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2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 440, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of treatment outcomes is important for service providers to assess if there is improvement or not. The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) was developed for this use in child and adolescent mental health services. Outcome measurement in routine mental health services is limited. This paper evaluates the psychometric properties of the self and clinician rated versions of the HoNOSCA for routine use in child and adolescent mental health services in Kenya. METHODS: Using a prospective design, the clinician- and self-rated versions of the HoNOSCA and the Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) were administered at the Youth Centre at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. Initial ratings were obtained from adolescents 12-17 years (n = 201). A sample of 98 paired ratings with 2 follow-ups were examined for measurement of change over time. RESULTS: Our findings showed good reliability with the self-rated version of the HoNOSCA score, correlating well with the self-reported version of the PSC (r = .74, p < .001). Both versions correlated well at follow-up and were sensitive to change. Using factor analysis, the maximum likelihood factoring and Promax rotation resulted in a four-factor structure, which with a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy of 0.8 explained 54.74% of total variance. CONCLUSION: The HoNOSCA appears to be of value, and easy to use in routine settings. Our findings suggest further investigation with a larger sample.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Quênia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 444, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little data exists regarding depression and its associated factors in medical residents and doctors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Residents are at high risk of developing depression owing to the stressful nature of their medical practice and academic training. Depression in medical residents leads to decreased clinical efficiency, and poor academic performance; it can also lead to substance abuse and suicide. Our primary aim was to measure depression prevalence among medical residents in Kenya's largest national teaching and referral hospital. Secondary aims were to describe how depression was associated with perceived stress, perceived social support, substance use, and educational environment. METHODS: We sampled 338 residents belonging to 8 different specialties using self administered questionnaires in this cross-sectional survey between October 2019 and February 2020. Questionnaires included: sociodemographics, the Centres for Epidemiology Depression Scale - Revised, Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression were used to assess for risk factors for depression. RESULTS: Mean participant age was 31.8 years and 53.4% were males. Most residents (70.4%) reported no to mild depressive symptoms, 12.7% had moderate, and 16.9% had severe depressive symptoms. Most residents had high social support (71.8%) and moderate stress (61.6%). The educational environment was rated as more positive than negative by 46.3% of residents. Bivariate analyses revealed significant correlations between depressive symptoms, perceived stress, substance use, perceived social support, and educational environment. Multivariate analysis showed that depression was strongly associated with: fewer hours of sleep (ß = - 0.683, p = 0.002), high perceived stress (ß = 0.709, p < 0.001) and low perceived social support (ß = - 2.19, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Only 30% of medical residents in our study had moderate and severe depressive symptoms. Most residents in our study reported high levels of social support, and moderate levels of stress. Though their overall appraisal of medical residency experience was positive, mental health support and self-care skills in the training of medical professionals needs prioritization.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Faculdades de Medicina , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Food Nutr Bull ; 42(3): 334-346, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional deficiencies are common during pregnancy and a year after childbirth. At the same time, maternal depression affects many women during pregnancy up to 1 year after childbirth. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations between nutrition status, dietary intake, and maternal depression among pregnant women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 262 pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years attending the antenatal clinic in 2 public health facilities in urban low-income settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Maternal depression was assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) was used to determine nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed using the 24-hour recall, and brain essential nutrients were assessed through a questionnaire. Odds ratio was used to test the associations. All maternal characteristics with P < .001 in the univariable analysis were considered in the multivariable logistic regression, variables with P < .05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Of the 262 pregnant women, 33.6% (95% CI: 27.9-40.7) had depressive illness as indicated by EPDS >13. About 9.9% of pregnant women had MUAC < 23 cm. The study established statistically significant association between poor nutrition by MUAC and maternal depression (P < .001). Maternal depression was statistically significantly associated with inadequate intake of brain food essential (P = .002). Maternal depression was statistically significantly associated with lower income (P < .001). In multivariable regression analysis, the main predictor of maternal depression was poor nutrition (P < .004). CONCLUSION: These findings reveal an association between poor nutrition and maternal depression. These results suggest that nutritional deficiencies could be a contributing factor for maternal depression. Study recommends dietary interventions as cost-effective way to reduce deficiencies and improve mental health problems for pregnant women. Assessment of maternal depression and dietary intake be integrated as fundamental components of antenatal care.

