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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112572, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352571

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have associated chronic exposure to arsenic (As) from drinking water with increased risk of hypertension. However, evidence of an association between As exposure from food and hypertension risks is sparse. To quantify the association between daily As intake from both food (rice, wheat and potatoes) and drinking water (Aswater) along with total exposure (Astotal) and hypertension risks in a study population in Bihar, India, we conducted an individual level cross-sectional analysis between 2017 and 2019 involving 150 participants. Arsenic intake variables and three indicators of hypertension risks (general hypertension, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) were derived, and any relationship was quantified using a series of crude and multivariable log-linear or logistic regression models. The prevalence of general hypertension was 40% for the studied population. The median level of HDL was 45 mg/dL while median value of LDL was 114 mg/dL. Apart from a marginally significant positive relationship between As intake from rice and the changes of LDL (p-value = 0.032), no significant positive association between As intake and hypertension risks could be ascertained. In fact, Astotal was found to be associated with lower risks of general hypertension and higher levels of HDL (p-value = 0.020 and 0.010 respectively) whilst general hypertension was marginally associated with lower Aswater (p-value = 0.043). Due to limitations regarding study design and residual confounding, all observed marginal associations should be treated with caution.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Hipertensão , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Arsênio/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(32): 43923-43934, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840036

RESUMO

Arsenic poisoning through groundwater is the world's greatest normal groundwater catastrophe which got an immense effect on worldwide general wellbeing. India is confronting the outcomes of arsenic poisoning in the zone of Ganga Brahmaputra alluvial plains. In Bihar, out of 38 districts, 18 districts are exceptionally influenced with groundwater arsenic defilement. In the present study, we have assessed the current situation of arsenic exposure in Sabalpur village of Saran district of Bihar after reporting of breast, renal, skin and thyroid cancer cases from this village along with typical symptoms of arsenicosis. Such cancer patients were identified at our institute and were taken for the study. The present investigation deals with the quantification of arsenic in groundwater, hair and nail samples of subjects as well as the survey of entire village to know the overall health status of the village people. A total of n=128 household handpump water samples as well as n=128 human hair and nail samples were collected from over n=520 households. Using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GF-AAS), all the samples were analysed. The investigation resulted that the 61% of the analysed samples particularly the groundwater had the arsenic levels more than the permissible limit of WHO (> 10 µg/L) with 244.20 µg/L as the highest arsenic contamination in one of the handpump water sample. The exposure effect of hair sample was worst as 88% of all the collected samples were having high arsenic levels more than the permissible limit (> 0.2 mg/Kg). In case of nail samples, 92% of the samples were having high arsenic concentration more than the permissible limit (> 0.5 mg/Kg). The health survey study revealed high magnitude of disease burden in the exposed population with symptoms such as asthma, anaemia, hepatomegaly, diabetes, cardiac problem, skin fungal infections, breathlessness and mental disability. Few cancer cases of renal, skin, breast and cervix were also found among the exposed population of this village. The percentage of cancer cases in this village was 0.94% that was low, but it would be an aggravated situation in the near future if people will continue drinking arsenic-contaminated water. Therefore, a mitigation intervention was carried out in March 2020 by installing an arsenic filter plant. The health situation in the village in the present scenario is hope to improve in the coming years. However, motivation and awareness among the village population are still required.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Arsênico , Arsênio , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Intoxicação por Arsênico/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Polivinil , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
3.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(6): 2185-2195, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754434

