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1.
Indian J Anaesth ; 66(Suppl 3): S148-S153, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35774237

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) is an effective analgesic technique for breast surgery, although it has many associated complications. Ultrasound (US)-guided erector spinae plane (ESP) block requires less technical expertise, is safe and may be an alternative to TEA. We aimed to compare the efficacy of TEA with US-guided continuous ESP block for post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy (MRM) surgeries. Methods: Sixty-six female patients of age group 18-65 years, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, undergoing MRM surgeries were recruited. Patients received TEA in Group Ep and US-guided ESP block in Group Er, before induction of general anaesthesia. Both the groups received 0.2% ropivacaine 15 mL, followed by 5 mL.h-1 infusion for 24 h. The primary outcome was the duration of analgesia. Secondary outcomes were total doses of rescue analgesics in 24 hours and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores at 0 h, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 21.72 ± 4.73 hours in Ep group and 20.60 ± 5.77 hours in Er group (P = 0.39). The total dose of rescue analgesics in the postoperative period was comparable between both the groups. There was no significant difference in VAS scores between the groups over 24 h. Conclusion: US-guided ESP block can be used as safe and easy to perform alternative analgesic technique over thoracic epidural analgesia for peri-operative pain management in breast cancer surgeries.

2.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769163

RESUMO

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

3.
FASEB J ; 36 Suppl 12022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35554609

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects children and adults, and manifests symptoms such as hyperactivity, impulsivity and cognitive disabilities. Psychostimulants, which are the primary treatment for ADHD, target monoamine transporters and have a paradoxical calming effect, but their mechanism of action is unclear. Studies using the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) knockout mice, which have elevated striatal DA levels and are considered an animal model of ADHD, have suggested that the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants might be through the actions on serotonin neurotransmission. On the other hand, newer non-stimulant class of drugs such as atomoxetine and guanfacine suggest that targeting the norepinephrine (NE) system in the PFC might explain this paradoxical calming effect. We sought to decipher the mechanism of this paradoxical effect of psychostimulants through an integrated approach using ex vivo monoamine efflux experiments, monoamine transporter knockout mice, drug infusions and behavior. Our ex vivo efflux experiments reveal that NE transporter (NET) blocker desipramine elevates both norepinephrine and dopamine but not serotonin levels, in PFC tissue slices from wild-type and DAT-KO but not NET-KO mice. However, serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) inhibitor fluoxetine elevates only serotonin in all three genotypes. Systemic administration of both desipramine and fluoxetine but local PFC infusion of only desipramine and not fluoxetine inhibits hyperactivity in the DAT-KO mice. In contrast, pharmacological norepinephrine depletion but dopamine elevation using Nepicastat also inhibits hyperactivity in DAT-KO mice. Together, these data suggest that elevation of PFC dopamine and not norepinephrine or serotonin as a convergent mechanism for the paradoxical psychostimulant effects observed in ADHD therapy.

4.
FASEB J ; 36 Suppl 12022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35556751

RESUMO

Dopamine is a catecholamine neuromodulator implicated in locomotion, motivation, learning and cognitive behaviors. Although striatal dopamine signaling and circuitry are well established, the role of cortical dopamine projection circuitry in regulating striatal dopamine dynamics and behavior is not clear. Glutamatergic pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are topographically organized and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are expressed on glutamatergic pyramidal neurons in the PFC. Using a retrograde adeno-associated virus (AAVRG)-based approach we show that D1R+ subpopulations in medial orbitofrontal or prelimbic regions project to nucleus accumbens core (NAcc) or dorsal striatum (dSTR), respectively. However, D2R+ subpopulations in medial orbitofrontal, or medial prelimbic PFC, project to NAcc or the midbrain (SNpc/VTA) but not dSTR, respectively. Additionally, D1R+ and D2R+ medial orbitofrontal subpopulations have indirect connections to the medial SNpc through the NAcc core. We next wanted to test which of these topographically organized circuits regulate striatal dopamine dynamics during reversal learning. We used fiber photometry to measure striatal dopamine dynamics in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) during reversal learning. We were able to measure reward prediction error (RPE) like responses in the DMS during reversal learning. We will next use an intersectional genetic approach to specifically activate or inhibit dopamine receptor cortical projection circuits and test their effect on striatal dopamine dynamics and reversal learning. Our studies will identify previously unappreciated roles for cortical dopamine projection circuits and their regulation of striatal dopamine dynamics.

