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1.
Environ Res ; : 112179, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624271

RESUMO

The accumulation of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems has raised concerns because of their adverse effects on ecosystem functions and human health. Plastic waste management has become a universal problem in recent years. Hence, sustainable plastic waste management techniques are vital for achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Although many reviews have focused on the occurrence and impact of micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs), there has been limited focus on the management of MNPs. This review first summarizes the ecotoxicological impacts of plastic waste sources and issues related to the sustainable management of MNPs in the environment. This paper then critically evaluates possible approaches for incorporating plastics into the circular economy in order to cope with the problem of plastics. Pollution associated with MNPs can be tackled through source reduction, incorporation of plastics into the circular economy, and suitable waste management. Appropriate infrastructure development, waste valorization, and economically sound plastic waste management techniques and viable alternatives are essential for reducing MNPs in the environment. Policymakers must pay more attention to this critical issue and implement appropriate environmental regulations to achieve environmental sustainability.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636267

RESUMO

Nucleosides play a pivotal role in biological systems and therefore have attracted a lot of interest as chemotherapeutic agents in drug discovery. Over the years biocatalysts have emerged as a sustainable alternative to conventional synthetic catalysts. As a nature's catalyst, they exhibit excellent selectivity, remarkable tolerance, and help in carrying out eco-friendly benign processes. The use of a biocatalyst as a regio- and enantioselective catalyst is particularly relevant in the transformations of nucleosides and their analogs because of the presence of multiple chiral centres. Herein, we discuss the recent advances in the Pseudomonas Cepacia Lipase mediated selective acylation and deacylation reactions of the secondary hydroxyl and amino groups of nucleosides and their analogs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601675

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are terrifically precise and adapted towards specialized respiratory epithelial cells, observed in organ culture and human volunteers both. This virus is found to possess an unpredictable anti-viral T-cell response which in turn results in T-cell activation and finally apoptosis, leading to cytokine storm and collapse of the whole immune system. The present review provides comprehensive information regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection, mutant strains, and the impact of SARS-COV-2 on vital organs, the pathophysiology of the disease, diagnostic tests available, and possible treatments. It also includes all the vaccines developed so far throughout the world to control this pandemic. Until now, 18 vaccines have been approved by the WHO and further 22 vaccines are in the third trial. This study also provides up-to-date information regarding the drugs repurposed in clinical trials and the recent status of allopathic drugs along with its result. Although vaccines are available, specific treatment is not available for the disease. Furthermore, the effect of vaccines on new variants is a new area of research at this time. Therefore, a preventive attitude is the best approach to fight against this virus.

4.
Neurotox Res ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613588

RESUMO

Nicotine-withdrawal after daily exposure manifests somatic and affective symptom including a range of cognitive deficits. Earlier studies suggested participation of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) in development of nicotine dependence and expression of withdrawal signs. An upsurge in Ca2+-induced oxidative stress in brain underlies the biochemical events and behavioral signs of nicotine-withdrawal. The present study is aimed to explore the effects of lacidipine (LTCC antagonist) against nicotine-withdrawal. Swiss albino mice were administered ( -)-nicotine hydrogen tartrate (3.35 mg/kg, t.i.d.) from days 1 to 7 and alongside lacidipine (0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) given from days 1 to 14. Somatic withdrawal signs were noted 48 h after last dose of nicotine. Bay-K8644 (LTCC agonist) was administered in mice subjected to nicotine-withdrawal and lacidipine (3 mg/kg) treatments. Behavioral tests of memory, anxiety, and depression were conducted on days 13 and 14 to assess the effects of lacidipine on affective symptoms of nicotine-withdrawal. Biomarkers of oxido-nitrosative were quantified in the whole brain. Nicotine-withdrawal significantly enhanced somatic signs and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and memory impairment in mice. Lacidipine (1 and 3 mg/kg) attenuated nicotine-withdrawal induced somatic symptoms and also ameliorated behavioral abnormalities. Nicotine-withdrawal triggered an upsurge in brain lipid peroxidation, total nitrite content, and decline in antioxidants, and these effects were attenuated by lacidipine. Bay-K8644 significantly abolished improvement in somatic and affective symptoms, and antioxidant effects by lacidipine in mice subjected to nicotine-withdrawal. Lacidipine mitigated nicotine-withdrawal triggered somatic and affective symptoms owing to decrease in brain oxido-nitrosative stress.