RESUMO

AIM: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is able to describe the composition of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) as percent (%) reads rather than positive/negative results. Therefore, we used this unique approach to assess the prevalence of cervical HPVs of HIV infected (HIV+) in order to understand the determinants of being infected with higher % reads of high risk (HR)-HPVs and cervical abnormalities of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance or higher (ASCUS+). METHODS: Study included 66 women characterized for relevant risk factors/cytology. Receiver-operating curve curve was used to derive the optimal % read cut point to identify ASCUS+ in relation to any HR-HPV genotype or other specific HPV genotypes. The determinants of ASCUS+ and HR-HPVs were tested using logistic regression. RESULTS: Women with >20% reads of any HR-HPV or >12% any HR-HPV other than HPV 16/18 were 5.7 and 12.6 times more likely to be diagnosed with ASCUS+, respectively. Lower CD4 count was a significant determinant of >20% reads of HR-HPV (odds ratio [OR] = 4.1) or >12% any HR-HPV other than HPV 16/18 (OR = 4.5). CONCLUSION: We envision that the NGS-based HPV detection will be more accurate for screening and management of HIV+ at risk for developing cervical cancer (CC). We raise concerns regarding the limitations of 16/18-based HPV testing for triage and the efficacy of current HPV vaccines for preventing CC in HIV+.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Papillomavirus Humano 18 , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
4.
Asia Pac J Atmos Sci ; : 1-16, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33552402

RESUMO

The present paper designed to understand the variations in the atmospheric pollutants viz. PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO during the COVID-19 pandemic over eight most polluted Indian cities (Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Chandigarh, Kolkata, and Ahmedabad). A significant reduction in the PM2.5 (63%), PM10 (56%), NO2 (50%), SO2 (9%), and CO (59%) were observed over Major Dhyan Chand Stadium. At Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, a decline of 44% in PM2.5 and 50% in PM10 was seen just a week during the initial phase of the lockdown. Gaseous pollutants (NO2, SO2 & CO) dropped up-to 36, 16, and 41%, respectively. The Air Quality Index (AQI) shows a dramatic change from 7% to 67% during observation at Chandigarh and Ballygunge during the inspection. Whereas, Ahmedabad, Worli, Income Tax Office, Talkatora, Lalbagh, and Ballygaunge have showed a significant change in AQI from 25.76% to 68.55%. However, Zoo Park, CST, Central School, and Victoria show relatively low variation in AQI in the range of 3.0% to 14.50% as compare to 2019 after lockdown. Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) analysis suggested that long range transportation of pollutants were also a part and parcel contributing to changes in AQI which were majorly coming from the regions of Iran, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, as well as a regional grant from Indian Gangatic plains and Delhi Non-capital region.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2376, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504854

RESUMO

Reportedly, 300 million people worldwide are affected by the consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater. India prominently figures amongst them and the state of Bihar has shown an upsurge in cases affected by arsenic poisoning. Escalated arsenic content in blood, leaves 1 in every 100 human being highly vulnerable to being affected by the disease. Uncontrolled intake may lead to skin, kidney, liver, bladder, or lung related cancer but even indirect forms of cancer are showing up on a regular basis with abnormal arsenic levels as the probable cause. But despite the apparent relation, the etiology has not been understood clearly. Blood samples of 2000 confirmed cancer patients were collected from pathology department of our institute. For cross-sectional design, 200 blood samples of subjects free from cancer from arsenic free pockets of Patna urban agglomeration, were collected. Blood arsenic levels in carcinoma patients as compared to sarcomas, lymphomas and leukemia were found to be higher. The geospatial map correlates the blood arsenic with cancer types and the demographic area of Gangetic plains. Most of the cancer patients with high blood arsenic concentration were from the districts near the river Ganges. The raised blood arsenic concentration in the 2000 cancer patients strongly correlates the relationship of arsenic with cancer especially the carcinoma type which is more vulnerable. The average arsenic concentration in blood of the cancer patients in the Gangetic plains denotes the significant role of arsenic which is present in endemic proportions. Thus, the study significantly correlates and advocates a strong relation of the deleterious element with the disease. It also underlines the need to address the problem by deciphering the root cause of the elevated cancer incidences in the Gangetic basin of Bihar and its association with arsenic poisoning.


