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1.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in children is a febrile illness that has overlapping presentation with other locally prevalent illnesses. Clinicolaboratory profile of children admitted with MIS-C and dengue were compared to understand their presentation at the outset. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of children ≤ 12 y admitted with MIS-C (WHO definition) or laboratory-confirmed dengue between August 2020 and January 2021 at a tertiary center in North India. RESULTS: A total of 84 children (MIS-C - 40; dengue - 44) were included. The mean (SD) age [83.5 (39) vs. 91.6 (35) mo] was comparable. Rash (72.5% vs. 22.7%), conjunctival injection (60% vs. 2.3%), oral mucocutaneous changes (27.5% vs. 0) and gallop rhythm (15% vs. 0) were seen more frequently with MIS-C, while petechiae [29.5% vs. 7.5%], myalgia (38.6% vs. 10%), headache (22.7% vs. 2.5%), and hepatomegaly (68.2% vs. 27.5%) were more common with dengue. Children with MIS-C had significantly higher C-reactive protein (124 vs. 3.2 mg/L) and interleukin 6 (95.3 vs. 20.7 ng/mL), while those with dengue had higher hemoglobin (12 vs. 10.2 g/dL) lower mean platelet count (26 vs. 140 × 109/L), and greater elevation in aspartate (607 vs. 44 IU/L) and alanine (235.5 vs. 56 IU/L) aminotransferases. The hospital stay was longer with MIS-C; however, PICU stay and mortality were comparable. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized children with acute febrile illness, the presence of mucocutaneous features and highly elevated CRP could distinguish MIS-C from dengue. The presence of petechiae, hepatomegaly, and hemoconcentration may favor a diagnosis of dengue.

3.
ISA Trans ; 2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396141

RESUMO

Considering the exceptional growth of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs), multiple and potentially grave security challenges have emerged in this field. Different vulnerabilities and attacks are present in front of new generation CPSs, such as Industrial CPS (I-CPS). The underlying non-uniform standards, device heterogeneity, network complexity, etc., make it difficult to offer a systematized coverage on CPS security in an industrial environment. This work considers the security perspective of I-CPSs, and offers a decade-wide survey including different vulnerabilities, attacks, CPS components, and various other aspects. The comparative year-wise analysis of the existing works w.r.t objective, approach referred, testbed used and derived inference, is also presented over a decade. Additionally, the work details different security issues and research challenges present in I-CPS. This work attempts to offer a concise and precise literature study focused on the state-of-the-art I-CPS security. This work also encourages the young researchers to explore the wide possibilities present in this emerging field.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443571

RESUMO

COVID-19 vaccination was initially started in India on 16th January 2021 after approval from national authorities. This study was carried out to assess the effect of vaccination status on the severity and clinical outcome among patients infected with COVID-19. The study included all adult COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital from 1st April to 30th June 2021. A total of 819 patients were enrolled in the study out of which only 183 (22.3%) were vaccinated. The study documented a statistically significant reduction in the severity of illness among the vaccinated (single/double dose) (33% severe COVID-19) against the unvaccinated (43% severe COVID-19) groups; along with a reduction in mortality. On univariate and multivariate analysis, age, severity of illness and lack of COVID-19 vaccination status were associated with a statistically significant increased mortality. To conclude, this study demonstrates the role of vaccination in decreasing the severity and mortality of COVID-19 infection.

5.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 818608, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359887