5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 114613, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600078

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Inula racemosa Hook. f., is a critically endangered perennial herb distributed throughout the Himalaya; commercially useful in pharmaceutical products mainly because of its expectorant, antispasmodic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, carminative, thermogenic, digestive, cardiotonic, acrid, alexipharmic, anodyne, aphrodisiac, febrifuge, and antiseptic properties. The roots including rhizomes of the plant were used in the treatment of various ailments like chest pain, liver dysfunction, dyspnoea, and cardiovascular diseases by the ethenic Himalayan residents. AIM OF THE REVIEW: Even though there are plentiful studies involving I. racemosa for pharmacological properties, but there is gap or few records available on production technologies and patents. The purpose of review is to provide large unmanageable information in systematic form for researchers, health care contributors, and policy makers so that they efficiently integrate the existing information and provide balanced decision making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant data search was completed through systematic searches using various scientific databases including e-resources viz., Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, ACS, Springer Link, Taylor and Francis, Scifinder, PubMed, PubChem, Web of Science, LibGen, Wiley, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The list of literature cited in this review are dated from 1959-2021. RESULTS: Till date variety of ethnobotanical and pharmacological properties essential oil including crude extract of I. racemosa have been documented. The shortlisted records revealed that the herb has a potential to treat stomach ulcer, respiratory tract infections including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alantolactone and isoalloalantolactone were reported as the major bioactive constituents along with few fatty acids, phytosterols, and glycosides characterized by GC, GC/MS, HPLC, HPTLC and qNMR techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a detailed literature survey on the plant, evidences were found for fascinating biological, traditional, and pharmacological effects, whilst there are no genomic resources available for this medicinal herb. Thus, molecular studies are critical for unravelling the production process of bioactive metabolites inside herb, which will underlay a path for improving these metabolites at commercial scale. Moreover, the association and role of particular phytoconstituent in its biological properties still needs to be validated. In addition, there are no reports on measures on its conservation and mechanism of toxicity research, which also needs more attention. We hope this review can provide a basis for further studies concerning the protected and efficient utilization of I. racemosa.

6.
Environ Int ; 158: 106908, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619530

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) is introduced into soils, sediments, and aquatic environments from various sources such as weathering of sulfide ores, leaching of mining wastes, and anthropogenic activities. High Sb concentrations are toxic to ecosystems and potentially to public health via the accumulation in food chain. Although Sb is poisonous and carcinogenic to humans, the exact mechanisms causing toxicity still remain unclear. Most studies concerning the remediation of soils and aquatic environments contaminated with Sb have evaluated various amendments that reduce Sb bioavailability and toxicity. However, there is no comprehensive review on the biogeochemistry and transformation of Sb related to its remediation. Therefore, the present review summarizes: (1) the sources of Sb and its geochemical distribution and speciation in soils and aquatic environments, (2) the biogeochemical processes that govern Sb mobilization, bioavailability, toxicity in soils and aquatic environments, and possible threats to human and ecosystem health, and (3) the approaches used to remediate Sb-contaminated soils and water and mitigate potential environmental and health risks. Knowledge gaps and future research needs also are discussed. The review presents up-to-date knowledge about the fate of Sb in soils and aquatic environments and contributes to an important insight into the environmental hazards of Sb. The findings from the review should help to develop innovative and appropriate technologies for controlling Sb bioavailability and toxicity and sustainably managing Sb-polluted soils and water, subsequently minimizing its environmental and human health risks.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126125, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492919