5.
Opt Express ; 30(5): 7968-7975, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299548

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate the sensitivity of the frequency-resolved optical switching (FROSt) technique to detect a small amount of spectral phase shift for the precise characterization of ultrashort laser pulses. We characterized fs pulses centered at 1.75 µm that are spectrally broadened up to 700 nm of bandwidth in a hollow-core fiber and subsequently compressed down to 2.3 optical cycle duration by propagation in the air at atmospheric pressure. By inserting thin fused silica windows of different thicknesses in the beam path, we accurately retrieve group delay dispersion (GDD) variations as small as 10 fs2. Such GDD variations correspond to a change of the pulse duration of only 0.2 fs for a Fourier transform limited 2-cycle pulse at 1.75 µm (i.e., 11.8 fs). The capability to measure such tiny temporal variations thus demonstrates that the FROSt technique has sufficient sensitivity to precisely characterize single-cycle pulses.

6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3129, 2022 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210489

RESUMO

Psychostimulants have a paradoxical calming effect in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their mechanism of action is unclear. Studies using dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) mice have suggested that the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants might occur through actions on serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission. However, newer non-stimulant drugs, such as atomoxetine and guanfacine, suggest that targeting the norepinephrine (NE) system in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) might explain this paradoxical calming effect. Thus, we sought to clarify the mechanism of this paradoxical action of psychostimulants. Our ex vivo efflux experiments reveal that the NE transporter (NET) blocker desipramine elevates both norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), but not 5-HT levels, in PFC tissue slices from wild-type (WT) and DAT-KO, but not NET-KO mice. However, the 5-HT transporter (SERT) inhibitor fluoxetine elevates only 5-HT in all three genotypes. Systemic administration of desipramine or fluoxetine inhibits hyperactivity in DAT-KO mice, whereas local PFC infusion of desipramine alone produced this same effect. In contrast, pharmacological NE depletion and DA elevation using nepicastat also inhibits hyperactivity in DAT-KO mice. Together, these data suggest elevation of PFC DA and not NE or 5-HT, as a convergent mechanism for the paradoxical effects of psychostimulants observed in ADHD therapy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/metabolismo , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Dopamina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/deficiência , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
7.
J Kidney Cancer VHL ; 9(1): 9-14, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976575

RESUMO

Primary renal chondrosarcomas are rare tumors that are high-grade in nature and, unfortunately, have poorly understood pathogenesis and extremely low prognosis. The coexistence of a discrete malignancy in the urinary bladder is even rarer, with the occurrence of distinct papillary urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder in this case. The clinical presentation is nonspecific, and the primary radiological investigations have a limited scope in providing specific diagnosis of this entity. The final diagnosis is possible on thorough histopathological examination of the resected specimen, which requires extensive sampling and meticulous reporting. As of now, the only way to achieve a better prognosis is by early diagnosis. It is necessary to keep the possibility of occurrence of sarcomas at rare sites in the differential diagnoses. The cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities associated with this entity need to be elucidated to achieve a more satisfactory outcome concerning the overall management of the patient.

8.
Chemosphere ; 291(Pt 2): 132879, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774914

RESUMO

A significant number of past studies have reported Delhi to witness some of the highest levels of particulate-bound chloride compared to anywhere else in the world. The present study employs long-term, highly time-resolved chloride measurements at the IIT Delhi campus from February 2020 to April 2021. The present work sheds light on the dependence of high chloride levels in Delhi on the winds from the northwest direction. The study makes use of linear regression models and stepped linear models to quantify the role of meteorological variables in driving the seasonal variation of chloride in Delhi. The results indicate that ∼85-88% of the variation in chloride concentration observed in Delhi can be attributed to meteorological parameters, mainly temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and percentage of wind incoming from the northwest (%NW). The results also suggest that the primary chloride emissions remain relatively consistent year-round, and are regionally transported from Delhi's northwest. The results of this study provide valuable insights in understanding the nature of the sources and the variability associated with the chloride levels in Delhi and thus provide a basis for future emission control strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Meteorologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cloretos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
9.
Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus ; 37(4): 684-688, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744352

