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1.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114407, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216116

RESUMO

Fungal abetted processes are among the finest approaches for the transformation or degradation and decolorization of dyes in effluents. In this piece of research; biodegradation and metabolic pathways of two toxic dyes Congo Red (CR) and Reactive black 5 (RB5) by two strains of Aspergillus sp. fungus in batch experiments has been investigated. Morphological characteristics of the isolates were observed with both light and electron microscopies. Based on molecular characterization the isolates were identified as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The degradation was also optimized via. operational parameters such as pH, temperature, incubation time, inoculums size, dye concentration, carbon sources and nitrogen sources. Degradation measurements revealed that the isolates effectively degraded 90% and 96% of CR and RB5 respectively. Metabolites were identified with Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) and degradation pathways of the dyes were proposed. Toxicity assay Phaseolus mungo seeds showed that pure CR and RB5 dyes exhibits significant toxicity whereas fungal treated dye solution resulted in an abatement of the toxicity and cell viability was increased. The results stipulated in this article clearly showed the effectiveness of the isolates on detoxification of CR and RB5 dyes.


Assuntos
Corantes , Águas Residuárias , Corantes/química , Cinética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Vermelho Congo/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/toxicidade , Compostos Azo/metabolismo
2.
Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; : 1-5, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36467275

RESUMO

This report highlights the outcome of valve replacement using TTK Chitra heart mechanical valve in a subgroup of pediatric patients This cohort of 27 pediatric patients with implantations during January 2006 to December 2018 was followed up prospectively. The cohort consisted of 12 aortic valve replacement (AVR), 14 mitral valve replacement (MVR), and 1 double valve replacement (DVR) patients. Total follow-up was 254 patient-years (AVR = 107, MVR = 136, DVR = 11) being 90% complete. The results show that the survival rates and event-free rates were satisfactory. Despite many reservations due to the high risk involved, the long-term benefits of having a durable valve replacement seem to outweigh the risks and offer acceptable long-term survival.

3.
Epilepsy Behav Rep ; 20: 100575, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471706

RESUMO

Monogenic epilepsies are a significant etiology of pediatric epilepsy. These are now more easily identified due to advances in genetic testing. However, the utility of genetic testing in low to middle-income countries (LMICs) has not been fully explored. A retrospective review was carried out in Karachi, Pakistan. Patients with symptoms suggestive of genetic epilepsy underwent next-generation sequencing (NGS). Seventy-seven patients were tested, of which 27 % (n = 21) initially had pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) results. This increased to 32 % (n = 25) after clinical reclassification of some variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) based on American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines. Initially, 6 % of patients (n = 5) had no P/LP or VUS, and 66 % (n = 51) had at least one VUS. After variant resolution and reclassification, results were negative for 25% (n = 19) and 43% (n = 33) had VUSs. Genetic testing was positive in one-third of our population. The proportion of P/LP variants found in SCN1A is higher than that found in other populations, and we report two novel variants in SCN1A. The yield of genetic testing in our population is comparable to that found in North America. Initially, a higher proportion of our population had inconclusive results, indicating the need for better characterization of the South Asian genotype.

4.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(8): 4117-4118, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36352936

RESUMO

Letters to the editor are not often considered high in the publication hierarchy but they contribute immensely to the growth and development of any discipline and scientific examination. In many academic settings, letters to editors are not accounted for promotion and career advancement. However, letter to editor publications by active readers are no lesser contribution to science and they should be considered of equal stature and at par with other published manuscript types.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(22)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431551