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic increases the consumption of antimicrobial substances (ABS) due to the unavailability of approved vaccine(s). To assess the effect of imprudent consumption of ABS during the COVID-19 pandemic, we compare the 2020 prevalence of antidrug resistance (ADR) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) with a similar survey carried out in 2018 in Ahmedabad, India using SARS-CoV-2 gene detection as a marker of ABS usage. We found a significant ADR increase in 2020 compared to 2018 in ambient water bodies, harbouring a higher incidence of ADR E.coli towards non-fluoroquinolone drugs. Effective SARS-CoV-2 genome copies were found to be associated with the ADR prevalence. The prevalence of ADR depends on the efficiency of WWTPs (Wastewater Treatment Plants) and the catchment area in its vicinity. In the year 2018 study, prevalence of ADR was discretely distributed, and the maximum ADR prevalence recorded was ~60%; against the current homogenous ADR increase, and up to 85% of maximum ADR among the incubated E.coli isolated from the river (Sabarmati) and lake (Chandola and Kankaria) samples. Furthermore, wastewater treatment plants showed less increase in comparison to the ambient waters, which eventually imply that although SARS-CoV-2 genes and faecal pollution may be diluted in the ambient waters, as indicated by low Ct-value and E.coli count, the danger of related aftermath like ADR increase cannot be nullified. Also, Non-fluoroquinolone drugs exhibited overall more resistance than quinolone drugs. Overall, this is probably the first-ever study that traces the COVID-19 pandemic imprints on the prevalence of antidrug resistance (ADR) through wastewater surveillance and hints at monitoring escalation of other environmental health parameters. This study will make the public and policyholders concerned about the optimum use of antibiotics during any kind of treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 172: 112773, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479174

RESUMO

The North-West coast of India was notable for the urbanization and semiarid climate, particularly the Gujarat coastal region which was facing water crises and aquifer salinization issue. Under the light of these critical issues, the present study investigates the sources of aquifer salinization and probable location of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) using an integrated approach of major ion chemistry, statistical techniques, and isotopic signature of groundwater (GW). The evolution of GW reveals that water facies changes from Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- to Na+-Cl type from the south Gujarat towards the Gulf of Khambhat. Log-normal distribution of Cl- and NO3- divulges that different pollution sources influence the GW quality. Statistical findings supplemented with Isotopic signatures, ionic ratios and cross plots identified four classes of GW, which varies with degree of anthropogenic and seawater influences. Results suggested that seawater intrusion heavily influences 42% of the total GW samples, whereas 58% samples showed the probability of SGD. The study recommends the feasible locations of check dams as a remedial measure for controlling the salinization of coastal aquifer.

9.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the presentation and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with CKD followed at any of the four pediatric nephrology centers in New Delhi from April 2020 to June 2021. Outcomes, including cardiopulmonary and renal complications, were reported in relation to underlying disease category and illness severity at presentation. RESULTS: Underlying illness in 88 patients included nephrotic syndrome (50%), other CKD stages 1-4 (18.2%), CKD 5D (17%), and CKD 5T (14.8%). Thirty-two of 61 patients with symptomatic COVID-19 and 9/27 asymptomatic patients were admitted for median 10 (interquartile range 7-15) days. Seventeen (19.3%) patients developed moderate or severe COVID-19. Systemic complications, observed in 30 (34.1%), included acute kidney injury (AKI, 34.2%), COVID-19 pneumonia (15.9%), unrelated pulmonary disease (2.3%), and shock (4.5%). Nineteen (21.6%) had severe complications (AKI stage 2-3, encephalopathy, respiratory failure, shock). Eight (11%) of twelve (16.4%) patients with severe AKI required dialysis. Three (3.4%) patients, two with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in relapse and one with CKD 1-4, died due to respiratory failure. Univariate logistic regression indicated that patients presenting with nephrotic syndrome in relapse or moderate to severe COVID-19 were at risk of AKI (respective odds ratio, 95%CI: 3.62, 1.01-12.99; 4.58, 1.06-19.86) and/or severe complications (respective odds ratio, 95%CI: 5.92, 1.99-17.66; 61.2, 6.99-536.01). CONCLUSIONS: Children with CKD presenting with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 or in nephrotic syndrome relapse are at risk of severe complications, including severe AKI and mortality. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