Assuntos
Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Arsênio/sangue , Intoxicação por Arsênico/complicações , Intoxicação por Arsênico/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142082, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919317

RESUMO

Extensive evidence of elevated arsenic (As) in the food-chain, mainly rice, wheat and vegetables exists. Nevertheless, the importance of exposure from food towards total As exposure and associated health risks in areas with natural occurring As in drinking water is still often neglected, and accordingly mitigations are largely focused on drinking water only. In this study, the contribution of food over drinking water to overall As exposure was estimated for As exposed populations in Bihar, India. Increased lifetime cancer risk was predicted using probabilistic methods with input parameters based on detailed dietary assessment and estimation of As in drinking water, cooked rice, wheat flour and potato collected from 91 households covering 19 villages. Median total exposure was 0.83 µg/kgBW/day (5th and 95th percentiles were 0.21 and 11.1 µg/kgBW/day) and contribution of food (median = 49%) to overall exposure was almost equal to that from drinking water (median = 51%). More importantly and contrary to previous studies, food was found to contribute more than drinking water to As exposure, even when drinking water As was above the WHO provisional guide value of 10 µg/L. Median and 95th percentile excess lifetime cancer risks from food intake were 1.89 × 10-4 and 7.32 × 10-4 respectively when drinking water As was below 10 µg/L and 4.00 × 10-4 and 1.83 × 10-3 respectively when drinking water As was above 10 µg/L. Our results emphasise the importance of food related exposure in As-endemic areas, and, perhaps surprisingly, particularly in areas with high As concentrations in drinking water - this being partly ascribed to increases in food As due to cooking in high As water. These findings are timely to stress the importance of removing As from the food chain and not just drinking water in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Potável , Oryza , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Índia/epidemiologia , Triticum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 14(7): 635-641, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010141

RESUMO

There has been exponential growth in the amount of data being generated on a daily basis. Such a huge amount of data creates a need for efficient data storage techniques. Due to the limitations of existing storage media, new storage solutions have always been of interest. There have been recent developments in order to efficiently use synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for information storage. DNA storage has attracted researchers because of its extremely high data storage density, about 1 exabyte/mm3 and long life under easily achievable conditions. This work presents an encoding scheme for DNA-based data storage system with controllable redundancy and reliability, the authors have also talked about the feasibility of the proposed method. The authors have also analysed the proposed algorithm for time and space complexity. The proposed encoding scheme tries to minimise the bases per letter ratio while controlling the redundancy. They have experimented with three different types of data with a value of redundancy as 0.75. In the randomised simulation setup, it was observed that the proposed algorithm was able to correctly retrieve the stored data in our experiments about 94% of the time. In the situation, where redundancy was increased to 1, the authors were able to retrieve all the information correctly in the proposed experiments.

8.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 86(5): 508-514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525101

RESUMO

Background: Long-term low-dose methotrexate therapy is associated with liver fibrosis. Although liver biopsy is the gold standard for detecting fibrosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with morbidity and mortality risks. Hence noninvasive imaging techniques such as transient elastography (TE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) have been studied to measure liver stiffness. Aims: To assess the utility of TE and SWE in detecting fibrosis in patients with psoriasis and reactive arthritis on long-term methotrexate therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was undertaken on 54 patients with psoriasis and reactive arthritis who had received ≥1.5 g of methotrexate. Various clinical and biochemical [fibrosis 4 index (FIB4), aspartate-transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI)] parameters were calculated and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was done with TE and SWE. The degree of steatosis was measured using controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Liver biopsy was done when indicated and was interpreted by a pathologist blinded to clinical and imaging results. Results: Fifty four patients with a mean age of 40.3 years and a male-to-female ratio of 5:1 were included. The mean cumulative methotrexate dose was 3.04 g. The median FIB4, APRI, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-to-platelet ratio values were 0.75, 0.23, and 0.15, respectively. The median LSM for TE and SWE was 5.3 and 7.32 kPa, respectively. SWE and TE showed a weak positive correlation (r = 0.26, P = 0.053). The mean CAP was 217 dB/m (area under the receiver operating characteristic = 0.70). In the 19 of 26 cases whose liver biopsies could be assessed, only 4 (21%) showed F1 fibrosis (Ishak staging). The median LSM on SWE was significantly higher in patients with a cumulative methotrexate dose ≥ 4 g when compared with those with a dose <4 g (9.85 vs 7.1, P = 0.02). Other parameters did not correlate with TE and SWE. Limitations: The small sample size and the low number of cases with significant fibrosis on histopathology were the major limitations of this study. Conclusion: Histologically detectable LF is uncommon in patients with psoriasis and reactive arthritis on long-term methotrexate therapy. Both TE and SWE are good at detecting the absence of fibrosis in these patients. In our study, SWE and TE values did not correlate with clinical, biochemical, or histopathological parameters.

