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1.
Indian J Med Res ; 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775566

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Serology testing is essential for immunological surveillance in the population. This serosurvey was conducted to ascertain the cumulative population immunity against SARS-CoV-2 among adults in Jammu district and to understand the association of seropositivity with sociodemographic and clinical correlates. Methods: On September 30 and October 1, 2020, a household survey was done in 20 villages/wards chosen from 10 health blocks in district Jammu, India. Demographic, clinical and exposure information was collected from 2000 adults. Serum samples were screened for IgG antibodies using COVID Kavach MERILISA kit. Tests of association were used to identify risk factors associated with IgG positivity. Crude odds ratio with 95 per cent confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated during univariate analysis followed by logistic regression. Results: Overall adjusted seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 was 8.8 per cent (95% CI: 8.78-8.82); it varied from 4.1 per cent in Chauki choura to 16.7 per cent Pallanwalla across 10 blocks in the district. Seropositivity was observed to be comparatively higher in 41-50 and 61-70 yr age groups, among males and in rural areas. Fever, sore throat, cough, dyspnoea, myalgias, anosmia, ageusia, fatigue, seizures, history of exposure, medical consultation, hospitalization and missing work showed significant association with seropositivity on univariate analysis. On logistic regression, only sore throat, myalgia and missing work showed significant adjusted odds of IgG positivity. Extrapolation to adult population suggested that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 was 14.4 times higher than reported cases, translating into Infection fatality rate of 0.08 per cent. Interpretation & conclusions: Since a major part of population was immunologically naive, all efforts to contain COVID-19 need to be vigorously followed while these baseline results provide an important yardstick to monitor the trends of COVID-19 and guide locally appropriate control strategies in the region.

2.
Chemosphere ; 303(Pt 3): 135166, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659936

RESUMO

The presence of heavy metal ions in the biosphere is of grave concern, as these are toxic and impact living organisms. Lack of pure drinking water can spread waterborne diseases like cholera, dysentery, typhoid, etc. The presence of heavy metals like arsenic and radioactive materials can cause cancer. The detection and removal of these heavy metals are important for sustaining life. Herein, MXene comes to the rescue as a crucial and potential material, which can sense and adsorb heavy metal ions. Developed in 2011, MXenes are an emerging class of 2D nanomaterials that are appropriate substitutes for existing heavy metal ions sensing materials and have shown excellent efficiency due to their better hydrophilicity, capacity of transportation of electrons, functionalization, and a great variety in compositions as compared to the other nanomaterials properties. This work gives an insight into the chemistry and synthesis of MXenes for further utilization as a sensor in heavy metal ions toxicity and underlines the key future challenges to knowing the full prospective of MXenes in environmental systems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Nanoestruturas , Íons/química , Metais Pesados/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Phytomedicine ; 103: 154204, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic failure and drug resistance are common sequelae to insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Consequently, there is an unmet need of alternative strategies to overcome insulin resistance associated complications. PURPOSE: To demonstrate whether Kutkin (KT), iridoid glycoside enriched fraction of Picrorhiza kurroa extract (PKE) has potential to increase the insulin sensitivity vis à vis glucose uptake in differentiated adipocytes. METHODS: Molecular interaction of KT phytoconstituents, picroside-I (P-I) & picroside- II (P-II) with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt) were analyzed in silico. Cellular viability and adipogenesis were determined by following 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Oil Red-O staining. Further, ELISA kit based triglycerides and diacylglycerol-O-Acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) were assessed in differentiated adipocytes. ELISA based determination were performed to check the levels of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). However, Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence based assays were employed to measure the glucose uptake and glucose transporter 4 (glut4) expression in differentiated adipocytes, respectively. Further to explore the targeted signaling axis, mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (CEBPα), and glut4 were determined using qRT-PCR and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2), PI3K/Akt, AS160, glut4 followed by protein validation using immunoblotting in differentiated adipocytes. RESULTS: In silico analysis revealed the binding affinities of major constituents of KT (P-I& P-II) with PPARγ/PI3K/Akt. The enhanced intracellular accumulation of triglycerides with concomitant activation of PPARγ and C/EBPα in KT treated differentiated adipocytes indicates augmentation of adipogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, at cellular level, KT upregulated the expression of DAGT1, and decreases fatty acid synthase (FAS), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), further affirmed improvement in lipid milieu. It was also observed that KT upregulated the levels of adiponectin and reduced TNFα expression, thus improving the secretory functions of adipocytes along with enhanced insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, KT significantly promoted insulin mediated glucose uptake by increasing glut4 translocation to the membrane via PI3/Akt signaling cascade. The results were further validated using PI3K specific inhibitor, wortmannin and findings revealed that KT treatment significantly enhanced the expression and activation of p-PI3K/PI3K and p-Akt/Akt even in case of treatment with PI3K inhibitor wortmannin alone and co-treatment with KT in differentiated adipocytes and affirmed that KT as activator of PI3K/Akt axis in the presence of inhibitor as well. CONCLUSION: Collectively, KT fraction of PKE showed anti-diabetic effects by enhancing glucose uptake in differentiated adipocytes via activation of PI3K/Akt signaling cascade. Therefore, KT may be used as a promising novel natural therapeutic agent for managing T2DMand to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report, showing the efficacy and potential molecular mechanism of KT in enhancing insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in differentiated adipocytes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Picrorhiza , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Cinamatos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Glicosídeos , Glicosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Vanílico , Wortmanina/farmacologia
4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 708335, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35655999