RESUMO

The findings of an extensive experimental research study on the usage of nano-sized cement powder and other additives combined to form cement-fine-aggregate matrices are discussed in this work. In the laboratory, dry and wet methods were used to create nano-sized cements. The influence of these nano-sized cements, nano-silica fumes, and nano-fly ash in different proportions was studied to the evaluate the engineering properties of the cement-fine-aggregate matrices concerning normal-sized, commercially available cement. The composites produced with modified cement-fine-aggregate matrices were subjected to microscopic-scale analyses using a petrographic microscope, a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). These studies unravelled the placement and behaviour of additives in controlling the engineering properties of the mix. The test results indicated that nano-cement and nano-sized particles improved the engineering properties of the hardened cement matrix. The wet-ground nano-cement showed the best result, 40 MPa 28th-day compressive strength, without mixing any additive compared with ordinary and dry-ground cements. The mix containing 50:50 normal and wet-ground cement exhibited 37.20 MPa 28th-day compressive strength. All other mixes with nano-sized dry cement, silica fume, and fly ash with different permutations and combinations gave better results than the normal-cement-fine-aggregate mix. The petrographic studies and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analyses further validated the above findings. Statistical analyses and techniques such as correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis were conducted to compose a predictive equation to calculate the 28th-day compressive strength. In addition to these methods, a repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was also implemented to analyse the statistically significant differences among three differently timed strength readings.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433217

RESUMO

A mobile agent is a software application that moves naturally among hosts in a uniform and non-uniform environment; it starts with one host and then moves onto the next in order to divide data between clients. The mobile paradigm is utilized in a wide assortment of medical care applications such as the medical information of a patient, the recovery of clinical information, the incorporation of information pertaining to their wellbeing, dynamic help, telemedicine, obtaining clinical data, patient administration, and so on. The accompanying security issues have grown in tandem with the complexity and improvements in mobile agent technologies. As mobile agents work in an insecure environment, their security is a top priority when communicating and exchanging data and information. Data integrity, data confidentiality and authentication, on-repudiation, denial of service, and access control, are all key security concerns with mobile agent migration. This paper proposes a Verifiable, Secure Mobile Agent Migration model, based on two polynomials (t, n), and an edge secret imparting plan with Blowfish encryption, to enable secure information transmission in clinical medical care.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Telemedicina , Humanos , Confidencialidade , Algoritmos , Software
7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235971

RESUMO

Lateral reinforcement has a significant impact on the strength and ductility of concrete. Extra confinement is provided in this project by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets wrapped around the outside of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. To determine the failure criteria and maximum load-carrying capacity of beams, numerous specimens were cast and tested in a flexural testing machine. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of functionally damaged reinforced concrete beams repaired in flexure with CFRP sheets. The most essential variable in this study is the CFRP sheet scheme, and seven different strengthening schemes (B1 to B7) were explored in the experimental program. In conclusion, the findings of the study showed that flexural retrofitting of reinforced concrete beams with CFRP sheets is functionally effective, with restored strength and stiffness values roughly equivalent to or greater than those of the control beam (CB1). The efficiency of the flexural retrofitting mechanism appears to vary depending on the layout of the CFRP sheet. Steel rupture and concrete crushing were shown to be the most common failure modes in the investigation, causing CFRP sheets to break in retrofitted beams.

8.
Ann Pediatr Cardiol ; 15(2): 114-120, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36246745

RESUMO

Background: Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are rare and present variably with hepatic encephalopathy, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Objective: The objective of the study was to see the feasibility of transcatheter closure of CPSS and their outcome. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the data of 24 patients of CPSS who underwent transcatheter closure from five institutions (March 2013 to April 2019). Baseline evaluation included echocardiography with bubble contrast study, ultrasound examination of the abdomen, computed tomography angiogram, and cardiac catheterization with test balloon occlusion of the CPSS. The evaluation showed cyanosis due to PAVM in 12, PH in 8, and respiratory distress in 2. Two had both cyanosis and PH. Criteria for eligibility for complete catheter closure of CPSS included demonstration of intrahepatic portal vein (PV) radicals together with a PV pressure of ≤18 mmHg on occlusion. Results: The median age and weight were 8 years (0.5-21) and 19.5 kg (4.2-73), respectively. Transcatheter closure was performed in 21 patients (22 procedures) using a variety of occlusive devices and stent-graft exclusion was done in one patient. Closure was not done in 3 in view of high portal venous pressures and hypoplastic PVs. During the follow-up (median: 42 months and range: 61 days-4.8 years), saturation normalized in 14 patients with PAVM. PH declined in all eight patients who underwent the procedure. Respiratory distress improved in two patients. Conclusions: Early and short-term follow-up results of catheter closure of CPSS appear promising. However, further, follow-up is needed to demonstrate long-term effectiveness.

