and knee replacement were used in the PubMed and Embase databases between October 2018 and February 2021. The search was limited to original articles published in the English language within the past 10 years. In total, 91 studies were included. RESULTS: Digital health technologies such as websites, mobile apps, telephone calls, SMS text messaging, social media, videoconferencing, and custom multi-technology systems have been used to deliver interventions in KOA and KR populations. Overall, there was significant heterogeneity in the types and applications of digital health used in these populations. Digital patient education improved disease-related knowledge, especially when used as an adjunct to traditional methods of patient education for both KOA and KR. Digital health that incorporated person-specific motivational messages, biofeedback, or patient monitoring was more successful at improving physical activity than self-directed digital interventions for both KOA and KR. Many digital exercise interventions were found to be as effective as in-person physical therapy for people with KOA. Many digital exercise interventions for KR incorporated both in-person and web-based treatments (blended format), communication with clinicians, and multi-technology systems and were successful in improving knee range of motion and self-reported symptoms and reducing the length of hospital stays. All digital interventions that incorporated cognitive behavioral therapy or similar psychological interventions showed significant improvements in knee pain, function, and psychological health when compared with no treatment or traditional treatments for both KOA and KR. Although limited in number, studies have indicated that digital health may be cost-effective for these populations, especially when travel costs are considered. Finally, although patients with KOA and KR and clinicians had positive views on digital health, concerns related to privacy and security and concerns related to logistics and training were raised by patients and clinicians, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For people with KOA and KR, many studies found digital health to be as effective as traditional treatments for patient education, physical activity, and exercise interventions. All digital interventions that incorporated cognitive behavioral therapy or similar psychological treatments were reported to result in significant improvements in patients with KOA and KR when compared with no treatment or traditional treatments. Overall, technologies that were blended and incorporated communication with clinicians, as well as biofeedback or patient monitoring, showed favorable outcomes.

6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10073, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710817

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules that play a regulatory role in gene expression and cancer cell signaling. We previously identified miR-628-5p (miR-628) as a potential biomarker in serum samples from men with prostate cancer (PCa) (Srivastava et al. in Tumour Biol 35:4867-4873, 10.1007/s13277-014-1638-1, 2014). This study examined the detailed cellular phenotypes and pathways regulated by miR-628 in PCa cells. Since obesity is a significant risk factor for PCa, and there is a correlation between levels of the obesity-associated hormone leptin and PCa development, here we investigated the functional relationship between leptin and miR-628 regulation in PCa. We demonstrated that exposure to leptin downregulated the expression of miR-628 and increased cell proliferation/migration in PCa cells. We next studied the effects on cancer-related phenotypes in PCa cells after altering miR-628 expression levels. Enforced expression of miR-628 in PCa cells inhibited cell proliferation, reduced PCa cell survival/migration/invasion/spheroid formation, and decreased markers of cell stemness. Mechanistically, miR-628 binds with the JAG1-3'UTR and inhibits the expression of Jagged-1 (JAG1). JAG1 inhibition by miR-628 downregulated Notch signaling, decreased the expression of Snail/Slug, and modulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness in PC3 cells. Furthermore, expression of miR-628 in PCa cells increased sensitivity towards the drugs enzalutamide and docetaxel by induction of cell apoptosis. Collectively our data suggest that miR-628 is a key regulator of PCa carcinogenesis and is modulated by leptin, offering a novel therapeutic opportunity to inhibit the growth of advanced PCa.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Próstata , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteína Jagged-1/genética , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
7.
Front Genet ; 13: 914029, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719377

RESUMO

Annually, the cost of insect pest control in agriculture crosses billions of dollars around the world. Until recently, broad-spectrum synthetic pesticides were considered as the most effective means of pest control in agriculture. However, over the years, the overreliance on pesticides has caused adverse effects on beneficial insects, human health and the environment, and has led to the development of pesticide resistant insects. There is a critical need for the development of alternative pest management strategies aiming for minimum use of pesticides and conservation of natural enemies for maintaining the ecological balance of the environment. Host plant resistance plays a vital role in integrated pest management but the development of insect-resistant varieties through conventional ways of host plant resistance takes time, and is challenging as it involves many quantitative traits positioned at various loci. Biotechnological approaches such as gene editing, gene transformation, marker-assisted selection etc. in this direction have recently opened up a new era of insect control options. These could contribute towards about exploring a much wider array of novel insecticidal genes that would otherwise be beyond the scope of conventional breeding. Biotechnological interventions can alter the gene expression level and pattern as well as the development of transgenic varieties with insecticidal genes and can improve pest management by providing access to novel molecules. This review will discuss the emerging biotechnological tools available to develop insect-resistant engineered crop genotypes with a better ability to resist the attack of insect pests.