RESUMO

Background: Cardiomyopathy is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Early diagnosis is a prerequisite for timely institution of cardioprotective therapies. Objective: We compared cardiac MRI (CMRI) with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) for diagnosis of cardiomyopathy in early ambulatory boys with DMD. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2018 and December 2020. Consecutive boys between 7 and 15 years of age with DMD were enrolled. Percentage ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening, wall motion abnormalities, early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (Ea), medial mitral annulus ratio (E/Ea), and global strain were measured with STE. CMRI-derived EF, segmental hypokinesia, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) were studied and compared. Results: A total of 38 ambulatory boys with DMD were enrolled. The mean age was 8.8 ± 1.6 years, and none had clinical features suggestive of cardiac dysfunction. In the TTE, EF was ≤55% in 5 (15%), FS was ≤28% in 3 (9%), and one each had left ventricular wall thinning and wall hypokinesia. In TDI, none had diastolic dysfunction, and STE showed reduced global strain of < 18% in 3 (9%) boys. CMRI-derived EF was ≤55% in 20 (53%) boys and CMRI showed the presence of left ventricular wall hypokinesia in 9 (24%) and LGE in 4 (11%) boys. Conclusion: Cardiomyopathy remains clinically asymptomatic among early ambulatory boys with DMD. A significantly higher percentage of boys revealed early features of DMD-related cardiomyopathy in CMRI in comparison with echocardiography.

6.
Tissue Cell ; 76: 101768, 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This work was conducted to compare the therapeutic potential of undifferentiated and osteogenic differentiated canine (xenogeneic) and guinea pig (allogeneic) BMSCs in fracture healing using guinea pig as a model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A well-characterized homogenous population of third passage mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow origin was used in all the experiments. MSCs from both the species, i.e., canine and guinea pigs, were differentiated and characterized. Expression of MHC I and II along with co-stimulatory molecules was assessed based on relative mRNA expression. The osteogenic differentiated and undifferentiated MSCs from both species were used for evaluating fracture healing in the guinea pig model. The healing potential was assessed based on radiographic, histopathology, and clinical observations. RESULTS: BMSCs from both species expressed MSC surface antigens and successfully differentiated to osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. The mRNA expression of class I and II MHC molecules in all the three lineages showed no significant (p > 0.05) differences after differentiating to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages. Radiographic and clinical examination revealed that MSCs therapy significantly improved bone fracture healing with a non-significant (p > 0.05) difference between differentiated and undifferentiated BMSCs. In addition, allogeneic MSCs therapy performed better than xenogeneic therapy. CONCLUSION: MSCs remained hypo immunogenic after differentiation and have comparable fracture healing potential though allogeneic MSCs have better therapeutic potential than xenogenic MSCs.

7.
Respiration ; 101(5): 494-499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350030

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death. Advancements in navigational bronchoscopy have shown encouraging results but the diagnostic yield of small lung nodules by bronchoscopic techniques is still below that of transthoracic needle aspiration. The development of robotic bronchoscopy has demonstrated a significantly improved navigational success but the diagnostic yield is regularly limited by near-miss of the target nodule. Needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy is a novel imaging technique that allows for the real-time visualization of individual cells and structures with microscopic resolution at the tip of the needle. We present the first reported case of confocal laser endomicroscopy guided robotic bronchoscopy for the real-time diagnosis of a small, partially cystic lung nodule.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário , Broncoscopia/métodos , Humanos , Lasers , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
Methods Appl Fluoresc ; 10(3)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290966

RESUMO

Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the elements present in any type of material present in any phase (solid, liquid, gas, and aerosol). In the present work, our objective is to find the presence of toxic and other elements in chewing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) using LIBS. Spectral signatures of elements like C, Fe, Si, Mg, Mn, Ca, Ti, Na, H, N, K, O, along with some toxic elements Al, Sr, Li, Cu, Sb, and Cr are observed in the LIBS spectra of these tobacco samples. The spectral intensity ratio is measured for quantitative analysis of elements present in the samples. Further, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy is used for determining absolute concentration in these samples. A relation between the AAS result and the relative intensity of spectral lines measured in the LIBS is obtained using regression analysis. The multivariate technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), discriminates all the samples based on their toxicity and other constituents. Molecular study (Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), UV-Visible (UV-vis), and FT-IR) of tobacco samples were performed to analyze the molecules present in the tobacco samples.