RESUMO

Agricultural productivity is highly influenced by its associated microbial community. With advancements in omics technology, metagenomics is known to play a vital role in microbial world studies by unlocking the uncultured microbial populations present in the environment. Metagenomics is a diagnostic tool to target unique signature loci of plant and animal pathogens as well as beneficial microorganisms from samples. Here, we reviewed various aspects of metagenomics from experimental methods to techniques used for sequencing, as well as diversified computational resources, including databases and software tools. Exhaustive focus and study are conducted on the application of metagenomics in agriculture, deciphering various areas, including pathogen and plant disease identification, disease resistance breeding, plant pest control, weed management, abiotic stress management, post-harvest management, discoveries in agriculture, source of novel molecules/compounds, biosurfactants and natural product, identification of biosynthetic molecules, use in genetically modified crops, and antibiotic-resistant genes. Metagenomics-wide association studies study in agriculture on crop productivity rates, intercropping analysis, and agronomic field is analyzed. This article is the first of its comprehensive study and prospects from an agriculture perspective, focusing on a wider range of applications of metagenomics and its association studies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674977

RESUMO

Exponential industrialization and anthropogenic activities have resulted in water contamination by various heavy metals in Kanpur city, India. Heavy metal pollution, an issue of great concern, is not only affecting river water, but contamination of groundwater is creating health issues and worries. In the present investigation, blood samples were collected from selected volunteers, water and sediment samples from four sites of river Ganga and drinking groundwater samples from 23 locations of Kanpur city. Heavy metals analysis in river water, sediment, and human blood, was done by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used for groundwater samples. Human blood showed a high concentration of arsenic (As) (66.6 ± 0.00 and 76.9 ± 0.01 µg L-1 in males and female subjects, respectively) and thallium (Tl) (13.4 ± 0.004 and 16.6 ± 0.005 µg L-1 in males and female subjects, respectively) with higher concentrations in females than males. Other heavy metals (Nickle, Beryllium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Lithium, Molybdenum, Lead) were not observed in any of the tested human blood samples. However, in groundwater sampling, iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and arsenic (As) were detected, one sample had the presence of chromium (Cr), and two samples showed lead (Pb) contamination. River water [Cu (32-125 µg L-1), Cr (19-725 µg L-1), Cd (1-59 µg L-1), Pb (37-163 µg L-1), As (32-153 µg L-1), Th (26.75 µg L-1)] showed a high level of the heavy metals, as compared to reference values of BIS, CPCB (2016a), WHO, EPA and USEPA. River sediment [Cu (4168-34,470 µg Kg-1), Cr (4040-145,650 µg Kg-1), Cd (326-5340 µg Kg-1), Pb (1840-19,350 µg Kg-1), As (103-188 µg Kg-1)] also showed high concentration when compared to reference values of USEPA and PASS. River site 4, with high Cr (725 µg L-1), also showed Cr levels (19.8 µg L-1) in the groundwater samples, indicating Cr contamination in groundwater while Pb was observed at groundwater samples close to two industrial sites. Drinking water might be the primary exposure pathway for As and Tl to enter the human body. The study recommends periodic monitoring of river water, sediment, groundwater, and human blood samples for contamination of heavy metals.