5.
Infection ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319569

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find out what is known from literature about Long COVID until January 30, 2021. METHODS: We undertook a four-step search with no language restriction. A preliminary search was made to identify the keywords. A search strategy of all electronic databases resulted in 66 eligible studies. A forward and backward search of the references and citations resulted in additional 54 publications. Non-English language articles were translated using Google Translate. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist. RESULTS: Of 120 papers, we found only one randomized clinical trial. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort, and 28 were cross-sectional studies. Of the total 120 publications, 49.1% focused on signs and symptoms, 23.3% on management, and 10.8% on pathophysiology. Ten publications focused on imaging studies. The results are also presented extensively in a narrative synthesis in separated sections (nomenclature, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk factors, signs/symptoms, management). CONCLUSIONS: The controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management. The predominant symptoms were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness.

6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 589, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In designing, adapting, and integrating mental health interventions, it is pertinent to understand patients' needs and their own perceptions and values in receiving care. Conjoint analysis (CA) and discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are survey-based preference-elicitation approaches that, when applied to healthcare settings, offer opportunities to quantify and rank the healthcare-related choices of patients, providers, and other stakeholders. However, a knowledge gap exists in characterizing the extent to which DCEs/CA have been used in designing mental health services for patients and providers. METHODS: We performed a scoping review from the past 20 years (2009-2019) to identify and describe applications of conjoint analysis and discrete choice experiments. We searched the following electronic databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science to identify stakehold,er preferences for mental health services using Mesh terms. Studies were categorized according to pertaining to patients, providers and parents or caregivers. RESULTS: Among the 30 studies we reviewed, most were published after 2010 (24/30, 80%), the majority were conducted in the United States (11/30, 37%) or Canada (10/30, 33%), and all were conducted in high-income settings. Studies more frequently elicited preferences from patients or potential patients (21/30, 70%) as opposed to providers. About half of the studies used CA while the others utilized DCEs. Nearly half of the studies sought preferences for mental health services in general (14/30, 47%) while a quarter specifically evaluated preferences for unipolar depression services (8/30, 27%). Most of the studies sought stakeholder preferences for attributes of mental health care and treatment services (17/30, 57%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, preference elicitation approaches have been increasingly applied to mental health services globally in the past 20 years. To date, these methods have been exclusively applied to populations within the field of mental health in high-income countries. Prioritizing patients' needs and preferences is a vital component of patient-centered care - one of the six domains of health care quality. Identifying patient preferences for mental health services may improve quality of care and, ultimately, increase acceptability and uptake of services among patients. Rigorous preference-elicitation approaches should be considered, especially in settings where mental health resources are scarce, to illuminate resource allocation toward preferred service characteristics especially within low-income settings.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Pública , Canadá , Comportamento de Escolha , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Preferência do Paciente
7.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women who have experienced adolescent pregnancy and early motherhood are disproportionately affected in terms of their health and parenting capabilities, as well as their offspring's health. Guided by Stress Process and Social Determinants of Health (SDH) Frameworks, which posit that multiple sources of stressors and structural determinants of adolescent pregnancy influence adolescent mothers' subsequent health and quality of parenting (Xavier et al 2018, McLoyd 1998, Conger et al 2010, Gipson et al 2008). These dynamics then further impact offspring's outcomes. Using an Integrated Stress-SDH Process for Health Disparities model and we test on whether early motherhood is associated with and subsequent maternal and child health from two informal settlements in Nairobi. METHODS: A cross-sectional design with 394 mothers of 2-16 years old children who sought maternal and child health services at Kariobangi and Kangemi public health centers between October 2015 to April 2016 were recruited. Participating mothers were asked questions related to their adolescent pregnancy history, their current health, wellbeing, and parenting practices, and their child's health. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to examine hypothesized mediational pathways that adolescent pregnancy history has negative influences on women's health and parenting during adulthood, which also influence their child's health and development. RESULTS: Our study supports that women with a history of adolescent motherhood have poor physical and mental health outcomes as adults after adjusting for demographic confounders. SEM results partially support the Stress-SDH Process model that history of adolescent pregnancy had negative consequences on women's adulthood health, which also negatively impacted offspring's physical and mental health. CONCLUSION: Consistent with the Stress Process and SDH literature, we found consistent cross-cultural literature that adolescent pregnancy set the stage for, subsequent poor maternal health and child outcomes. Although history of adolescent pregnancy and motherhood was not necessarily associated with negative parenting, consistent with parenting literature, negative parenting was associated with poor child mental health. Findings suggest importance of providing integrated care that address health and parenting needs to optimize offspring's development in instances of early motherhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde Materna , Poder Familiar , Gravidez na Adolescência , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Saúde Mental , Gravidez , População Rural , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535647