RESUMO

ß-Thalassaemia, the most common monogenic disorder, is characterized by genetic heterogeneity at the molecular level. More than 300 mutations of the ß globin gene have been characterized all over the world, however, few common mutations account for majority of the cases in various populations. The present study aimed to screen known cases of ß-thalassaemia in the Western part of Rajasthan state for five common mutations. The study included 144 known cases of ß-thalassaemia of all clinical phenotypes. Cases were diagnosed based on clinical features, haematology investigations including haemogram and Hb-HPLC. Blood samples from cases were taken for mutation analysis. After DNA extraction, mutations were characterized by the polymerase chain reaction method employing allele specific priming technique (AMRS) to study the five mutations including IVS-I-5 (G → C), IVS-I-1 (G → T), CD41/42 (-TCTT), CD 8/9 (+G) and 619 bp deletion from the 3' end of the ß-globin gene using a total of seven different primers. Of all 144 cases, 74 (51.38% of all) cases were of ß-thalassaemia major, five (3.4% of all) cases were of ß-thalassaemia intermedia and 65 (45.14% of all) cases were of ß-thalassaemia minor. Mutation analysis revealed that five common mutations were present in 130 (90.27% of all) cases. Among identified mutations, highest frequency of mutation was of IVS-I-5 (G → C) identified in 73 cases (50.7% of all cases). In 11 (7.63% of all) cases, more than one mutation was identified. ß-Thalassaemias are common in Western Rajasthan; however, there is dearth of literature from this part of the country. We observed that five common mutations are common in this part of the country also. These observations are helping us in forming the basis for comprehensive diagnostic database that would not only be useful for genetic counselling but also for prenatal diagnosis.

10.
Biomed Phys Eng Express ; 7(6)2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488195

RESUMO

In this paper, we study the reversible electroporation process on normal and cancerous cervical cells. The 2D contour of the cervical cells is extracted using image processing techniques from the Pap smear images. The conductivity change in the cancer cell model has been used to differentiate the effects of the high-frequency electric field on normal and cancerous cells. The cells' dielectric constant modulates when this high-frequency pulse is applied based on the Debye relaxation. To computationally visualize the effects of the electroporation on the cell membrane, the Smoluchowski equation is employed to estimate pore density, and Maxwell equations are used to determine the electric potential developed across the membrane of the cervical cell. The results demonstrate the suitability of this mathematical model for studying the response of normal and cancerous cells under electric stress. The electric field is supplied with the help of a realistic pulse generator which is designed on the principle of Marx circuit and avalanche transistor-based operations to produce a Gaussian pulse. The paper here uses a strength-duration curve to differentiate the electric field and time in nanoseconds required to electroporate normal and cancerous cells.


Assuntos
Eletroporação , Membrana Celular , Eletricidade , Feminino , Humanos
11.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 28: 100429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246179

RESUMO

We report a case of a massive primary sclerosing pneumocytoma (PSP) involving the right lower lobe adhering esophagus with small synchronous PSP on the superior segment of the left lower lobe with concurrent mutation for B-RAF proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF V600E), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene in a young female. She underwent right lower lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection under single lung ventilation with tumor-free margins on diagnosis-based findings of preoperative computed tomography-guided biopsy and positron emission tomography. Histopathology was suggestive of PSP-papillary variant with concurrent mutation of BRAF V600E and PTEN genes. Post-operative follow-up at four weeks was uneventful. She has to undergo wedge resection for the contralateral disease after six weeks following recovery from the first surgery.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Hemangioma Esclerosante Pulmonar/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase , Hemangioma Esclerosante Pulmonar/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Int ; 153: 106541, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845290