10.
OMICS ; 25(9): 591-604, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468217

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of great relevance to planetary health. It infects approximately one-third of the world population. T. gondii establishes itself in warm-blooded animals and causes adverse health outcomes, particularly in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is also widely used as a model organism to study other related apicomplexan parasites, which requires a deeper understanding of its molecular biology. Type I strains (GT1 and RH) of T. gondii are considered the most virulent forms. The whole-genome sequencing of T. gondii annotated 8460 predicted gene models in the parasite. To this end, the proteogenomics technology allows harnessing of mass spectrometry (MS)-derived proteomic data to unravel new protein-coding genes, not to mention validation and correction of the existing gene models. In this study using the proteogenomic approach, we report the identification of 31 novel protein-coding genes while reannotating 88 existing gene models. Notably, the genome annotations were corrected for genes, such as SAG5C, GRA6, ROP4, ROP5, and ROP26. The associated proteins are known to play important roles in host-parasite interactions, particularly in relation to parasite virulence, suppression of host immune response, and distinctively pertinent for the survival of the parasite inside the host system. These new findings offer new insights, informing planetary health broadly and the knowledge base on T. gondii virulence specifically. The proteogenomics approach also provides a concrete example to study related apicomplexan organisms of relevance to planetary health, and so as to develop new diagnostics and therapeutics against toxoplasmosis and related diseases.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e2103609, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536038

RESUMO

Following the first experimental realization of intrinsic ferromagnetism in 2D van der Waals (vdW) crystals, several ternary metal chalcogenides with unprecedented long-range ferromagnetic order have been explored. However, the synthesis of large-area 2D ternary metal chalcogenide thin films is a great challenge, and a generalized synthesis has not been demonstrated yet. Here, a quick and scalable synthesis of epitaxially aligned ferromagnetic ternary metal chalcogenide thin films (Cr2 Ge2 Te6 , Cr2 Si2 Te6 , Mn3 Si2 Te6 ) is reported. The synthesis is based on the flux-controlled surface diffusion of Te on metal (Cr, Mn)-deposited wafer (Ge, Si) substrates. Magnetic anisotropy study of the epitaxial ternary thin films reveals the intrinsic magnetic easy axis; out-of-plane direction for Cr2 Ge2 Te6 and Cr2 Si2 Te6 , and in-plane direction for Mn3 Si2 Te6 . In addition to the synthesis, this work creates an opportunity for transfer-free device fabrication for realizing magnetoelectronics based on the electrical control of both charge and spin degrees of freedom in 2D ferromagnetic semiconductors.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126170, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492946

RESUMO

Dissolved arsenic typically results from chemical weathering of arsenic rich sediments and is most often found in oxidized forms in surface water. The mobility of arsenic is controlled by its valence state and also by its association with iron oxides minerals, the forms of which are both influenced by abiotic and biotic processes in aqueous environment. In this study, speciation methods were used to measure and confirm the presence of reduced arsenic species in the surface water of Frenchman creek, a gaining stream that crosses the Colorado-Nebraska border. Selective extraction analysis of aquifer and stream bed sediments shows that the bulk of the arsenic occurs with labile iron-rich oxy(hydroxide) minerals. Total dissolved arsenic in surface and groundwater ranged from ~3-18 µg L-1, and reduced arsenic species comprise about 41% of the total dissolved arsenic (16.0 µg L-1) in Frenchman creek. Leachable arsenic in the aquifer sediment samples ranged up to 1553 µg kg-1, while samples from Frenchman creek bed sediments contained 4218 µg kg-1. Dynamic surface and groundwater interaction sustains arsenite in iron-rich surface headwaters, and the implied toxicity of reduced arsenic in this hydrogeological setting, which can be important in surface water environments around the globe.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsenitos , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nebraska , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549786