Assuntos
Tabaco sem Fumaça , Lasers , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tabaco
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 794006, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281033

RESUMO

To rapidly prognosticate and generate hypotheses on pathogenesis, leukocyte multi-cellularity was evaluated in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients treated in India or the United States (152 individuals, 384 temporal observations). Within hospital (<90-day) death or discharge were retrospectively predicted based on the admission complete blood cell counts (CBC). Two methods were applied: (i) a "reductionist" one, which analyzes each cell type separately, and (ii) a "non-reductionist" method, which estimates multi-cellularity. The second approach uses a proprietary software package that detects distinct data patterns generated by complex and hypothetical indicators and reveals each data pattern's immunological content and associated outcome(s). In the Indian population, the analysis of isolated cell types did not separate survivors from non-survivors. In contrast, multi-cellular data patterns differentiated six groups of patients, including, in two groups, 95.5% of all survivors. Some data structures revealed one data point-wide line of observations, which informed at a personalized level and identified 97.8% of all non-survivors. Discovery was also fostered: some non-survivors were characterized by low monocyte/lymphocyte ratio levels. When both populations were analyzed with the non-reductionist method, they displayed results that suggested survivors and non-survivors differed immunologically as early as hospitalization day 1.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/métodos , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina de Precisão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
10.
Vet Res Commun ; 46(2): 563-575, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119582

RESUMO

A prospective clinical study consisting of six bovines (200-300 kg body weight) undergoing open tibial fractures was carried out, to evaluate the use of circular and hybrid external skeletal fixation (ESF) systems for open tibial fracture repair in large ruminants. The ESF systems consisting of 4 full rings (n = 2), 8 half-rings (n = 1), 2 full rings with 2 sidebars (n = 2) or 2 full rings with 4 sidebars (n = 1) were used to treat open tibial fractures. The healing progress of the animals was evaluated based on different clinical and radiographic examinations. The level of fracture reduction, alignment, and fixation ranged between satisfactory to adequate in all the animals. The fixators were well tolerated and maintained by the animals till the complete repair of the fracture. Adequate fracture healing with satisfactory functional recovery was observed in all the animals in about 3-4 months. The different designs of ESFs were found to provide adequate stability in open tibial fractures in animals weighing 200-300 kg. However, the fixators need to be evaluated in numerous clinical cases to establish their suitability in routine clinical settings.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216418

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas9 provides a robust and widely adaptable system with enormous potential for genome editing directed towards generating useful products. It has been used extensively to generate resistance against viruses infecting plants with more effective and prolonged efficiency as compared with previous antiviral approaches, thus holding promise to alleviate crop losses. In this review, we have discussed the reports of CRISPR/Cas-based virus resistance strategies against plant viruses. These strategies include approaches targeting single or multiple genes (or non-coding region) in the viral genome and targeting host factors essential for virus propagation. In addition, the utilization of base editing has been discussed to generate transgene-free plants resistant to viruses. This review also compares the efficiencies of these approaches. Finally, we discuss combinatorial approaches, including multiplexing, to increase editing efficiency and bypass the generation of escape mutants.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia
12.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-20, 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196934

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing field with profound applications in different domains, particularly in food science and technology. Nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis, an integral part of nanotechnology-based applications, is broadly classified into chemical, physical and biosynthesis methods. Chemically sensitive and energy-intensive procedures employed for NPs synthesis are some of the limits of traditional chemical approaches. Recent research has focused on developing easy, nontoxic, cost-effective, and environment-friendly NPs synthesis during the last decade. Biosynthesis approaches have been developed to achieve this goal as it is a viable alternative to existing chemical techniques for the synthesis of metallic nanomaterials. Fruit peels contain abundant bioactive compounds including phenols, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, carotenoids, anthocyanins, ellagitannins, vitamin C, and essential oils with substantial health benefits, anti-bacterial and antioxidant properties, generally discarded as byproduct or waste by the fruit processing industry. NPs synthesized using bioactive compounds from fruit peel has futuristic applications for an unrealized market potential for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical delivery. Numerous studies have been conducted for the biosynthesis of metallic NPs such as silver (AgNPs), gold (AuNPs), zinc oxide, iron, copper, palladium and titanium using fruit peel extract, and their synthesis mechanism have been reported in the present review. Additionally, NPs synthesis methods and applications of fruit peel NPs have been discussed.