9.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 14(4): 275-280, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463017

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) ions are a major concern to the environment and human health as they are contemplated cumulative poisons. In this study, facile synthesis of magnetic iron oxide-tea waste nanocomposite is reported for adsorptive removal of lead ions from aqueous solutions and easy magnetic separation of the adsorbent afterwards. The samples were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Braunner-Emmet-Teller nitrogen adsorption study. Adsorptive removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution was followed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry. About 95% Pb(II) ion removal is achieved with the magnetic tea waste within 10 min. A coefficient of regression R2 ≃ 0.99 and adsorption density of 18.83 mg g-1 was found when Pb(II) ions were removed from aqueous solution using magnetic tea waste. The removal of Pb(II) ions follows the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. External mass transfer principally regulates the rate-limiting phenomena of adsorption of Pb(II) ions on iron oxide-tea waste surface. The results strongly imply that magnetic tea waste has promising potential as an economic and excellent adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from water.


Assuntos
Chumbo , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanocompostos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Íons/química , Íons/isolamento & purificação , Íons/metabolismo , Cinética , Chumbo/química , Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chá , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
10.
Anal Chem ; 92(6): 4266-4274, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050756

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a grave threat to human life. Currently used time-consuming antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) methods limit physicians in selecting proper antibiotics. Hence, we developed a rapid AST using electroanalysis with a 15 min assay time, called EAST, which is live-monitored by time-lapse microscopy video. The present work reports systematical electrochemical analysis and standardization of protocol for EAST measurement. The proposed EAST is successfully applied for Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli as model organisms to monitor bacterial concentration, decay kinetics in the presence of various antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, cefixime, and amoxycillin), drug efficacy, and IC50. Bacterial decay kinetics in the presence of antibiotics were validated by the colony counting method, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy image analysis. The EAST predicts the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria within 15 min, which is a significant advantage over existing techniques that consume hours to days. The EAST was explored further by using bacteria-friendly l-lysine-functionalized cerium oxide nanoparticle coated indium tin oxide as a working electrode to observe the enhanced electron-transfer rate in the EAST. The results are very significant for future miniaturization and automation. The proposed EAST has huge potential in the development of a rapid AST device for applications in the clinical and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Amoxicilina/química , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Cefixima/química , Cefixima/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/química , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Cancer Med ; 9(2): 807-815, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no HPV-based measures for managing anal cancer (AC) in HIV-infected (HIV+) men who have sex with men (MSM) because of the high positivity of high-risk (HR)-HPVs. As next-generation sequencing (NGS) is able to describe the composition of HPVs as percent (%) reads rather than positive vs negative results, we used NGS approach to detect HPVs in anal samples of HIV+ MSM to test its ability to differentiate those who are diagnosed with atypical squamous cells of unknown significance or greater (ASCUS+) from those who are free of such lesions and to understand the burden of HPV infections in relation to HPV vaccines. METHODS: Study included 81 HIV+ MSM characterized for demographics, patient-reported outcome measures, HIV related laboratory measures and anal cytology. We summarized NGS HPV data using % read cut points (>0%->30%) and tested the relationship between % reads of HR-HPVs and risk of ASCUS+ using logistic regression. RESULTS: Forty-six HPVs were detected at the >0% read cut point. The prevalence of any HR-HPVs varied from 100% to 40% with >0% to >30% reads while ≥99% were infected with HR-HPVs included or not included in the 9 valent HPV vaccine at the >0% read cut point. MSM with >30% HR-HPV reads were 4.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with ASCUS+ compared to ≤30% reads (P = .033). CONCLUSION: NGS-based approach is more accurate than PCR-based HPV testing for identifying HIV+ MSM at risk for developing AC. We raise the concern regarding the efficacy of current HPV vaccines for preventing AC in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/patologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/etiologia , DNA Viral/análise , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Adulto , Alabama/epidemiologia , Canal Anal/metabolismo , Canal Anal/virologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/patologia , Seguimentos , Genótipo , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
12.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(7): 2081-2099, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823181