8.
Med Pharm Rep ; 95(2): 209-213, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721042

RESUMO

Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) usually presents as fever, anemia, leukopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and pulmonary symptoms. There are few reports on the association of idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) with histoplasmosis. We describe a 65-year-old female presented with a history of fever, papulo-nodular rash and significant weight loss and diagnosed as progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. All immunocompromised conditions were ruled out. In addition, her 2 consecutive CD4 counts were below 300. The patient was diagnosed with PDH associated with ICL. The patient showed significant improvement with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole. Absolute CD4 counts should be done in all cases of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis even in HIV negative individuals to rule out associated ICL.

9.
IJID Reg ; 2: 1-7, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721436

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 emerged as a global pandemic in 2020, spreading rapidly to most parts of the world. The proportion of infected individuals in a population can be reliably estimated via serosurveillance, making it a valuable tool for planning control measures. Our serosurvey study aimed to investigate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the urban population of Hyderabad at the end of the first wave of infections. Methods: This cross-sectional survey, conducted in January 2021 and including males and females aged 10 years and above, used multi-stage random sampling. 9363 samples were collected from 30 wards distributed over six zones of Hyderabad, and tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen. Results: Overall seropositivity was 54.2%, ranging from 50% to 60% in most wards. Highest exposure appeared to be among those aged 30-39 and 50-59 years, with women showing greater seropositivity. Seropositivity increased with family size, with only marginal differences among people with varying levels of education. Seroprevalence was significantly lower among smokers. Only 11% of the survey subjects reported any COVID-19 symptoms, while 17% had appeared for COVID-19 testing. Conclusion: Over half the city's population was infected within a year of onset of the pandemic. However, ∼ 46% of people remained susceptible, contributing to subsequent waves of infection.

10.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705439

RESUMO

The global pandemic of COVID-19 began in December 2019 and is still continuing. The past 2 years have seen the emergence of several variants that were more vicious than each other. The emergence of Omicron (B.1.1.529) proved to be a huge epidemiological concern as the rate of infection of this particular strain was enormous. The strain was identified in South Africa on November 24, 2021 and was classified as a 'Variant of Concern' on November 26, 2021. The Omicron variant possessed mutations in the key RBD region, the S region, thereby increasing the affinity of ACE2 for better transmission of the virus. Antibody resistance was found in this variant and it was able to reduce vaccine efficiency of vaccines. The need for a booster vaccine was brought forth due to the prevalence of the Omicron variant and, subsequently, this led to targeted research and development of variant-specific vaccines and booster dosage. This review discusses broadly the genomic characters and features of Omicron along with its specific mutations, evolution, antibody resistance, and evasion, utilization of CRISPR-Cas12a assay for Omicron detection, T-cell immunity elicited by vaccines against Omicron, and strategies to decrease Omicron infection along with COVID-19 and it also discusses on XE recombinant variant and on infectivity of BA.2 subvariant of Omicron. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy of oral vs. intravenous calcium supplementation for continuation therapy in hypocalcemic seizures. METHODS: Sixty children between 1 mo and 5 y presenting with hypocalcemic seizures without any other underlying febrile, chronic systemic disease, or acute neurological illness were included. Participants were randomized to receive either intravenous (IV) 10% calcium gluconate (n = 30) or oral elemental calcium (n = 30) for 48 h following initial seizure control with intravenous calcium. RESULTS: Seizures recurred in 3 (10%) children in IV group as compared to 4 (13.3%) in oral calcium group (p = 0.278) within 48 h. Serum calcium levels achieved in the two treatment groups at 24 h [7.96 (1.32) vs. 8.23 (1.58) mg/dL; p = 0.476] and 48 h [8.5 (1.01) vs. 8.63 (1.39) mg/dL; p = 0.681] were comparable. CONCLUSION: Oral calcium may be as efficacious as intravenous calcium during continuation phase of treating hypocalcemic seizures; however, further studies are needed for definite recommendations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Registration number: CTRI/2017/12/011042.