13.
Lung India ; 39(1): 44-50, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975052

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An admission of a pregnant woman to an intensive care unit (ICU) is considered as an objective marker of maternal near miss. Only a few studies from the Indian subcontinent have reported on the ability of ICU scoring systems in predicting the mortality in obstetric patients. METHODS: A prospective analysis of all critically ill obstetric patients admitted to the critical care department was done. RESULTS: In the period between April 2013 and September 2017, there were 101 obstetric admissions to the critical care ICU. Of these, 82 patients (81.2%) were discharged from the hospital, 18 patients (17.8%) died, and one left against medical advice. The common diagnoses seen in these patients were cardiac failure (n = 39; 38.6%); pregnancy-induced hypertension (n = 26; 25.7%); acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 20; 19.8%); intra-abdominal sepsis (n = 19; 18.8%); tropical diseases (n = 19; 18.8%); and tuberculosis (n = 13; 12.9%).When we compared the survivors with the nonsurvivors, a higher severity of illness score and a low PaO2/FiO2 were found to increase the odds of death. The area of distribution under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.726 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.575-0.877), 0.890 (95% CI = 0.773-1.006), 0.867 (95% CI = 0.755-0.979), and 0.850 (95% CI = 0.720-0.980) for the PaO2/FiO2, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, respectively, for predicting mortality. The standardized mortality ratio was better with SAPSII than with APACHE II. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac dysfunction is a leading cause of ICU admission. Obstetric patients frequently require ventilatory support, intensive hemodynamic monitoring, and blood transfusion. The APACHE II score is a good index for assessing ICU outcomes.

14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 349-356, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been deployed in India. The results of the phase 3 trial have shown clinical efficacy of BBV152. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative, case-control study among employees of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India), who had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and had an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the peak of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India between April 15 and May 15, 2021. Cases (test-positives) and controls (test-negatives) were matched (1:1) on the basis of age and gender. The odds of vaccination with BBV152 were compared between cases and controls and adjusted for level of occupational exposure (to COVID-19), previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and calendar time, using conditional logistic regression. The primary outcome was effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 (with the second dose received at least 14 days before testing) in reducing the odds of symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, expressed as (1 - odds ratio) × 100%. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and May 15, 2021, 3732 individuals had an RT-PCR test. Of these, 2714 symptomatic employees had data on vaccination status, and 1068 matched case-control pairs were available for analysis. The adjusted effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 after two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 50% (95% CI 33-62; p<0·0001). The adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 28 days before testing was 46% (95% CI 22-62) and administered at least 42 days before testing was 57% (21-76). After excluding participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, the adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 47% (95% CI 29-61). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 in the context of a huge surge in cases, presumably dominated by the potentially immune-evasive delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the ongoing roll-out of this vaccine to help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, while continuing the emphasis on adherence to non-pharmacological measures. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Adulto , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vírion/imunologia
15.
Reprod Sci ; 29(5): 1560-1576, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424529