6.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684416

RESUMO

Cholesterol is essential for normal human health, but elevations in its serum levels have led to the development of various complications, including hypercholesterolemia (HC). Cholesterol accumulation in blood circulation formsplaques on artery walls and worsens the individuals' health. To overcome this complication, different pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches are employed to reduce elevated blood cholesterol levels. Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are the most commonly used drugs, but their prolonged use leads to several acute side effects. In recent decades, the potential benefit of ingesting yogurt on lipid profile has attracted the interest of researchers and medical professionals worldwide. This review aims to give an overview of the current knowledge about HC and the different therapeutic approaches. It also discusses the health benefits of yogurt consumption and highlights the overlooked phyto-enrichment option to enhance the yogurt's quality. Finally, clinical studies using different phyto-enriched yogurts for HC management are also reviewed. Yogurt has a rich nutritional value, but its processing degrades the content of minerals, vitamins, and other vital constituents with beneficial health effects. The option of enriching yogurt with phytoconstituents has drawn a lot of attention. Different pre-clinical and clinical studies have provided new insights on their benefits on gut microbiota and human health. Thus, the yogurtphyto-enrichment with stanol and ß-glucan have opened new paths in functional food industries and found healthy andeffective alternatives for HC all along with conventional treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hipercolesterolemia , Colesterol , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Iogurte
7.
Cureus ; 14(5): e24896, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698713

RESUMO

Background Intertrochanteric fractures are common injuries among the elderly population and those with osteoporosis. The study was conducted in order to evaluate the outcome of Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation II (PFN-A2) in the treatment of these fractures in elderly patients. Methods Twenty-five elderly patients (range 60 to 73 years) with trochanteric fractures who were treated with PFN-A2 at Government Medical College Amritsar were included in this prospective observational study. These patients were followed up regularly until six months post-operatively. The functional and radiological evaluations were done at six, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. The functional outcome was evaluated using the Harris Hip Score (HHS). Results The mean age incidence for trochanteric fractures was 64 years. There were no cases of intra-operative and postoperative femoral fractures. The mean operating time was 85.6 minutes. Radiological union was seen in all of the 25 patients. The mean time for fracture union time in our study was 13.8 weeks. The average Harris Hip Score in our study was calculated at three months as 74.3 and at six months as 85.08. The p-value was highly significant (0.001) for this improved outcome. This study found PFN-A2 related secondary varus deformities in 8.0% of the patients (two patients). Only one patient (4%) developed surgical site infection (SSI). Conclusion PFN-A2 provides adequate functional results in terms of fixation and healing. This can be further enhanced by good pre-operative planning, correct technique of entry point, and meticulous placement of implant with a helical blade in both anteroposterior (AP), lateral view, and distal locking and non-acceptance of reduction in varus. A good reduction is required to achieve a good functional outcome. We conclude that the PFN-A2 has the benefit of closed reduction, short operative time, preservation of biology, less soft tissue damage, and early rehab.

8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9687, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690657