RESUMO

Background: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) people in Kenya face pervasive socio-cultural and structural discrimination. Persistent stress stemming from anti-SGM stigma and prejudice may place SGM individuals at increased risk for negative mental health outcomes. This study explored experiences with violence (intimate partner violence and SGM-based violence), mental health outcomes (psychological distress, PTSD symptoms, and depressive symptoms), alcohol and other substance use, and prioritization of community needs among SGM adults in Western Kenya. Methods: This study was conducted by members of a collaborative research partnership between a U.S. academic institution and a Kenyan LGBTQ civil society organization (CSO). A convenience sample of 527 SGM adults (92.7% ages 18-34) was recruited from community venues to complete a cross-sectional survey either on paper or through an online secure platform. Results: For comparative analytic purposes, three sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) groups were created: (1) cisgender sexual minority women (SMW; 24.9%), (2) cisgender sexual minority men (SMM; 63.8%), and (3) gender minority individuals (GMI; 11.4%). Overall, 11.7% of participants reported clinically significant levels of psychological distress, 53.2% reported clinically significant levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and 26.1% reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. No statistically significant differences in clinical levels of these mental health concerns were detected across SOGI groups. Overall, 76.2% of participants reported ever using alcohol, 45.6% home brew, 43.5% tobacco, 39.1% marijuana, and 27.7% miraa or khat. Statistically significant SOGI group differences on potentially problematic substance use revealed that GMI participants were less likely to use alcohol and tobacco daily; and SMM participants were more likely to use marijuana daily. Lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) was reported by 42.5% of participants, and lifetime SGM-based violence (SGMV) was reported by 43.4%. GMI participants were more likely than other SOGI groups to have experienced both IPV and SGMV. Participants who experienced SGMV had significantly higher rates of clinically significant depressive and PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: Despite current resilience demonstrated by SGM adults in Kenya, there is an urgent need to develop and deliver culturally appropriate mental health services for this population. Given the pervasiveness of anti-SGM violence, services should be provided using trauma-informed principles, and be sensitive to the lived experiences of SGM adults in Kenya. Community and policy levels interventions are needed to decrease SGM-based stigma and violence, increase SGM visibility and acceptance, and create safe and affirming venues for mental health care. Political prioritization of SGM mental health is needed for sustainable change.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
10.
AIDS Behav ; 25(7): 2084-2093, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389374

RESUMO

We examined patterns of disclosure among youth living with HIV (YLHIV) in Kenya, and the association between self-disclosure and antiretroviral therapy adherence, stigma, depression, resilience, and social support. Of 96 YLHIV, 78% were female, 33% were ages 14-18, and 40% acquired HIV perinatally. Sixty-three (66%) YLHIV had self-disclosed their HIV status; 67% to family and 43% to non-family members. Older YLHIV were 75% more likely to have self-disclosed than those 14-18 years. Of the 68 either married or ever sexually active, 45 (66%) did not disclose to their partners. Those who had self-disclosed were more likely to report internalized stigma (50% vs. 21%, prevalence ratio [PR] 2.3, 1.1-4.6), experienced stigma (26% vs. 3%, PR 11.0, 1.4-86), and elevated depressive symptoms (57% vs. 30%, PR 1.8, 1.0-3.1). The association with stigma was stronger with self-disclosure to family than non-family. Support should be provided to YLHIV during self-disclosure to mitigate psychosocial harms.