9.
Anesth Essays Res ; 16(1): 36-41, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36249131

RESUMO

Background: Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia (CSEA) is commonly performed by double space technique (DST) and single space segment technique (SST) or needle-through-needle technique (NNT). Aims and Objectives: We designed a double-blind randomized controlled study to compare the effect of the double-space technique with that of the single-space technique on time required by the procedure, the number of attempts, and a level of sensory, side effects and cost-effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing elective lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries under regional anesthesia were randomized to receive CSEA with either the double-space technique (double group, n = 30) or the single-space technique (single group, n = 30). In the single group, the procedure was performed at the L3-4 interspace using the needle-through-needle technique. In the double group, an epidural catheter was inserted at the L1-2 interspace, and dural puncture was performed at the L3-4 interspace. Results: The single space (needle-through-needle) technique for CSE takes less time, less number of spinal punctures. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of side effects. Sensory level at T10 on 5 min in group I was 90% and group II was 100% whereas at T8 it was 10% in group I; sensory level at T10, T8 and T6 on 10 min. in group I were 53.3%, 43.3% and 3.3% respectively whereas in group II were 80%, 16.7% and 3.3% respectively; sensory level at T10, T8, T6 and T4 on 15 min. in group I were 6.7%, 43.3%, 50% and 0% respectively whereas in group II were 23.3%, 50%, 23.3% and 3.3% respectively; and sensory level at T4, T6 and T8 on 20 min. in group I were 0%, 73.3% and 26.7% respectively whereas in group II were 16.7%, 33.3% and 50% respectively. Conclusions: Single-space (needle-through-needle) CSEA takes less time, less number of spinal punctures and results in improved patient satisfaction. There were no differences in intraoperative variables between the DST and SST for CSEA.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(20)2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36295397

RESUMO

One of the sustainability goals in the aeronautical industry includes developing cost-effective, high-performance engine components possessing complex curved geometries with excellent dimensional precision and surface quality. In this regard, several developments in wire electric discharge machining have been reported, but the influence of flushing attributes is not thoroughly investigated and is thus studied herein. The influence of four process variables, namely servo voltage, flushing pressure, nozzle diameter, and nozzle-workpiece distance, were analyzed on Inconel 718 in relation to geometrical errors (angular and radial deviations), spark gap formation, and arithmetic roughness. In this regard, thorough statistical and microscopical analyses are employed with mono- and multi-objective process optimization. The grey relational analysis affirms the reduction in the process's limitations, validated through confirmatory experimentation results as 0.109 mm spark gap, 0.956% angular deviation, 3.49% radial deviation, and 2.2 µm surface roughness. The novel flushing mechanism improved the spark gap by 1.92%, reducing angular and radial deviations by 8.24% and 29.11%, respectively.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079283

RESUMO

In engineering applications, such as automobile, marine, aerospace, and railway, lightweight alloys of aluminum (Al) and magnesium (Mg) ensure design fitness for fuel economy, better efficiency, and overall cost reduction. Friction stir welding (FSW) for joining dissimilar materials has been considered better than the conventional fusion welding process because of metallurgical concerns. In this study, dissimilar joints were made between the AA6061 (A), AZ31B (B), and AZ91D (C) combinations based on the varying advancing side (AS) and retreating side (RS). The dissimilar joints prepared by the FSW process were further characterized by tensile testing, impact testing, corrosion testing, fracture, and statistical and cost analysis. The results revealed a maximum tensile strength of 192.39 MPa in AZ91 and AZ31B, maximum yield strength of 134.38 MPa in a combination of AA6061 and AZ91, maximum hardness of 114 Hv in AA6061 and AZ31B, and lowest corrosion rate of 7.03 mV/A in AA6061 and AZ31B. The results of the properties were supported by photomicrographic fracture analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. Further, the performance of dissimilar joints was statistically analyzed and prioritized for preference by similarity to the ideal solution (TOPSIS) method.