12.
Food Funct ; 13(12): 6545-6559, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647619

RESUMO

Flavonoids exhibit several biological activities including inhibition of Monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that metabolizes several neurotransmitters. Thus, MAO inhibitors are well included in traditional therapeutic practices to fine-tune neuromotor behavior. This study aims to isolate flavonoids from a less explored plant of northeast India, named Indian olive (Elaeocarpus floribundus; Ef, family Elaeocarpaceae), and evaluate their MAO inhibitory properties. Four flavonoids from Ef leaf extract, namely, myricitrin, mearnsitrin, myricetin, and mearnsetin, are taken into consideration. Spectrofluorimetric assay is carried out to determine the MAO inhibitory properties. Next, in vitro and in vivo toxicity studies are performed in neuronal cell line and Drosophila, respectively. Furthermore, MAO inhibition by the selected compounds and their effect on dopamine levels are examined in the mouse brain. We evaluated the therapeutic potential in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in terms of behavior, neurotransmitter levels, and dopaminergic neuronal loss. In an in vitro setup, all four compounds inhibited total MAO, whereas myricitrin exhibited some selectivity against MAO-B at 100 µM. Myricitrin and mearnsitrin exhibited no toxicity, in vitro or in vivo. However, only myricitrin inhibited MAO in the mouse brain and elevated dopamine levels. Myricitrin was able to attenuate motor incoordination in the mouse model of PD and improved dopamine levels in the striatum.


Assuntos
Elaeocarpaceae , Olea , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Elaeocarpaceae/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Camundongos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Olea/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo
13.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713482

RESUMO

Carcinoma, characterized by abnormal growth of cells and tissue, is a ubiquitously leading cause of mortality across the globe due to some carcinogenic factors. Currently, several anticancer agents are commercially available in the global market. However, due to their resistance and cost, researchers are gaining more interest in developing newer novel potential anticancer agents. In the search for new drugs for clinical use, the tetrazole ring system has emerged as an exciting prospect in the optimization studies of promising lead molecules. Among the various heterocyclic agents, tetrazole-containing compounds have shown significant promise in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, particularly cancer. Here, in this review, we focused on several synthetic approaches for the synthesis of tetrazole analogues, their targets for treating cancer along with the biological activity of some of the recently reported tetrazole-containing anticancer agents.

14.
Med Princ Pract ; 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical spectrum of systemic nocardiosis encompasses pulmonary and disseminated disease. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is an important feature of disseminated disease with significant mortality and high relapse rate, especially in those with suppressed cell-mediated immunity. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, therapeutic interventions, and outcome in patients with CNS nocardiosis. METHODS: The literature search was performed in major databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus) by using distinct keywords: "CNS disease," "Nocardia," "meningitis," "brain abscess," "disseminated disease," and "Cotrimoxazole." All patients ≥18 years with CNS nocardiosis reported between January 2000 to December 2020 were included. RESULTS: A total of 129 articles were included in the final analysis. The mean age of patients was 55±16 years, and the majority were male (70.8%). Nocardia farcinica was the commonest species (39.6%), followed by Nocardia nova (5.9%). Thirty-four percent of the patients were found to be immunocompetent. Corticosteroid use was the most common predisposing factor (55.8%). Among neuroimaging findings, brain abscess was most common (86.9%), followed by leptomeningeal enhancement (12.1%). The overall case-fatality rate in CNS disease was 22.8%. On multivariate analysis, patients underwent surgery (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.99-4.11, p-value 0.046) had better survival than those treated with antimicrobial therapy alone. Immunodeficient state (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.90, p-value 0.019) was independently associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: CNS nocardiosis carries significant mortality, particularly in immunodeficient patients. We advocate the use of surgery in the combination of antimicrobials to improve clinical outcome.

15.
Food Policy ; 110: 102278, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638083

RESUMO

Federal and state governments in developing countries have tasked local governments with managing COVID-19 on the ground. The bottom-up approach is critical to ensuring household food security, especially in rural areas. We have utilized data from a panel of Indian households that participated in two rounds of a livelihoods survey. While the first round was fielded before COVID-19, the second round was conducted telephonically after the COVID-19-lockdown. We developed an Information Management Response Index (IMRI) to measure the strength of local governments' information management initiatives. The difference-in-difference estimates show that local governments could partially mitigate the pandemic's adverse effects on (a) level and distribution (adult-equivalent per-capita) of food and nutrition expenditure and (b) household vulnerability to food and nutrition poverty. For landless households, IMRI led to statistically significant and additional welfare effects. Three channels explain our empirical findings: (a) maintenance of essential commodities through fair-price shops, (b) access to paid employment and cash (income effect), and (c) disease management (substitution effect). The estimates have been adjusted for sample attrition and multiple-hypothesis correction. We conducted robustness checks with respect to index construction, instrumental variable estimation, and sub-group analysis.