Assuntos
Revelação , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Autorrevelação , Estigma Social
11.
AIDS Care ; 33(7): 873-878, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781831

RESUMO

This paper describes a sustainable structure to deliver the World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-G) for Postpartum Adolescent (PPA) mothers living with HIV in Nairobi. It documents the process of mobilizing, training, and engaging Community Health Workers (CHWs) and Key Informants (health facility staff) involved in the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) in two Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities from informal settlements of Nairobi County. Mainly reporting experiences from the training process utilizing focused group discussions and in-depth interviews involving participants, IPT-G therapists and supervisors we present process findings and acceptability of our IPT-G implementation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Psicoterapia Interpessoal , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Quênia , Mães , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 487648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281632

RESUMO

Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) remains a great challenge among young people in Kenya. Young people living with HIV are faced with a lot of challenges that are often overlooked and may have an impact on their treatment adherence and overall well-being. This calls for interventions that are age-appropriate and which tap into the psychosocial problems they experience. This is a protocol of a proposed study aimed at developing a facilitator-led peer support manual called the "Positive and Healthy Living Program" that will be the basis for running support groups with young people at the Comprehensive Care Center (CCC) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods: We will carry out our study in two phases. The first phase will focus on the development of the manual and training of peer-facilitators. The second phase will make use of a pilot trial research design using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. It will be carried out among 10-24 year-olds attending CCC at KNH, and will consist of three groups: Tumaini Group (10-14 years), Amani Group (15-19 years), and Hodari Group (20-24 years). The groups will participate in an eight-session support group, whose activities will focus on four domains: social-recreation, psychotherapy, peer-modeling, and psychoeducation. Quantitative data will be collected using laboratory measures of Viral Load and CD4 as well as socio-psychological assessment tools. Qualitative data will be collected through interviews with the young people and peer facilitators. We will conduct a descriptive analysis which will describe the key features of the dataset and bivariate analyses will examine the association between variables. The change will be measured at baseline and post-treatment. The interviews will be coded into themes and we will generate experiential categories from the data around the effectiveness of the program, the peer facilitators' experience of providing support, how the young people respond to the program, and its influence on their overall well-being. Discussion: We expect that the peer facilitators will find this manualized treatment acceptable and the eight-sessions group intervention will be feasible for the three age groups. We hypothesize that there will be improvements detected with regards to reported adherence and viral load, self-esteem, depression, and psychological functioning.

13.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 6: 136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974045