RESUMO

This study enhances the understanding of the particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) and their physical and chemical behavior over the Taj Mahal, Agra, in North-Central India. The mass concentration was determined, and the shape and size of the particles and chemical characterizations have been carried out using SEM-EDX. The high level and significant variation of PM10 (162.2 µg m-3) and PM2.5 (83.9 µg m-3) were observed. The exceedance factor of the present study region is in critical and moderate condition. Morphological characterization reveals the particles of different shapes and sizes, while elemental analysis shows the presence of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, Cl, Mg, Na, Cu, and Zn. The dominance of Si indicated the contribution of natural sources, i.e., soil over this region. Three significant sources, viz. soil/road paved dust/vegetative emissions, vehicular/industrial emissions, and intermingling of dust and combustion particles, have been identified using principal component analysis over North-Central India. Health risk analysis of particulate matter identified carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic metals in the present study, which comes in contact with human beings during inhalation. The non-carcinogenic risk was much higher than the acceptable level. The high carcinogenic risks were found in Zn in PM10 and Cu in PM2.5 for both children and adults.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira/análise , Metais/análise , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Índia , Indústrias , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Medição de Risco , Silício/análise , Solo/química , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Zinco/análise , Zinco/toxicidade
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134774, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734495

RESUMO

In arsenic (As) endemic areas of south-east Asia, where a subsistence rice-based diet is prevalent, As exposure from food is mainly focused on rice intake. However, consumption of wheat is substantial and increasing. We present a probabilistic assessment of increased cancer risk from wheat-based food intake in a study population of rural Bihar, India where As exposure is endemic. Total As in wheat grains (43.64 ±â€¯48.19 µg/kg, n = 72) collected from 77 households across 19 villages was found to be lower than reported As in wheat grains from other south-east Asian countries but higher than a previous study from Bihar. This is the first study where As concentration in wheat flour was used for risk estimation, bearing in mind that it was the flour obtained after indigenous household processing of the grains that was used for making the home-made bread (chapati) which contributed 95% of wheat intake for the studied population. Interestingly, while 78% of the surveyed participants (n = 154) consumed rice every day, chapati was consumed every day by 99.5% of the participants. In contrast to previous studies, where As concentration in wheat grains was found to be lower than the flour due to the removal of the bran on grinding, we did not find any appreciable lowering of arsenic in the wheat flour (49.80 ±â€¯74.08 µg/kg, n = 58), most likely due to external contamination during processing and grinding. Estimated gender adjusted excess lifetime cancer risk of 1.23 × 10-4 for the studied rural population of Bihar indicated risk higher than the 10-4-10-6 range, typically used by the USEPA as a threshold to guide regulatory values. Hence, our findings suggest As exposure from wheat-based food intake to be of concern not only in As endemic areas of rural Bihar but also in non-endemic areas with similar wheat-based diet due to public distribution of the wheat across India.