RESUMO

The Government of India (GOI) announced a nationwide lockdown starting 25th March 2020 to contain the spread of COVID-19, leading to an unprecedented decline in anthropogenic activities and, in turn, improvements in ambient air quality. This is the first study to focus on highly time-resolved chemical speciation and source apportionment of PM2.5 to assess the impact of the lockdown and subsequent relaxations on the sources of ambient PM2.5 in Delhi, India. The elemental, organic, and black carbon fractions of PM2.5 were measured at the IIT Delhi campus from February 2020 to May 2020. We report source apportionment results using positive matrix factorization (PMF) of organic and elemental fractions of PM2.5 during the different phases of the lockdown. The resolved sources such as vehicular emissions, domestic coal combustion, and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SVOOA) were found to decrease by 96%, 95%, and 86%, respectively, during lockdown phase-1 as compared to pre-lockdown. An unforeseen rise in O3 concentrations with declining NOx levels was observed, similar to other parts of the globe, leading to the low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosols (LVOOA) increasing to almost double the pre-lockdown concentrations during the last phase of the lockdown. The effect of the lockdown was found to be less pronounced on other resolved sources like secondary chloride, power plants, dust-related, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosols (HOA), and biomass burning related emissions, which were also swayed by the changing meteorological conditions during the four lockdown phases. The results presented in this study provide a basis for future emission control strategies, quantifying the extent to which constraining certain anthropogenic activities can ameliorate the ambient air. These results have direct relevance to not only Delhi but the entire Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), citing similar geographical and meteorological conditions common to the region along with overlapping regional emission sources. SUMMARY OF MAIN FINDINGS: We identify sources like vehicular emissions, domestic coal combustion, and semi-volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (SVOOA) to be severely impacted by the lockdown, whereas ozone levels and, in turn, low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosols (LVOOA) rise by more than 95% compared to the pre-lockdown concentrations during the last phase of the lockdown. However, other sources resolved in this study, like secondary chloride, power plants, dust-related, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosols (HOA), and biomass burning related emissions, were mainly driven by the changes in the meteorological conditions rather than the lockdown.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , COVID-19 , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Emissões de Veículos/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 270: 129435, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412356

RESUMO

A nationwide lockdown was imposed in India due to COVID-19 pandemic in five phases from 25th March to May 31, 2020. The lockdown restricted major anthropogenic activities, primarily vehicular and industrial, thereby reducing the particulate matter concentration. This work investigates the variation in Black Carbon (BC) concentration and its sources (primarily Fossil Fuel (ff) burning and Biomass Burning (bb)) over Delhi from 18th February to July 31, 2020, covering one month of pre-lockdown phase, all the lockdown phases, and two months of successive lockdown relaxations. The daily average BC concentration varied from 0.22 to 16.92 µg/m3, with a mean value of 3.62 ± 2.93 µg/m3. During Pre-Lockdown (PL, 18th Feb-24th March 2020), Lockdown-1 (L1, 25th March-14th April 2020), Lockdown-2 (L2, 15th April-3rd May 2020), Lockdown-3 (L3, 4th-17th May 2020), Lockdown-4 (L4, 18th-31st May 2020), Unlock-1 (UN1, June 2020), and Unlock-2 (UN2, July 2020) the average BC concentrations were 7.93, 1.73, 2.59, 3.76, 3.26, 2.07, and 2.70 µg/m3, respectively. During the lockdown and unlock phases, BC decreased up to 78% compared to the PL period. The BC source apportionment studies show that fossil fuel burning was the dominant BC source during the entire sampling period. From L1 to UN2 an increasing trend in BCff contribution was observed (except L3) due to the successive relaxations given to anthropogenic activities. BCff contribution dipped briefly during L3 due to the intensive crop residue burning events in neighboring states. CWT analysis showed that local emission sources were the dominant contributors to BC concentration over Delhi.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , COVID-19 , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(5): 945-956, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perforator mapping may be performed prior to deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstruction to guide perforator selection. However, the accuracy of different imaging modalities remains unknown. This review aimed to evaluate the accuracy of different modalities for locating perforators for unipedicled DIEP flap breast reconstruction. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from inception to 24th September 2019 for studies concerning adult women undergoing DIEP flap breast reconstruction with preoperative perforator mapping. The index test was pre-operative imaging and the reference standard was intraoperative identification. RESULTS: 21 articles with 1146 women were included. Six methods were described; handheld doppler, colour doppler (duplex) ultrasonography, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), direct infrared thermography with and without doppler. Meta-analysis revealed 94% (95% CI 88-99%) of DIEPs identified as the 'dominant perforator' on imaging were chosen as dominant perforators intraoperatively. Colour doppler (Duplex) ultrasonography had the lowest agreement (mean 74% [95% CI 67-81%]) whilst MRA had the highest agreement (mean 97% [95% CI 86-100%]). There was no statistically significant difference in the performance of different tests. All studies were subject to bias as the operators had knowledge of the index test prior to conducting the reference standard. CONCLUSIONS: Based upon limited evidence, cross sectional (CT/MR) imaging modalities for preoperative DIEP mapping appear to have similar accuracy and perform better than ultrasound.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Artérias Epigástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Epigástricas/transplante , Mamoplastia/métodos , Retalho Perfurante/irrigação sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios
15.
Anesth Essays Res ; 15(2): 188-193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281355