RESUMO

Background: Addressing adolescent pregnancies associated health burden demands new ways of organizing maternal and child mental health services to meet multiple needs of this group. There is a need to strengthen integration of sustainable evidence-based mental health interventions in primary health care settings for pregnant adolescents. The proposed study is guided by implementation science frameworks with key objective of implementing a pilot trial testing a full IPT-G version along with IPT-G mini version under the mhGAP/IPT-G service framework and to study feasibility of the integrated mhGAP/IPT-G adolescent peripartum depression care delivery model and estimate if a low cost and compressed version of IPT-G intervention would result in similar size of effect on mental health and family functioning as the Full IPT-G. There are two sub- studies embedded which are: 1) To identify multi-level system implementation barriers and strategies guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to enhance perinatal mhGAP-depression care and evidence-based intervention integration (i.e., group interpersonal psychotherapy; IPT-G) for pregnant adolescents in primary care contexts; 2) To use findings from aim 1 and observational data from Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics that run within primary health care facilities to develop a mental health implementation workflow plan that has buy-in from key stakeholders, as well as to develop a modified protocol and implementation training manual for building health facility staff's capacity in implementing the integrated mhGAP/IPT-G depression care. Methods: For the primary objective of studying feasibility of the integrated mhGAP/IPT-G depression care in MCH service context for adolescent perinatal depression, we will recruit 90 pregnant adolescents to a three-arm pilot intervention (unmasked) trial study (IPT-G Full, IPT-G Mini, and wait-list control in the context of mhGAP care). Pregnant adolescents ages 13-18, in their 1st-2nd trimester with a depression score of 13 and above on EPDS would be recruited. Proctor's implementation evaluation model will be used. Feasibility and acceptability of the intervention implementation and size of effects on mental health and family functioning will be estimated using mixed method data collection from caregivers of adolescents, adolescents, and health care providers. In the two sub-studies, stakeholders representing diverse perspectives will be recruited and focus group discussions data will be gathered. For aim 2, to build capacity for mhGAP-approach of adolescent depression care and research, the implementation-capacity training manual will be applied to train 20 providers, 12 IPT-G implementers/health workers and 16 Kenyan researchers. Acceptability and appropriateness of the training approach will be assessed. Additional feedback related to co-located service delivery model, task-shifting and task-sharing approach of IPT-G delivery will be gathered for further manual improvement. Discussion: This intervention and service design are in line with policy priority of Government of Kenya, Kenya Vision 2030, World Health Organization, and UN Sustainable Development Goals that focus on improving capacity of mental health service systems to reduce maternal, child, adolescent health and mental health disparities in LMICs. Successfully carrying out this study in Kenya will provide an evidence-based intervention service development and implementation model for adolescents in other Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The study is funded by FIC/NIH under K43 grant.

14.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(9): 829-843, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Even though the early alliance has been shown to robustly predict posttreatment outcomes, the question whether alliance leads to symptom reduction or symptom reduction leads to a better alliance remains unresolved. To better understand the relation between alliance and symptoms early in therapy, we meta-analyzed the lagged session-by-session within-patient effects of alliance and symptoms from Sessions 1 to 7. METHOD: We applied a 2-stage individual participant data meta-analytic approach. Based on the data sets of 17 primary studies from 9 countries that comprised 5,350 participants, we first calculated standardized session-by-session within-patient coefficients. Second, we meta-analyzed these coefficients by using random-effects models to calculate omnibus effects across the studies. RESULTS: In line with previous meta-analyses, we found that early alliance predicted posttreatment outcome. We identified significant reciprocal within-patient effects between alliance and symptoms within the first 7 sessions. Cross-level interactions indicated that higher alliances and lower symptoms positively impacted the relation between alliance and symptoms in the subsequent session. CONCLUSION: The findings provide empirical evidence that in the early phase of therapy, symptoms and alliance were reciprocally related to one other, often resulting in a positive upward spiral of higher alliance/lower symptoms that predicted higher alliances/lower symptoms in the subsequent sessions. Two-stage individual participant data meta-analyses have the potential to move the field forward by generating and interlinking well-replicable process-based knowledge. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Aliança Terapêutica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Glob Soc Welf ; 7(1): 1-13, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728522

RESUMO

Background: Despite considerable achievements associated with the MDGs, under-five mortality, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, remains alarmingly high. Globally, intimate partner violence (IPV) affects one in three women within their lifetime. Little is known about the relationship between IPV and maternal care-seeking in the context of high rates of under-five mortality, particularly among young women and adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods: Data from the Kenya Demographic Health Survey (2008-2009) were limited to a sample of women aged 15-24 years (n=1,406) with a child under-five who had experienced IPV in the last 12 months. Using multivariate logistic regression, we constructed three models: 1) base model; 2) controlling for type of residence (urban/rural); and 3) controlling for wealth status and education attainment, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between IPV and ten maternal care-seeking behaviors. Results: Thirty-eight percent of the women had experienced some form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months. Women who had experience IPV were less likely: 1) to complete a minimum of 4 antenatal visits after single IPV exposure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44, 0.86 and after severe IPV (OR=0.80; 95% CI=0.44, 0.88) and 2) to deliver in health facility after severe IPV exposure (OR=0.74; 95% CI=0.54, 0.89), both adjusted for educational attainment and wealth status. Lower socio-economic status and living in a rural area were strongly associated with increased likelihood of IPV. Conclusions: Intersectional approaches that consciously focus on, and creatively address IPV may be key to the success of reducing child mortality and improving maternal health outcomes. The implementation of joint programming and development of combination interventions to effectively reduce the risk of exposure to IPV and promote maternal care-seeking behavior are needed to improve child morbidity and mortality in LMICs.