RESUMO

The knowledge of the gestational age of the newborn is essential for management. In the absence of a dating scan, the postnatal assessment scores have drawbacks of being difficult to learn and administer in the community. The measurement of the foot length is easy, reproducible and offers an objective assessment. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation of postnatal (<48 h) foot length measurement (with calipers) with gestational age as determined by antenatal dating ultrasound, create a predictive model for the same and propose foot length measurement cutoffs for <37 and <34 weeks of gestation. Secondary objectives were to assess the correlation between foot length as measured with calipers and that measured with a ruler and a paper footprint. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Among the 520 babies assessed, the correlation of foot length with gestational age was 0.89. Operational cutoffs for the categories of <37 and <34 weeks at a sensitivity of 95% were <70 and <65 mm, respectively. The Pearson's correlation between foot length as measured by caliper and ruler was 0.95 and between caliper and paper footprint was 0.87. This study correlating foot length and gestational age has the potential to help neonatal care providers make informed management decisions, particularly in resource-limited settings.

14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 577: 52-57, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507065

RESUMO

Focal ischemia causes irreversible brain damage if cerebral blood flow is not restored promptly. Acute phase excitotoxicity and pro-oxidant and inflammatory events in the sub-chronic phase elicit coagulative necrosis, vascular injury, cerebral oedema, and neurobehavioral deficits. Earlier, in pre-clinical studies arbutin protected behavioral functions and improved therapeutic outcomes in different models of brain and metabolic disorders. Arbutin is natural hydroquinone that might protect against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. In this study, cerebro-protective effects of arbutin were evaluated in the middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAo/R) mouse model. Mice were administered arbutin (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) for 21 days, and subjected to MCAo/R or sham surgery on day 14. Results showed brain infarction, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, oedema, and neurological deficits 24 h post-MCAo/R injury that were prevented by arbutin. Behavioral evaluations over the sub-chronic phase revealed MCAo/R triggered spatial and working memory deficits. Arbutin protected the memory against MCAo/R injury and decreased hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, protein carbonyls, inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, myeloperoxidase, matrix metalloproteinase-9, inducible nitric oxide synthase), and enhanced glutathione levels in the ischemia ipsilateral hemisphere. Arbutin decreased brain acetylcholinesterase activity, glutamate, and enhanced GABA levels against MCAo/R. Arbutin can alleviate I/R pathogenesis and protects neurobehavioral functions in the MCAo/R mouse model.

15.
Neurochem Int ; 150: 105192, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560175

RESUMO

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles responsible for cellular energy production. Besides, regulating energy homeostasis, mitochondria are responsible for calcium homeostasis, signal transmission, and the fate of cellular survival in case of injury and pathologies. Accumulating reports have suggested multiple roles of mitochondria in neuropathologies, neurodegeneration, and immune activation under physiological and pathological conditions. Mitochondrial dysfunction, which occurs at the initial phase of brain injury, involves oxidative stress, inflammation, deficits in mitochondrial bioenergetics, biogenesis, transport, and autophagy. Thus, development of targeted therapeutics to protect mitochondria may improve functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). In this review, we summarize mitochondrial dysfunction related to TBI and ICH, including the mechanisms involved, and discuss therapeutic approaches with special emphasis on past and current clinical trials.

16.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112067, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543636

RESUMO

COVID-19 positive patients can egest live SARS-CoV-2 virus and viral genome fragments through faecal matter and urine, raising concerns about viral transmission through the faecal-oral route and/or contaminated aerosolized water. These concerns are amplified in many low- and middle-income countries, where raw sewage is often discharged into surface waterways and open defecation is common. Nonetheless, there has been no evidence of COVID-19 transmission via ambient urban water, and the virus viability in such aquatic matrices is believed to be minimal and not a matter of concern. In this manuscript, we attempt to discern the presence of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material (ORF-1ab, N and S genes) in the urban water (lakes, rivers, and drains) of the two Indian cities viz., Ahmedabad (AMD), in western India with 9 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and Guwahati (GHY), in the north-east of the country with no such treatment facilities. The present study was carried out to establish the applicability of environmental water surveillance (E-wat-Surveillance) of COVID-19 as a potential tool for public health monitoring at the community level. 25.8% and 20% of the urban water samples had detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in AMD and GHY, respectively. N-gene > S-gene > ORF-1ab-gene were readily detected in the urban surface water of AMD, whereas no such observable trend was noticed in the case of GHY. The high concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 genes (e.g., ORF-1ab; 800 copies/L for Sabarmati River, AMD and S-gene; 565 copies/L for Bharalu urban river, GHY) found in urban waters suggest that WWTPs do not always completely remove the virus genetic material and that E-wat-Surveillance of COVID-19 in cities/rural areas with poor sanitation is possible.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148367, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465041