Assuntos
Triticum , Arsênio , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Índia , Oryza
14.
Nat Med ; 25(11): 1772-1782, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700190

RESUMO

Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is thought to result from systemic spread of commensal microbes from the intestines of premature infants. Clinical use of probiotics for LOS prophylaxis has varied owing to limited efficacy, reflecting an incomplete understanding of relationships between development of the intestinal microbiome, neonatal dysbiosis and LOS. Using a model of LOS, we found that components of the developing microbiome were both necessary and sufficient to prevent LOS. Maternal antibiotic exposure that eradicated or enriched transmission of Lactobacillus murinus exacerbated and prevented disease, respectively. Prophylactic administration of some, but not all Lactobacillus spp. was protective, as was administration of Escherichia coli. Intestinal oxygen level was a major driver of colonization dynamics, albeit via mechanisms distinct from those in adults. These results establish a link between neonatal dysbiosis and LOS, and provide a basis for rational selection of probiotics that modulate primary succession of the microbiome to prevent disease.


Assuntos
Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Idade de Início , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Camundongos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/prevenção & controle
15.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 5(1): 30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632686

RESUMO

To further understand the impact of antibiotics on the gastrointestinal tract microbial community, the intra-individual recovery pattern of specific microbial strains was determined using metagenomic sequencing coupled with strain-tracking analyses. In a study where 18 individuals were administered a single antibiotic (cefprozil), new microbial genomic variants (herein strains) were transiently detected in 15 individuals, while in a second study that used a cocktail of three antibiotics (meropenem, gentamicin, and vancomycin), all 12 participants had either permanent or transient strain changes. The presence of distinct microbial genomic variants indicates a pattern of strain recovery that is intra-individual specific following disruption of the human gastrointestinal tract with antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Variação Biológica Individual , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Metagenômica
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13364, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527593

RESUMO

Preterm infants requiring prolonged oxygen therapy often develop cognitive dysfunction in later life. Previously, we reported that 14-week-old young adult mice exposed to hyperoxia as newborns had spatial and learning deficits and hippocampal shrinkage. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism was the induction of hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction by neonatal hyperoxia. C57BL/6J mouse pups were exposed to 85% oxygen or room air from P2-P14. Hippocampal proteomic analysis was performed in young adult mice (14 weeks). Mitochondrial bioenergetics were measured in neonatal (P14) and young adult mice. We found that hyperoxia exposure reduced mitochondrial ATP-linked oxygen consumption and increased state 4 respiration linked proton leak in both neonatal and young adult mice while complex I function was decreased at P14 but increased in young adult mice. Proteomic analysis revealed that hyperoxia exposure decreased complex I NDUFB8 and NDUFB11 and complex IV 7B subunits, but increased complex III subunit 9 in young adult mice. In conclusion, neonatal hyperoxia permanently impairs hippocampal mitochondrial function and alters complex I function. These hippocampal mitochondrial changes may account for cognitive deficits seen in children and adolescents born preterm and may potentially be a contributing mechanism in other oxidative stress associated brain disorders.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Terapia Respiratória/efeitos adversos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Hiperóxia/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Proteômica
17.
mSystems ; 4(5)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481604

RESUMO

Inflammatory diseases of the gut are associated with increased intestinal oxygen concentrations and high levels of inflammatory oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which are antimicrobial compounds produced by the innate immune system. This contributes to dysbiotic changes in the gut microbiome, including increased populations of proinflammatory enterobacteria (Escherichia coli and related species) and decreased levels of health-associated anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes The pathways for H2O2 and HOCl resistance in E. coli have been well studied, but little is known about how commensal and probiotic bacteria respond to inflammatory oxidants. In this work, we have characterized the transcriptomic response of the anti-inflammatory, gut-colonizing Gram-positive probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri to both H2O2 and HOCl. L. reuteri mounts distinct but overlapping responses to each of these stressors, and both gene expression and survival were strongly affected by the presence or absence of oxygen. Oxidative stress response in L. reuteri required several factors not found in enterobacteria, including the small heat shock protein Lo18, polyphosphate kinase 2, and RsiR, an L. reuteri-specific regulator of anti-inflammatory mechanisms.IMPORTANCE Reactive oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid, are antimicrobial compounds produced by the immune system during inflammation. Little is known, however, about how many important types of bacteria present in the human microbiome respond to these oxidants, especially commensal and other health-associated species. We have now mapped the stress response to both H2O2 and HOCl in the intestinal lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri.