16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 263, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent mental health problems account for a significant proportion of the local and global burden of disease and is recognized as a growing public health concern in need of adequate services. Studies carried out in Kenya suggest a need for a robust service for the treatment, prevention, and promotion of child and adolescent mental health. Despite a few existing services to provide treatment and management of mental health disorders, we need more knowledge about their effectiveness in the management of these disorders. This paper describes a study protocol that aims to evaluate the process and outcomes of psychotherapies offered to children and adolescents seeking mental health services at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. METHODS: This study will use a prospective cohort approach that will follow adolescent patients (12-17 years of age) receiving mental health services in the youth clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital for a period of 12 months. During this time a mixed methods research will be carried out, focusing on treatment outcomes, therapeutic relationship, understanding of psychotherapy, and other mental health interventions offered to the young patients. In this proposed study, we define outcome as the alleviation of symptoms, which will be assessed quantitatively using longitudinal patient data collected session-wise. Process refers to the mechanisms identified to promote change in the adolescent. For example, individual participant or clinician characteristics, therapeutic alliance will be assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In each session, assessments will be used to reduce problems due to attrition and to enable calculation of longitudinal change trajectories using growth curve modeling. For this study, these will be referred to as session-wise assessments. Qualitative work will include interviews with adolescent patients, their caregivers as well as feedback from the mental health care providers on existing services and their barriers to providing care. CONCLUSION: This study aims to understand the mechanisms through which change takes place beyond the context of psychotherapy. What are the moderators and through which mechanisms do they operate to improve mental health outcomes in young people?


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Saúde Mental/normas , Psicoterapia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
F1000Res ; 9: 1495, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211703

RESUMO

Background: Prepartum depression is common among pregnant women and has not been studied much in low and middle-income countries. Evidence shows that mental illnesses are more prevalent in urban than in rural areas. The study objective was to determine the magnitude of prepartum depression, risk factors, and real-life experiences of depression among pregnant women. Method: A mixed-method cross-sectional study was conducted. It included 262 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two public health facilities in the urban low-income settlement of Nairobi, Kenya. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with cut-off >13 was used to classify clinical depressive illness. Further, a focus group discussion was conducted with 20 women identified with the depression. Bivariate analysis with Odd's Ratio was used to test associations. Variables with a p<0.05 in multivariate were considered significant. Result: Out of the 262 women, 33.6% were found to have prepartum depression as indicated by an EPDS score of >13. Women's gestational age in the second trimester (87.5%) was statistically significantly associated with prepartum depression (p<0.001). Income levels <10,000 KES (58%) were statistically significantly associated with prepartum depression (p<0.001). Further, thematic analysis of qualitative data indicated that poverty, lack of social support, domestic violence, and unfriendly health care were major contributors to prepartum depression. Conclusion: Significant numbers of pregnant women were found to experience depression. This prevalence rate indicates a high disease burden of women who live with depression, which is not diagnosed because screening of depression is not done in primary health care centers. This study calls for a need and consideration for screening for perinatal depression in primary health care facilities, mainly in resource-poor areas. Interventions targeting means of resolving conflicts in families are highly needed. Such steps would help achieve key sustainable development goals where maternal and child health remains a key priority.