12.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H ; 236(12): 1695-1710, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134552

RESUMO

Since its beginnings, three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology has been successful because of ongoing advances in operating principles, the range of materials and cost-saving measures. However, the 3DP technological progressions in the biomedical sector have majorly taken place in the last decade after the evolution of novel 3DP systems, generally categorised as bioprinters and biomaterials to provide a replacement, transplantation or regeneration of the damaged organs and tissue constructs of the human body. There is now substantial scientific literature accessible to support the benefits of digital healthcare procedures with the help of bioprinters. It is of the highest significance to know the fundamental principles of the available printers and the compatibility of biomaterials as their feedstock, notwithstanding the huge potential of bioprinting systems to manufacture organs and other human body components. This paper provides a precise and helpful reading of the different categories of bioprinters, suitable biomaterials, numerical simulations and modelling and examples of much acknowledged clinical practices. The paper will also cite the prominent issues that still have not received desired solutions. Overall, the article will be of great use for all the professionals, scholars and engineers concerned with the 3DP, bioprinting and biomaterials.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Engenharia Tecidual , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Bioimpressão/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Materiais Biocompatíveis
13.
STAR Protoc ; 3(4): 101693, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121748

RESUMO

Immunoprecipitation (IP) of endogenously expressed proteins is one of the most biologically relevant techniques to identify protein-protein interactions. We describe an adaptable IP protocol reliant on a specific antibody to the target protein. We detail a quantitative proteomics workflow for the unbiased identification of co-immunoprecipitating proteins, known collectively as an interactome. This includes protocols for the tryptic digestion, Tandem Mass Tag labeling and fractionation of peptides, and their identification and quantification using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry including computational and statistical analysis. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Johnson et al. (2020).

14.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(6): 3308-3311, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119211

RESUMO

Haemangiomas are one of the most common of all human birth defects and are based on vascular tissues. These lesions are mainly identified into two groups which are named as (a) capillary and (b) cavernous haemangioma. Capillary haemangioma consists of small capillary vessels which show lobules formation. Cavernous haemangioma consists of large dilated vessels and they can reach to large sizes. Many treatment modalities are evaluated in which some modalities are successful and some are quite disappointing. Surgical excision, irradiation, CO2 freezing, sclerosing agents, cauterization, steroid therapy and watchful waiting are among the treatment methods evaluated. The treatment plan established for Haemangiomas must consider aspects such as size, location, lesion hemodynamics, patient's age and viability of the technique to be used. In the present series of two case reports, the management of haemangioma was done using two different modalities depending on their presentation so that major complications can be avoided and more attention should be paid to more conservative treatment modalities.

15.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 1): 114257, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084676

RESUMO

In the present work we synthesize nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) using Rhododendron arboretum (flower) (RNi), Tinospora cordifolia (stems) (GNi), Corylus jacquemontii (seeds) (CNi), and Nardostachys jatamansi (roots) (NNi) extracts by co-precipitation method. The synthesized NiO NPs were characterized in detail in terms of their morphological, crystalline nature, structural and antiproliferative activity against rat skeletal myoblast (L-6) cell lines. Morphological studies confirmed the formation of nanoparticles, while the structural and compositional characterization revealed the well-crystallinity and high purity of the synthesized nanoparticles. For biological applications and cytotoxicity examinations of the synthesized NPs, the rat skeletal myoblast (L-6) cell lines were subjected to study. By detailed cytotoxic investigations, it was observed that among the four kinds of NiO NPs prepared through different plant extracts, the Tinospora cordifolia (stems) showed strong antiproliferative activity against rat skeletal myoblast (L-6) cell lines and the calculated IC50 was 1.671 mg/mL. The observed antiproliferative activity towards different NiO NPs were in the order of GNi > NNi > RNi > CNi. The present studies demonstrate that simply synthesized NiO can efficiently be used as antiproliferative agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Animais , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Níquel/metabolismo , Níquel/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is widely perceived that the value of physical examination in paediatric cardiology has diminished with the increasing availability of echocardiography. The accuracy of physical examination of cardiovascular system in children has not been systematically tested. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, diagnostic accuracy study from the paediatric cardiology clinic of a tertiary referral hospital in South India. A total of 545 children with 5 common cardiac conditions were included-normal heart, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect (VSD) and VSD with pulmonic stenosis. Physical examination was documented by a paediatric cardiology fellow and a consultant who were blinded to previous investigations and to each other. The accuracy of physical examination of the fellow and the consultant was determined for each patient group by comparing with echocardiography. Interobserver agreement was calculated using kappa statistics. RESULTS: Physical examination differentiated normal hearts from abnormal with an accuracy of 95.0% for fellows and 96.3% for consultants. For all abnormal hearts, the results for fellows and consultants, respectively, were as follows: sensitivity: 94.3%, 94.9%, specificity: 96.2%, 98.6%, accuracy: 95.0%, 96.3%, positive likelihood ratio: 24.8, 66.4 and negative likelihood ratio: 0.06, 0.05. There was good agreement between fellows and consultant for all patient groups (kappa: 0.72-1), except for large VSD (kappa: 0.232). Younger age and haemodynamically insignificant lesions were associated with incorrect diagnosis. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the utility of clinical examination in initial screening for commonly encountered congenital cardiac conditions even in the current era of echocardiography.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Comunicação Interventricular , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Comunicação Interventricular/complicações , Humanos , Exame Físico
18.
Indian J Urol ; 38(3): 210-215, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35983107