RESUMO

Dysarthria is an early symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) which has been proposed for detection and monitoring of the disease with potential for telehealth. However, with inherent differences between voices of different people, computerized analysis have not demonstrated high performance that is consistent for different datasets. The aim of this study was to improve the performance in detecting PD voices and test this with different datasets. This study has investigated the effectiveness of three groups of phoneme parameters, i.e. voice intensity variation, perturbation of glottal vibration, and apparent vocal tract length (VTL) for differentiating people with PD from healthy subjects using two public databases. The parameters were extracted from five sustained phonemes; /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/, recorded from 50 PD patients and 50 healthy subjects of PC-GITA dataset. The features were statistically investigated, and then classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM). This was repeated on Viswanathan dataset with smartphone-based recordings of /a/, /o/, and /m/ of 24 PD and 22 age-matched healthy people. VTL parameters gave the highest difference between voices of people with PD and healthy subjects; classification accuracy with the five vowels of PC-GITA dataset was 84.3% while the accuracy for other features was between 54% and 69.2%. The accuracy for Viswanathan's dataset was 96.0%. This study has demonstrated that VTL obtained from the recording of phonemes using smartphone can accurately identify people with PD. The analysis was fully computerized and automated, and this has the potential for telehealth diagnosis for PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Telemedicina , Voz , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
9.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35744989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Himalayan Viola species (Banksha) are traditionally important herbs with versatile therapeutic benefits such as antitussive, analgesic, antipyretic, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancerous ones. The current investigation was focused on exploring polyphenolic profiles, antioxidant, and antimicrobial potentials of wild viola species at 15 gradient locations (375-1829 m). METHODS: Morphological, physiochemical, and proximate analyses were carried out as per WHO guidelines for plant drug standardization. Total polyphenolic and flavonoid content were carried out using gallic acid and rutin equivalent. UPLC-DAD was used to profile the targeted polyphenols (gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, rutin, quercetin, luteolin, caffeic acid, and epicatechin). Similarly, all samples were screened for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Statistical analysis was used to correlate polyphenolic and targeted activities to assess Viola species adaptation behavior patterns. RESULTS: Viola canescens (V. canescens) and Viola pilosa (V. pilosa) were found abundantly at their respective sites. Among flowers and leaves, flowers of V. canescens and V. pilosa showed higher total polyphenolic and flavonoid content (51.4 ± 1.13 mg GAE/g and 65.05 ± 0.85 mg RE/g, and 33.26 ± 0.62 mg GAE/g and 36.10 ± 1.41 mg RE/g, respectively). Furthermore, UPLC-DAD showed the uppermost content of p-coumaric acid in flowers and ferulic acid in leaves, while rutin was significant in both the tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The adaptive behavior of Viola species showed variability in morphological characters with the altitudes, while targeted polyphenols and activities were significant at mid-altitudes. This research helps in the selection of right chemotype for agrotechnological interventions and the development of nutraceutical products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Viola , Adaptação Psicológica , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Rutina , Especiarias/análise , Viola/química
10.
J Food Sci Technol ; 59(7): 2751-2763, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734103

RESUMO

Abstract: The antioxidant activity in tea is largely driven by its polyphenolic content, however, the antioxidant reaction mechanism and the compounds involved are not well characterized. Therefore, in this study, we performed in-depth profiling of the antioxidant reaction mechanism of Green Tea (GT), Black Tea (BT), and their polyphenolic fractions with free radical using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. The polyphenol enriched fractions from GT and BT were isolated using column chromatography. Catechins were isolated and characterized by diverse spectroscopic techniques. Samples were screened for their antioxidant activity by HPTLC and further evaluated using a spectrophotometer. The free radical reactions with GT, BT, enriched fractions viz, GT Polyphenols (GTP), BT Polyphenols (BTP), and isolated catechins were studied using the 13C NMR technique. The highest polyphenol content was found in GTP (795.4 ± 0.012 mg/g) whereas GT (321.0 ± 0.028 mg/g) showed maximum flavonoids content. Individual catechins isolated from GTP were EGCG, ECG, EGC, EC and C. Antioxidant activity followed the order EGCG > ECG > EGC > EC > GTP > C > BTP > GT > BT. In GT, the antioxidant reaction mechanism showed single electron and H-transfer in all catechins, which involved the transformation of the hydroxyl group to the carbonyl group. Whereas in BT theaflavins, conversion of the benzotropolone ring to the six-membered ring was observed. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-021-05297-w.