16.
Phys Chem Earth (2002) ; 127: 103163, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35637679

RESUMO

Observing the earth and environmental conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown along with travel restrictions headed to worse circumstance. These scenarios amplified the hurdles of flood management. In order to resolves these issues, an efficient and resilient geospatial framework with unconventional systems is also required for the generation of instantaneous results. Hence to avoid these deficiencies, the google earth engine based computational system integrated with analytical tools for large-scale data handling is introduced for the earth and environmental monitoring applications. The present study proposes a working model for geospatial data processing to understand socio-demographic implications with a web-based analytical interface. The research introduces a histogram-based thresholding approach for real-time surface water mapping along with precise data processing and analysis for automated monitoring. The study integrates geospatial datasets to a enhanced data processing methods in a web-based platform to deliver the required results for extensive planning and decision making. Furthermore, a similar type of work can be undertaken for other disaster management applications.

17.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 101236, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500734

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension is one of the difficult situations to treat. Complex pathophysiology, association of the multiple comorbidities make clinical scenario challenging. Recently it is being shown that patients who had recovered from coronavirus disease infection, are at risk of developing pulmonary hypertension. Studies on animals have been going on to find out newer treatment options. There are recent advancements in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Role of anticoagulation, recombinant fusion proteins, stem cell therapy are emerging as therapeutic options for affected patients. SGLT2 inhibitors have potential to have beneficial effects on pulmonary hypertension. Apart from the medical managements, advanced interventions are also getting popular. In this review article, the authors have discussed pathophysiology, recent advancement of treatments including coronavirus disease patients, and future aspect of managing pulmonary hypertension. We have highlighted treatment options for patients with sleep apnea, interstitial lung disease to discuss the challenges and possible options to manage those patients.

18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35633293

RESUMO

AIMS: Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have recently demonstrated the significant role of phage therapy in treating multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. However, only a few researchers have focused on monitoring the phage-mediated adverse reactions during phage therapy. The present study aimed to demonstrated the oral acute and sub-acute toxicity of bacteriophages (Klebsiella pneumoniae XDR strain) in Charles Foster rats with special reference to immunological response and adverse effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacteriophages were orally administered in dosages of 1010  PFU/ml and a 1015  PFU/ml to Charles Foster rats as a single dose (in acute toxicity study) and daily dosage for 28 days (in sub-acute toxicity study). One millilitre suspension of bacteriophages was administered through the oral gavage feeding tube. No adverse effect was observed in any of the experimental as well as in the control animals. Furthermore, an insignificant change in food and water intake and body weight was observed throughout the study period compared with the control group rats. On the 28th day of phage administration, blood was collected to estimate haematological, biochemical and cytokines parameters. The data suggested no difference in the haematological, biochemical and cytokine profiles compared to the control group. No significant change in any of the treatment groups could be observed on the gross and histopathological examinations. The cytokines estimated, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, were found within the normal range during the experiment. CONCLUSIONS: The results concluded that no adverse effect, including the severe detrimental impact on oral administration of high (1010 PFU/ml) and very high dose (1015  PFU/ml) of the bacteriophages cocktail. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: The high and long-term oral administration of bacteriophages did not induce noticeable immunological response as well.

19.
Gene ; 831: 146561, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561845

RESUMO

Virus infection alters host gene expression, therefore ideal and stable reference housekeeping genes are required to normalise the expression of other expressed host genes in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The suitable reference gene may vary in response to different viral infections in different hosts or cells. In the present study, we cultured primary lamb testis cells (LTC) and assessed the expression stability of seven widely used housekeeping genes (B2M, HMBS, HPRT1, HSP-90, POLR2A, 18s_RNA, GAPDH) as reference genes in Sheeppox virus (SPPV) infected and control (uninfected-0h) LTC at 0.5h, 4.0h, 8.0h, and 12.0h post-infection) using NormFinder, Bestkeeper, geNorm, and the comparative ΔCT method in RefFinder based on their expression levels. Analysis revealed that HSP90, 18s_RNA, HPRT, POLR2A, and B2M were the most stable genes from the panel in the individual analysis group in 0h, 0.5h, 4.0h, 8.0h, and 12.0h, respectively. Furthermore, B2M was shown to be the most stable reference gene in the combined control with the respective and overall infected groups, except the control group of 4.0hpi of SPPV infection. In this study, we selected the most suitable reference genes in LTC for particular time points of SPPV infection. The identified most suitable housekeeping gene can be used during normalization of expression of other targeted genes at aspecific time point of SPPV infection.


Assuntos
Capripoxvirus , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Padrões de Referência , Ovinos/genética , Testículo
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