RESUMO

Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a known risk factor of penile cancer (PeCa). However, studies evaluating its true association are limited. In this study, we aimed to estimate HPV prevalence and its true association with PeCa in terms of molecular biological activities. Materials and Methods: This single-institutional prospective observational study was conducted between June 2016 and August 2019. We included 40 men with PeCa as a study group and 20 age-matched uncircumcised men who underwent circumcision for phimosis as a control group. Both the groups underwent deoxyribonucleic acid isolation for HPV subtyping followed by evaluation of relative E6/E7 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression profile and relative telomerase activity in tissue samples. HPV-16 and -18 were categorized as high-risk, whereas HPV-6 and -11 were categorized as low-risk subtypes. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age of PeCa was 51 ± 15.9 years. The majority of patients had stage II disease, and the most common procedure done was partial penectomy. The overall prevalence of HPV in PeCa was 42.5% (n = 17) as compared to 20% (n = 4) in controls. Among the subtypes, the most common subtype was HPV-16 noted in 33.3% (8/24) of cases, followed by HPV-18 in 29.2% (7/24) of cases. PeCa tissues had a significantly higher relative E7 mRNA expression for HPV-18 than the control group (P = 0.016). The mean relative telomerase activity was significantly higher in the PeCa tissues than the control group (138.66 vs. 14.46, P < 0.001). A significantly higher relative telomerase activity was noted in the PeCa tissues positive for high-risk HPV subtypes than controls (141.90 vs. 14.46, P = 0.0008), but not between high-risk HPV-positive and HPV-negative PeCa cases (141.90 vs. 137.03, P = 0.79). High-risk subtypes were not associated with tumor stage (P = 0.76) or lymph node metastasis (P = 0.816). Conclusions: HPV was associated in 42.5% of PeCa cases based on our experience from a single institution. PeCa tissues had a higher relative E7 mRNA expression for HPV-18 and relative telomerase activity as compared to controls suggesting their potential role as surrogate markers of virus-induced tumorigenesis.

20.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 13(8)2022 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893166

RESUMO

The demand for the surface integrity of complex structures is drastically increasing in the field of aerospace, marine and automotive industry. Therefore, Inconel alloy, due to its superior attributes, has a wide scope for the improvement in surface integrity. To achieve the precise surface finish and enhance the process performance, process optimization is necessary. In current paper, chemically assisted MAF process parameters were optimized using the genetic algorithm (GA) approach during finishing of Inconel 625 tubes. Regression models were developed for improvement in internal surface finish (PIISF), improvement in external surface finish (PIESF), and material removal (MR) using Design expert software. Then, the surface microstructure of Inconel 625 tubes was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ANOVA analysis predicts that processing time and abrasive size have the highest percentage contribution in improving the surface finish and material removal. Multioptimization results suggested to set the level of processing time (A) at 75 min, surface rotational speed (B) at 60 RPM, weight % of abrasives (C) at 30%, chemical concentration (D) at 500 gm/lt and abrasive size (E) at 40 microns to obtain optimal parameters for PIISF, PIESF and MR responses.

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