11.
J Pediatr Intensive Care ; 11(2): 100-104, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734214

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) with total serum bilirubin (TSB) and to find out the effect of phototherapy on correlation of TcB and TSB during and after phototherapy in Indian neonates. Prospective observational study was performed at neonatal intensive care unit of Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai, Etawah, India. Blood samples for TSB estimation of 276 jaundiced neonates were sent, and simultaneously, TcB was measured at forehead and sternum on admission and 12 hourly till discontinuation of phototherapy as per the American Academy of Pediatrics nomogram chart and their correlation was assessed. The effect of phototherapy on correlation of TcB and TSB during and after phototherapy was also observed. The correlation between TSB and TcB was linear and significant for the entire study population over forehead (Pearson's r = 0.802, R 2 = 0.644, p < 0.001) as well as over sternum (Pearson's r = 0.825, R 2 = 0.681, p < 0.001) before starting the phototherapy. This correlation becomes slightly lower for TSB versus TcB forehead (Pearson's r = 0.753, R 2 = 0.568, p < 0.001) and for TSB versus TcB sternum (Pearson's r = 0.754, R 2 = 0.569, p < 0.001) after giving phototherapy for at least 24 hours. The correlation coefficients for TSB versus TcB measurements over forehead and sternum were 0.758 and 0.806, respectively, after 36 hours of phototherapy. TcB measurements using the transcutaneous bilirubinometer correlate closely with TSB levels, so it can be used as an easy and rapid noninvasive method of bilirubin measurement in jaundiced neonates.

12.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25021, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719765

RESUMO

This paper describes the workflow of transperineal prostate biopsy (TBx) using the single-sided, low-field Promaxo MRI system (Promaxo Inc., Oakland, California, United States) operating at a field strength ranging between 58 and 74 millitesla (mT). Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer-related death and the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Systematic biopsy (SBx) with 12-14 cores is the preferred standard of care procedure. The blinded approach of SBx, however, results in several shortcomings, including high rates of false negatives and increased infection rates due to the transrectal approach. The evolution of clinical use and scientific research using different prostate biopsy modalities is discussed, including the potential for the Promaxo MRI system to mitigate logistical constraints often associated with standard magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy through the utilization of an office-based, low-field MRI.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 904392, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720556

RESUMO

Heat stress is one of the significant constraints affecting wheat production worldwide. To ensure food security for ever-increasing world population, improving wheat for heat stress tolerance is needed in the presently drifting climatic conditions. At the molecular level, heat stress tolerance in wheat is governed by a complex interplay of various heat stress-associated genes. We used a comparative transcriptome sequencing approach to study the effect of heat stress (5°C above ambient threshold temperature of 20°C) during grain filling stages in wheat genotype K7903 (Halna). At 7 DPA (days post-anthesis), heat stress treatment was given at four stages: 0, 24, 48, and 120 h. In total, 115,656 wheat genes were identified, including 309 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in many critical processes, such as signal transduction, starch synthetic pathway, antioxidant pathway, and heat stress-responsive conserved and uncharacterized putative genes that play an essential role in maintaining the grain filling rate at the high temperature. A total of 98,412 Simple Sequences Repeats (SSR) were identified from de novo transcriptome assembly of wheat and validated. The miRNA target prediction from differential expressed genes was performed by psRNATarget server against 119 mature miRNA. Further, 107,107 variants including 80,936 Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and 26,171 insertion/deletion (Indels) were also identified in de novo transcriptome assembly of wheat and wheat genome Ensembl version 31. The present study enriches our understanding of known heat response mechanisms during the grain filling stage supported by discovery of novel transcripts, microsatellite markers, putative miRNA targets, and genetic variant. This enhances gene functions and regulators, paving the way for improved heat tolerance in wheat varieties, making them more suitable for production in the current climate change scenario.

14.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg ; 21(2): 620-626, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712404

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the suture versus sutureless surgery in impacted mandibular third molar and to evaluate the morbidity and complications associated with each technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients with asymptomatic impacted mandibular third molars were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Radiographs were taken to assess the angulation and degree of eruption in the third molar. A small modified Szmyd, V-shaped flap was raised in all cases, and teeth were extracted. In Group I-Suture group (suture was used to close the flap), and in Group II-Sutureless group (no suture used to close the flap). The post-operative pain, swelling, trismus, haemorrhage, periodontal pocket, and alveolar osteitis were evaluated at 24 h, 48 h, 5th days, 7th days, and 2 weeks after surgery. The statistical analysis was done using the Chi-square "t" test and Independent Samples "t" test. Observations and Results: Pain, swelling, and trismus were found to be significantly reduced especially in the immediate post-operative period in the sutureless group as compared to the suture group (p < 0.001). There were no incidences of intra-operative and post-operative haemorrhage in any case. Follow-up of all the patients showed that there was no difference in periodontal sequelae and alveolar osteitis. Conclusions: Sutureless surgery with small flap was found to be less invasive, time-saving, and also a cost-effective method. This technique significantly reduced the early crucial phase of patient discomfort and demonstrates good results.