RESUMO

Following the proven concept, capabilities, and limitations of detecting the RNA of Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater, it is pertinent to understand the utility of wastewater surveillance data on various scale. In the present work, we put forward the first wastewater surveillance-based city zonation for effective COVID-19 pandemic preparedness. A three-month data of Surveillance of Wastewater for Early Epidemic Prediction (SWEEP) was generated for the world heritage city of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. In this expedition, 116 wastewater samples were analyzed to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA, from September 3rd to November 26th, 2020. A total of 111 samples were detected with at least two out of three SARS-CoV-2 genes (N, ORF 1ab, and S). Monthly variation depicted a significant decline in all three gene copies in October compared to September 2020, followed by a sharp increment in November 2020. Correspondingly, the descending order of average effective gene concentration was: November (~10,729 copies/L) > September (~3047 copies/L) > October (~454 copies/L). Monthly variation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the wastewater samples may be ascribed to a decline of 20.48% in the total number of active cases in October 2020 and a rise of 1.82% in November 2020. Also, the monthly recovered new cases were found to be 16.61, 20.03, and 15.58% in September, October, and November 2020, respectively. The percentage change in the gene concentration was observed in the lead of 1-2 weeks with respect to the percentage change in the provisional figures of confirmed cases. SWEEP data-based city zonation was matched with the heat map of the overall COVID-19 infected population in Ahmedabad city, and month-wise effective gene concentration variations are shown on the map. The results expound on the potential of WBE surveillance of COVID-19 as a city zonation tool that can be meaningfully interpreted, predicted, and propagated for community preparedness through advanced identification of COVID-19 hotspots within a given city.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Águas Residuárias
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537920

RESUMO

Efficient bacterial strain was isolated from the dye contaminated area and identified as Bacillus stratosphericus SCA1007 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence (GenBank under accession number KY992944). This isolate was selected based on its potential to efficiently decolorize reactive orange 16 dye which is extensively used in textile industries. Various culture conditions like dye concentration, temperature, pH, salinity, and additional nitrogen source were optimized in the present study. The optimal conditions for decolorization of reactive orange 16 was found to be: dye concentration 150 mg/L, pH 7, temperature 35 °C, and yeast extract as nitrogen source. The isolate was also resistant to 4% saline culture condition. Decolorization and degradation of dye were confirmed through UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS). Toxicity studies were performed on Escherichia coli and Vigna radiata to confirm the non-toxic nature of the degraded metabolites. This is the first study demonstrating complete decolorization of reactive orange 16 dye by Bacillus stratosphericus SCA1007 at high salinity within 10 h of incubation under optimized conditions.

20.
Indian Pediatr ; 58(9): 857-860, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have documented lower serum zinc levels in patients with febrile seizures in comparison to febrile patients without seizure. However, there is limited evidence comparing the effects of zinc supplementation with placebo on recurrence of febrile seizures in children. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of zinc supplementation on recurrence rate of febrile seizures in children less than 60 months of age. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. DATA SOURCE AND SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases for articles reporting randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of zinc supplementation with placebo on recurrence of febrile seizures in children aged less than 60 months. We performed a fixed effect meta-analysis to provide pooled odds ratio of febrile seizure recurrence. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE approach. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged less than 60 months. INTERVENTION: Zinc supplementation. OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds of febrile seizure recurrence. RESULTS: Four clinical trials with a total of 350 children were included in the review. There was no statistically significant difference between odds of febrile seizure recurrence during one year follow up, in children on zinc supplementation compared to those on placebo (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.41 - 1.18, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence is very low quality and thus inadequate to make practice recommendations.

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