RESUMO

Introduction: Various adjuvants to local anesthetics are used in spinal anesthesia for improving the quality and prolonging postoperative analgesia. We aim to compare the analgesic efficacy of morphine or dexmedetomidine given intrathecally as adjuvants to isobaric levobupivacaine. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients of age group 18-60 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy, were randomized into two groups. Group M received spinal anesthesia with 3 mL of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine with 250 µg of preservative-free morphine. Group D received 3 mL of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine with 5 µg of dexmedetomidine. Quality of anesthesia, sensory and motor block characteristics, duration of effective analgesia, and incidence of side effects were compared. Results: The time for the first analgesic request was 320.80 ± 41.75 min in the dexmedetomidine group as compared to the morphine group (451.63 ± 38.55 min), P = 0.000. The analgesic requirement in the first 24 h was significantly higher in Group D as compared to Group M, P = 0.000. Adverse effects were similar in both the groups, except pruritus which was seen only in Group M. Conclusion: Our study shows that the use of intrathecal morphine as an adjuvant to isobaric levobupivacaine provides better analgesia than intrathecal dexmedetomidine; however, adverse effects such as nausea and pruritus may be seen.

16.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(9): 4801-4804, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209803

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the factors influencing awareness about beta-thalassemia in the population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross sectional study was conducted by the Department of Pathology, AIIMS, Jodhpur. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The study population included participants with medical as well as non-medical background, to ensure representation of all sections of the society. Data was collected in an objective survey form drafted in simple language. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The data was analysed using Microsoft Excel and Chi Square Test for Independence was performed. RESULTS: The participants with a positive family history had significantly more knowledge compared to others, but even these participants didn't have complete knowledge about the disease. Age and gender had no significant impact on the results. The mode of occurrence of beta-thalassemia was known to less than half of the participants, with even less number being aware of the fact that diagnosis of beta-thalassemia can be made before birth. Participants with a medical background were aware that there were several forms of beta-thalassemia, but the knowledge about treatment options was limited. CONCLUSIONS: Various factors affect the awareness in the general population, which has an effect on the outcome of screening programmes. There is a need for successful implementation of a screening programme for beta-thalassemia in order to reduce the financial burden that it imposes on healthcare facilities and to lessen the emotional burden on relatives of patients with the disease.

17.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207587

RESUMO

Dielectric elastomers (DEs) represent a class of electroactive polymers that deform due to electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged electrodes under a varying electric field. Over the last couple of decades, DEs have garnered considerable attention due to their much-coveted actuation properties. As far as the precise measurement systems are concerned, however, there is no standard instrument or interface to quantify various related parameters, e.g., actuation stress, strain, voltage and creeping etc. In this communication, we present an in-depth study of dielectric actuation behavior of dielectric rubbers by the state-of-the-art "Dresden Smart Rubber Analyzer" (DSRA), designed and developed in-house. The instrument allowed us to elucidate various factors that could influence the output efficiency of the DEs. Herein, several non-conventional DEs such as hydrogenated nitrile rubber, nitrile rubber with different acrylonitrile contents, were employed as an electro-active matrix. The effect of viscoelastic creeping on the prestrain, molecular architecture of the matrices, e.g., nitrile content of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) etc., are also discussed in detail.