RESUMO

The oviduct is a site for early reproductive events including gamete maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. Secretory cells lining the oviduct lumen synthesize and secrete proteins that interact with gametes and developing embryos. Although previous studies have identified some of the secretory proteins in the oviduct, however, knowledge and their precise specific functions in the oviduct are poorly understood. In this study, by using proteomic approach, we identified a secretory protein, Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), and evaluated its role in mediating early pregnancy events, fertilization, and embryo development in rabbit oviduct. The expression of PRDX6 was significantly higher in ampulla and isthmus sections of the oviduct in mated animal groups compared to non-mated controls. Furthermore, significant reduction in number of embryos recovered from PRDX6 siRNA-transfected oviductal horn was observed compared to the control contralateral horn. Moreover, in animals receiving PRDX6 siRNA in their oviductal horn, the number of implanted blastocysts was significantly less in the uterus as observed on day 9 post-coital (p.c.). Further, during embryo-rabbit oviduct epithelial cell (ROEC) co-culture, siRNA-mediated PRDX6 silencing attenuated the early embryonic development. Mechanistically, increased levels of ROS and expression of oxidative stress- and inflammation-related proteins were found in PRDX6 siRNA-treated ROEC cells as compared to control cells, implicating that ablation of PRDX6 in the oviduct creates a stress-induced micro-environment detrimental to early embryonic development in oviduct. Taken together, our data suggest that PRDX6 maintains an optimal micro-environment conducive to successful embryo development and can be considered as a candidate to evaluate its therapeutic potential in IVF strategies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fertilização , Peroxirredoxina VI , Proteômica , Animais , Tubas Uterinas , Feminino , Oviductos/metabolismo , Peroxirredoxina VI/metabolismo , Gravidez , Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Coelhos
16.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 29(2): 558-568, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 18F-NaF PET/CT identifies high-risk plaques due to active calcification in coronary arteries with potential to characterize plaques in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic stable angina (CSA) patients. METHODS: Twenty-four MI and 17 CSA patients were evaluated with 18F-NaF PET/CTCA for SUVmax and TBR values of culprit and non-culprit plaques in both groups (inter-group and intra-group comparison), and pre- and post-interventional MI plaques sub-analysis. RESULTS: Culprit plaques in MI patients had significantly higher SUVmax (1.6; IQR 0.6 vs 1.3; IQR 0.3, P = 0.03) and TBR (1.4; IQR 0.6 vs 1.1; IQR 0.4, P = 0.006) than culprit plaques of CSA. Pre-interventional culprit plaques of MI group (n = 11) revealed higher SUVmax (P = 0.007) and TBR (P = 0.008) values than culprit CSA plaques. Culprit plaques showed significantly higher SUVmax (P = 0.006) and TBR (P = 0.0003) than non-culprit plaques in MI group, but without significant difference between culprit and non-culprit plaques in CSA group. With median TBR cutoff value of 1.4 in MI culprit plaques, 6/7 plaques (85.7%) among the event prone non-culprit lesions had TBR values > 1.4 in CSA group. CONCLUSION: The study shows higher SUVmax and TBR values in MI culprit plaques and comparable TBR values for event prone plaques of CSA group in identifying high-risk plaques.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Angina Estável , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Infarto do Miocárdio , Placa Aterosclerótica , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Angina Estável/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários , Fluoretos , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Fluoreto de Sódio
17.
Lasers Med Sci ; 37(1): 513-522, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755860

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus, known as diabetes, is a challenging issue, and to control diabetes, a large population is lining toward ayurvedic medicine. In the present study, four brands of anti-diabetic ayurvedic medicines, along with a home remedy, are analyzed using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic (LIBS) technique. The study is carried out to know the elements responsible for glycemic potential. The laser-induced breakdown (LIB) spectra elucidate the presence of organic and inorganic elements like Al, Ba, C, Ca, Cu, Fe, H, K, Mg, N, Na, O, Si, Sr, Zn, and the molecular band of CN molecule in medicines. LIBS result also reveals Na and K's distinct concentration, which plays a vital role in diabetes management. The presence of the CN band and organic elements indicate the presence of organic molecular compositions in medicines. For confirmation of organic composition in the drugs, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been performed. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the LIBS data of the medicines has been used for instant discrimination based on their elemental/molecular compositions.


Assuntos
Lasers , Medicina Ayurvédica , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
Crisis ; 43(1): 35-45, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475010