18.
J Infect Dis ; 219(2): 305-314, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535155

RESUMO

Background: Identification of bacteria in human vaginal specimens is commonly performed using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. However, studies utilize different 16S primer sets, sequence databases, and parameters for sample and database clustering. Our goal was to assess the ability of these methods to detect common species of vaginal bacteria. Methods: We performed an in silico analysis of 16S rRNA gene primer sets, targeting different hypervariable regions. Using vaginal samples from women with bacterial vaginosis, we sequenced 16S genes using the V1-V3, V3-V4, and V4 primer sets. For analysis, we used an extended Greengenes database including 16S gene sequences from vaginal bacteria not already present. We compared results with those obtained using the SILVA 16S database. Using multiple database and sample clustering parameters, each primer set's ability to detect common vaginal bacteria at the species level was determined. We also compared these methods to the use of DADA2 for denoising and clustering of sequence reads. Results: V4 sequence reads clustered at 99% identity and using the 99% clustered, extended Greengenes database provided optimal species-level identification of vaginal bacteria. Conclusions: This study is a first step toward standardizing methods for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of vaginal microbiome data.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbiota , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia , Amidoidrolases , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Simulação por Computador , DNA Bacteriano , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Genes Immun ; 20(2): 158-166, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599513

RESUMO

Studies have identified abnormalities in the microbiota of patients with arthritis. To evaluate the pathogenicity of human microbiota, we performed fecal microbial transplantation from children with spondyloarthritis and controls to germ-free KRN/B6xNOD mice. Ankle swelling was equivalent in those that received patient vs. control microbiota. Principal coordinates analysis revealed incomplete uptake of the human microbiota with over-representation of two genera (Bacteroides and Akkermansia) among the transplanted mice. The microbiota predicted the extent of ankle swelling (R2 = 0.185, p = 0.018). The abundances of Bacteroides (r = -0.510, p = 0.010) inversely and Akkermansia (r = 0.367, p = 0.078) directly correlated with ankle swelling. Addition of Akkermansia muciniphila to Altered Schaedler's Flora (ASF) resulted in small but statistically significant increased ankle swelling as compared to mice that received ASF alone (4.0 mm, 3.9-4.1 vs. 3.9 mm, IQR 3.6-4.0, p = 0.041), as did addition of A. muciniphila cultures to transplanted human microbiota as compared to mice that received transplanted human microbiota alone (4.5 mm, IQR 4.3-5.5 vs. 4.1 mm, IQR 3.9-4.3, p = 0.019). This study supports previous findings of an association between A. muciniphila and arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Animais , Tornozelo/patologia , Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroides/patogenicidade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Verrucomicrobia/isolamento & purificação , Verrucomicrobia/patogenicidade
20.
Indian J Occup Environ Med ; 23(3): 126-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920262

RESUMO

Background: In the entire world, about 200 million populations are exposed to arsenic poisoning in groundwater. In Bihar, India about 50 million people are drinking arsenic contaminated water. This has caused various health related problems in the population like skin diseases, anemia, bronchitis, gastrointestinal problems, hormonal imbalance and cancer. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a total of 323 water samples were analyzed for the arsenic levels from the entire Simri village of Buxar district of Bihar and a total of 170 blood samples from the same household's subjects were collected for blood arsenic estimation through Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Pinnacle 900T, Perkin Elmer, Singapore). Apart from this the correlation coefficient study between blood arsenic levels, age of the subjects, groundwater arsenic levels and depth of the handpumps were carried out. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with statistical software (GraphPad Prism 5) and while scattered graphs were plotted through statistical software SPSS- 16.0. Results and Conclusion: The maximum arsenic concentration in the groundwater sample found during the study was 1929µg/L and in blood sample was 664.7µg/L. The study denotes high arsenic concentration in the drinking water of the village Simri with the highest concentration ever reported in this part of India. Furthermore, the blood samples have also been observed with high arsenic concentration in the village population which is also the highest reporting ever done in this area. The ill health of the village population also correlates our study.

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