18.
J Oral Maxillofac Pathol ; 24(1): 164-167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508467

RESUMO

Schwannomas are rare benign encapsulated neoplasms that usually do not arise in the nasal and oral cavities. Only about 25% of the schwannomas are located in the head-and-neck region. The preoperative diagnosis of schwannomas in the head-and-neck region is difficult, as they present with varied clinical manifestations and have nonspecific radiological findings, which can lead to a diagnostic dilemma. We report two cases of schwannomas, one in the nasal cavity and the other in the tongue, that were considered to be an infective lesion and malignant lesion respectively on clinical evaluation. The biopsy and subsequent histopathological examination led to the diagnosis of schwannoma. It is important to be aware of the unusual clinical manifestations of schwannomas and keep it in the differential diagnoses, even at relatively uncommon sites such as the nasal and oral cavities. Lesions that are suspected to be infectious lesions or malignant lesions on clinical and/or radiological evaluation can also be schwannomas. Unnecessary diagnostic evaluations and radical therapeutic measures can be avoided with early diagnosis.

19.
Parasitology ; 147(10): 1100-1113, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450933

RESUMO

The genome of Plasmodium falciparum has one of the most skewed base-pair compositions of any eukaryote, with an AT content of 80-90%. As start and stop codons are AT-rich, the probability of finding upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is high and parasite mRNAs have an average of 11 uORFs in their leader sequences. Similar to other eukaryotes, uORFs repress the translation of the downstream open reading frame (dORF) in P. falciparum, yet the parasite translation machinery is able to bypass these uORFs and reach the dORF to initiate translation. This can happen by leaky scanning and/or reinitiation.In this report, we assessed leaky scanning and reinitiation by studying the effect of uORFs on the translation of a dORF, in this case, the luciferase reporter gene, and showed that both mechanisms are employed in the asexual blood stages of P. falciparum. Furthermore, in addition to the codon usage of the uORF, translation of the dORF is governed by the Kozak sequence and length of the uORF, and inter-cistronic distance between the uORF and dORF. Based on these features whole-genome data was analysed to uncover classes of genes that might be regulated by uORFs. This study indicates that leaky scanning and reinitiation appear to be widespread in asexual stages of P. falciparum, which may require modifications of existing factors that are involved in translation initiation in addition to novel, parasite-specific proteins.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Protozoário/genética , Genes , Humanos , Sinais Direcionadores de Proteínas
20.
Exp Neurol ; 329: 113290, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240659

RESUMO

Modeling experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodents is necessarily required to understand the pathophysiological and neurobehavioral consequences of neurotrauma. Numerous models have been developed to study experimental TBI. Fluid percussion injury (FPI) is the most extensively used model to represent clinical phenotypes. Nevertheless, the surgical 'sham' procedure (craniectomy), a prerequisite of FPI, is the impeding factor in experimental TBI. We hypothesized that if craniectomy causes substantial structural and functional changes in the brain, it might mimic the mild FPI-induced neurobehavioral dysfunctions. To understand the hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to lateral FPI at 1.2 atm pressure and changes in the neuronal architecture, hippocampal neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and behavioral functions were compared to the sham (craniectomy) and control mice at day 7 post-FPI. We observed that both the craniectomy and FPI significantly augmented the ipsilateral hippocampal neurogenesis as evaluated by DCX and Beta-III tubulin immunoreactivity. Similarly, a significant increase in GFAP and TMEM immunoreactivity in CA1 and CA3 regions showed that craniectomy mimics FPI-induced neuroinflammation. The additive damaging effect of craniectomy with FPI was also reported in the term of axonal and dendritic fragmentation, swelling and neuronal death using silver staining, Fluoro-jade, and MAP-2 immunoreactivity. Sham-exposed mice showed a significant functional decrease in grip strength. Our results indicate that sham craniectomy itself is enough to cause TBI like characteristics, and thus fluid percussion at mild pressure is minimally additive with craniectomy. Considering the method as a mixed (focal & diffused) injury model, the 'net neurotrauma severity' should be compared with naïve control instead of the sham as it is an outcome of cumulative damage due to fluid pressure and craniectomy. Nevertheless, to understand the long term consequences of neurotrauma, the extent of recovery in surgical sham may separately be quantified.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Locomoção/fisiologia , Percussão/efeitos adversos , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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