Assuntos
Depressão , Pobreza , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 799, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In sub Saharan Africa one of the key challenges in assessment using neuropsychological tools has been the lack of adequately validated and easily implementable measures. This study will translate into English, adapt and standardize the Computerized Battery for Neuropsychological Evaluation of Children (BENCI). The BENCI battery will be adapted using back-translation design, comprehensive cultural adaptation and standardized in a case-control study involving two groups of children: HIV infected and HIV unexposed, uninfected children. The content adaptation will be iteratively carried out using knowledge of English and feedback from pilot testing with children. The proposed study will first involve the cultural adaptation of the BENCI. It will then recruit 544 children aged 8-11 years with half of them being HIV+, while the other half will be HIV unexposed-uninfected. Test-retest reliability will be analyzed using Pearson's correlation while ANOVA and correlational analyses will be used to calculate discriminant, convergent and construct validity. RESULTS: This study will result in an open access adequately adapted and standardized measure of neuropsychological functioning for use with children in East Africa. The protocol paper provides an opportunity to share the planned methods and approaches.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/normas , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Computadores , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Idioma , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tradução
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 697, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708804

RESUMO

Background: Evidence-based research for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) practice in Kenya is scarce. This has seemingly stifled knowledge with regard to ECT practice among key personnel in the country. Research shows that evidence-based guidelines not only harmonize clinical practice in a certain region but also improve health outcomes and quality of clinical decisions made by key personnel. This study aimed at assessing knowledge and administration of ECT by key personnel in psychiatric units in Kenya. Method: This is a qualitative study targeting multiple stakeholders in mental health facilities. The study was undertaken in three counties: Nairobi, Nakuru and Eldoret. Snowballing sampling method was used to interview 33 targeted respondents who work in ECT departments or actively interacted with the procedure in both private and public facilities. Researcher-designed respondent profile questionnaire and interview guides focusing on knowledge, practice and barriers in delivery of ECT were used as tools. Data collected were transcribed from the audio recordings. Thematic and content analyses of these semi-structured interviews were carried out based on the patterns that were noted across the data collected. The interviews were read by the research team and re-read to highlight the core ideas. Findings were presented in form of themes, which were illustrated along with representative verbatim quotations. Results: Overall, the key personnel were knowledgeable about ECT in different stages of the procedure, but we noticed methodological incongruence in their practice with regard to the pre-ECT preparation, stimulus dose calculation adequacy of seizure and in the procedure for dose adjustment of psychotropic medication before and after ECT sessions. The identified barriers to the uptake of evidence-based practice were lack of infrastructure, inadequate funding, lack of adequate training and negative perception by patients, relatives and even some participants. Conclusion: Though key personnel in this study showed that they had knowledge on ECT administration, lack of standard guidelines on ECT practice led to lack of standardized training on the procedure hence the methodological incongruence. Inadequate infrastructure, knowledge and negative perception towards the procedure seemed to interfere with uptake of ECT as an intervention. Recommendations: The study makes the following recommendations: adoption of a guideline by psychiatrists, intense training on ECT, specialized training for nurses in ECT and dose calculation for psychiatrists and registrars. Funding should be made available for new ECT machines. Lastly, education and awareness creation should be done about ECT to help deal with negative perception towards the intervention.

20.
Glob Soc Welf ; 6(3): 177-188, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403024

RESUMO

This paper describes a mental health capacity-building partnership between the University of Nairobi (UON) and the University of Washington (UW) that was built upon a foundational 30-year HIV/AIDS research training collaboration between the two institutions. With funding from the US National Institute of Mental Health Medical Education Program Initiative (MEPI), UW and UON faculty collaborated to develop and offer a series of workshops in research methods, grant writing, and manuscript publication for UON faculty and post-graduate students committed to mental health research. UON and UW scientists provided ongoing mentorship to UON trainees through Skype and email. Three active thematic research groups emerged that focused on maternal and child mental health, gender-based violence, and HIV-related substance abuse. Challenges to conducting mental health research in Kenya included limited resources to support research activities, heavy teaching responsibilities, clinical duties, and administrative demands on senior faculty, and stigmatization of mental health conditions, treatment, and research within Kenyan society. The partnership yielded a number of accomplishments: a body of published papers and presentations at national and international meetings on Kenyan mental health topics, the institution of systematic mental health data collection in rural clinics, funded research proposals, and a mental health research resource centre. We highlight lessons learned for future mental health research capacity-building initiatives.

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