15.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 846937, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712605

RESUMO

Black pepper (Piper nigrum), the "King of Spices," is an economically important spice in India and is known for its medicinal and cultural values. SSRs, the tandem repeats of small DNA sequences, are often polymorphic in nature with diverse applications. For population structure, QTL/gene discovery, MAS, and diversity analysis, it is imperative to have their location specificity. The existing PinigSSRdb catalogs ~70K putative SSR markers but these are anonymous (unknown chromosomal location), based on 916 scaffolds rather than 26 chromosomes. Under this study, we generated ddRAD sequence data of 29 black pepper genotypes from all over India, being low-cost and most efficient technique for the identification of polymorphic markers. The major limitation of ddRAD with compromised/non-uniform coverage has been successfully overcome by taking advantage of chromosome-wise data availability. The latest black pepper genome assembly was used to extract genome-wide SSRs. A total of 276,230 genomic SSRs were mined distributed over 26 chromosomes, with relative density of 362.88 SSRs/Mb and average distance of 2.76 Kb between two SSRs. This assembly was also used to find the polymorphic SSRs in the generated GBS data of 29 black pepper genotypes utilizing rapid and cost-effective method giving 3,176 polymorphic SSRs, out of which 2015 were found to be hypervariable. The developed web-genomic resource, BlackP2MSATdb (http://webtom.cabgrid.res.in/blackp2msatdb/), is the largest and first reported web resource for genomic and polymorphic SSRs of black pepper, which is useful to develop varietal signature, coreset, physical map, QTL/gene identification, and MAS in endeavor of black pepper production.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726810

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare entity grouped in non-HIV-related syndromes. ICL is characterized by a marked low CD4 T cell count of <300 cells/mm3 with ambiguous natural history and prognosis. In addition, Cryptococcal and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are reported as known opportunistic infections. Therefore, management turns around vigilant follow-up and treatment of the current clinical scenario of these patients. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, a 55-year-old lady was referred with a history of diffuse headache and intermittent fever for two months, projectile vomiting, and altered mental status for five days. Non-pruritic maculopapular rashes and diffuse desquamation of the skin were noted overall limbs. She had no significant previous medical history. Based on clinical findings and investigations, she was diagnosed with ICL having disseminated cryptococcosis. Unfortunately, the patient did not undergo specific treatment as she was recognized late, and unfortunately, she died. CONCLUSION: It is of paramount importance to recognize the clinical entity early as possible to start appropriate treatment, which may positively impact the outcome. Therefore, the clinician must be aware of disseminated cryptococcosis associated with non-HIV states.

17.
Chem Asian J ; : e202200356, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603989

RESUMO

We studied the effect of variable backbone dimethyl-substitution of γ amino acid residues (γ2,2 , γ3,3 and γ4,4 ) on the conformation and assembly, in crystals and solution of their Fmoc derivatives. The crystal structure of γ2,2 and γ4,4 derivatives showed distinct conformations (open/close for γ2,2 /γ4,4 ) that differed in torsion angles, hydrogen-bonding and most importantly the π-π Fmoc-stacking interactions (relatively favourable for γ4,4 -close). Fmoc derivatives existed in an equilibrium between major-monomeric (low energy, non-hydrogen bonded) and minor-dimeric (high energy, hydrogen bonded) populations in solution. The rate of major/minor population exchange was dependent on the position of substitution, highest being for γ4,4 derivative. In solution, assembly of Fmoc derivatives was solvent dependent, but it was independent of the position of geminal substitution. Crystallization was primarily governed by the stabilization of high-energy dimer by favourable π-π stacking involving Fmoc moieties. High free-energy of the dimers (γ2,2 -close, γ3,3 -open/close) offset favourable stacking interactions and hindered crystallization.