RESUMO

Background: Understanding and effectively managing self-harm and suicide require collaborative research between stakeholders focused on shared priorities. Aims: We aimed to develop a consensus about suicide and self-harm research priorities in the North West of England using the Delphi method. Method: Items for the Delphi survey were generated through group discussions at a workshop with 88 stakeholders and subsequent thematic analysis of key themes. A total of 44 participants who were experts-by-experience, researchers, and clinicians based within health services including third-sector organizations completed the Delphi survey. Results: A three-round survey reached consensus on 55 research priority items identifying key priorities in each of the following groups: offenders, children and young people, self-harm in community settings, and crisis care in the community. Limitations: The pool of delegates at the workshop and subsequent self-selection into the Delphi may have introduced bias into the study. Conclusion: The current paper highlights specific actionable priorities were identified in four areas that can be used to inform research efforts and future policy and practice, based on shared areas of perceived importance and concern. Future work is needed to confirm the significance of these priority areas, including the use of evidence synthesis approaches to ascertain the extent to which these priorities have already been investigated and where gaps in understanding remain.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Adolescente , Criança , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Pesquisa , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Phytomedicine ; 95: 153872, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer Disease (AD) pathogenesis, aggregation of Aß42 fibrils strongly correlates with memory dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Till date, no promising cures for AD. Report shows that flavonoids contributed anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and neuroprotection activity by regulating the mitochondrial machinery. Here, we first report the identification of flavonoids from Ascophyllum nodosum as having the ability to dissolve Aß42 fibrils in an AD model of Drosophila. FRAN could be superior anti-AD agents for neuroprotection, their underlying mechanism and how they collectively halted amyloidogenesis is currently being investigated. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective role of FRAN in the Aß42 expressing AD model of Drosophila. METHODS: Drosophila stocks: OregonR+, ey-GAL4/CyO, elavc155-GAL4, UAS-mitoGFP, UAS-mcherry.mito.OMM, UAS-Aß42/CyO were used, cultured at 28±1 °C in a BOD incubator. Ascophyllum extract rich in flavonoids as revealed by LC-MS study and employed against the AD flies. The validation of Aß42 expression was done by immunostaining and q-RT PCR. The eye roughness of AD flies was scored in a dose-dependent manner. Further, In vivo and in silico studies of FRAN extract was executed against Aß42 induced neurotoxicity. RESULTS: In order to determine the most effective lethal dose of FRAN extract concentration 1, 2, 5, 10 mg/ml were screened using OregonR+flies. Extract 1 and 2 mg/ml did not show any lethality. Hence, extract 2 mg/ml was employed on AD flies and a ≥ 50% rescue in the eye phenotype was observed using SEM images. This dose had a strong effect on cell apoptosis, viability, longevity, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial dynamic markers in comparable to control. Extract also scavenging free radicals in order to maintain in situ cellular ROS and prevent Aß42-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and in silico. Hence, we suggest its great potential as a future therapeutic agent for AD treatment. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, FRAN extract rich in flavonoids as having largest neuroprotective activity against Aß42 aggregation in eye tissue of Drosophila. Extract shows strong effect against Aß42-induced neurotoxicity by altering the various cellular and molecular events. So, it could be considered as strong anti-AD agents for neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Ascophyllum , Alga Marinha , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neuroproteção , Fragmentos de Peptídeos
20.
Comput Speech Lang ; 73: 101320, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840419

RESUMO

The technology development for point-of-care tests (POCTs) targeting respiratory diseases has witnessed a growing demand in the recent past. Investigating the presence of acoustic biomarkers in modalities such as cough, breathing and speech sounds, and using them for building POCTs can offer fast, contactless and inexpensive testing. In view of this, over the past year, we launched the "Coswara" project to collect cough, breathing and speech sound recordings via worldwide crowdsourcing. With this data, a call for development of diagnostic tools was announced in the Interspeech 2021 as a special session titled "Diagnostics of COVID-19 using Acoustics (DiCOVA) Challenge". The goal was to bring together researchers and practitioners interested in developing acoustics-based COVID-19 POCTs by enabling them to work on the same set of development and test datasets. As part of the challenge, datasets with breathing, cough, and speech sound samples from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 individuals were released to the participants. The challenge consisted of two tracks. The Track-1 focused only on cough sounds, and participants competed in a leaderboard setting. In Track-2, breathing and speech samples were provided for the participants, without a competitive leaderboard. The challenge attracted 85 plus registrations with 29 final submissions for Track-1. This paper describes the challenge (datasets, tasks, baseline system), and presents a focused summary of the various systems submitted by the participating teams. An analysis of the results from the top four teams showed that a fusion of the scores from these teams yields an area-under-the-receiver operating curve (AUC-ROC) of 95.1% on the blind test data. By summarizing the lessons learned, we foresee the challenge overview in this paper to help accelerate technological development of acoustic-based POCTs.

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