18.
Chem Asian J ; : e202200304, 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608137

RESUMO

The catalytic potential of various metal Lewis acid catalysts have been assessed to derive a high-yielding, multi-component domino synthesis of functionalized pyridines from (E)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-aryl/heteroaryl-prop-2-en-1-ones, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and an ammonium salt (as the nitrogen precursor). Amongst the various metal halides, tetrafluoroborates, perchlorates, and triflates used as the catalyst, GaI3 proved to be the most effective. The mechanistic course of the most plausible pathway has been outlined as the intermediate formation of imine/enamine by the reaction of the 1,3-dicarbonyl compound with ammonia (liberated in situ from the ammonium salt used as the nitrogen source), which participates in the domino nucleophilic Michael reaction to the (2E)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-aryl/hetroarylprop-2-en-1-one by its active methylene carbon through its enamine form followed by intramolecular cyclization and aromatization. The effect of different ammonium salts as the nitrogen source has been investigated and NH4 OAc was found to be best. The influence of the acetate counter anion of NH4 OAc on the progress of the reaction was studied and its specific role in the cyclization and subsequent aromatization has been revealed. This work offers distinct advantages compared to the literature reported methodologies on the count of several green index parameters.

19.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; : 1-17, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533096

RESUMO

Metabolomics aims to profile the extensive array of metabolites that exists in different types of matrices using modern analytical techniques. These techniques help to separate, identify, and quantify the plethora of chemical compounds at various analytical platforms. Hence, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has emerged as an advanced analytical approach, exclusively owing to the 3D separation of metabolites and their isomers. Furthermore, separated metabolites are identified based on their mass fragmentation pattern and CCS (collision cross-section) values. The IMS provides an advanced alternative dimension to separate the isomeric metabolites with enhanced throughput with lesser chemical noise. Thus, the present review highlights the types, factors affecting the resolution, and applications of IMMS (Ion mobility mass spectrometry) for isomeric separations, and ionic contaminants in the plant samples. Furthermore, an overview of IMS-based applications for the identification of plant metabolites (volatile and non-volatile) over the last few decades has been discussed, followed by future assumptions for creating IM-based databases. Such approaches could be significant to accelerate and improve our knowledge of the vast chemical diversity found in plants.

20.
ACS Omega ; 7(17): 14856-14866, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557708

RESUMO

Endometriosis (EM) is a hormone-dependent gynecological disease associated with chronic pelvic pain and altered immuno-inflammatory processes. It shares some cancer-like characteristics such as increased proline biosynthesis and activated glutaminolysis. Both proline and glutamine are interconvertible metabolically, and studies have shown their roles in cancer cell metabolic reprogramming, redox homeostasis, occurrence/development of endometrial carcinoma, and its further progression toward the malignant state. So based on this, we hypothesized that the circulatory proline to glutamine ratio (PQR) would be altered in EM and may serve as an indicative biomarker to improve the clinical diagnosis of EM. In present study, the circulatory-PQR levels were estimated for 39 EM patients and 48 age matched healthy female subjects using 800 MHz NMR spectroscopy. Among 39 EM patients, 15 were in the clinical stages I to II and referred to here as moderate EM (MEM) patients and 24 were in the clinical stages III to IV and referred here as severe EM (SEM) patients. The circulatory-PQR levels were significantly increased in EM patients (0.99 ± 0.13 µM in MEM; 1.39 ± 0.22 µM in SEM) compared to normal control (NC) subjects (0.52 ± 0.05 µM in NC). Further, the circulatory PQR levels exhibit the highest diagnostic potential with area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve values equal to 0.87 ± 0.04 [95%CI = 0.79-0.96] for MEM and 0.89 ± 0.04 [95% CI = 0.82-0.96] for SEM. These results suggested that circulatory-PQR has significant potential to serve as a noninvasive biomarker for diagnostic/prognostic screening of EM and further underscored the importance of these two nonessential amino acids (proline and glutamine) in cancer metabolism.

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