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1.
Waste Manag ; 139: 258-268, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991015

RESUMO

Openmunicipal solid waste(MSW) dumpsites in India are significant hotspots of spontaneous fire and associated air and ground water pollution. Unscientific dumping of MSW poses a major threat to the surrounding environment and human health. One-year-old biodegradable waste components comprised of paper, cardboard, newspaper, textile, wood, grass leaves and coconut shell were analyzed for the determination of the moisture content (MC), smoldering temperature, ignition temperature, and ignition time. Principal component analysis of the old waste components revealed that cardboard, paper, newspaper and leaves are most susceptible waste components for spontaneous ignition. In contrast, MC was the most influential parameter for resulting changes in ignition temperature (0C) on ignition time (min). A numerical equation was developed to estimate the time required for the spontaneous waste ignition at MSW dumpsite. The results of the study showed that the aged waste (age ≥ 3 year) having MC below 6 % and initial surface temperature of 78 0C might smolder and ignite during the hottest time of the day in âˆ¼ 6 and âˆ¼ 26 days, respectively. Estimates showed that the time required for spontaneous waste ignition of aged waste is moderately dependent on waste MC (∼5-55 %), surface temperature (∼40-100 0C), monthly pattern of average high temperature (∼36.6-42.6 0C), biodegradable waste components having smoldering temperature ≤ 150 0C and ignition temperature ≤ 270 0C. The present study also showed that the occurrence of landfill fire events at MSW dumpsites is more prominent during the pre-monsoon season i.e. during the elevated temperature level.

2.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974820

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the Coronaviridae family, causing major destructions to human life directly and indirectly to the economic crisis around the world. Although there is significant reporting on the whole genome sequences and updated data for the different receptors are widely analyzed and screened to find a proper medication. Only a few bioassay experiments were completed against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We collected the compounds dataset from the PubChem Bioassay database having 1786 compounds and split it into the ratio of 80-20% for model training and testing purposes, respectively. Initially, we have created 11 models and validated them using a fivefold validation strategy. The hybrid consensus model shows a predictive accuracy of 95.5% for training and 94% for the test dataset. The model was applied to screen a virtual chemical library of Natural products of 2598 compounds. Our consensus model has successfully identified 75 compounds with an accuracy range of 70-100% as active compounds against SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein. The output of ML data (75 compounds) was taken for the molecular docking and dynamics simulation studies. In the complete analysis, the Epirubicin and Daunorubicin have shown the docking score of -9.937 and -9.812, respectively, and performed well in the molecular dynamics simulation studies. Also, Pirarubicin, an analogue of anthracycline, has widely been used due to its lower cardiotoxicity. It shows the docking score of -9.658, which also performed well during the complete analysis. Hence, after the following comprehensive pipeline-based study, these drugs can be further tested in vivo for further human utilization.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

3.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 26-39, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34976309

RESUMO

Cell-free DNA(cfDNA) methylation profiling is considered promising and potentially reliable for liquid biopsy to study progress of diseases and develop reliable and consistent diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. There are several different mechanisms responsible for the release of cfDNA in blood plasma, and henceforth it can provide information regarding dynamic changes in the human body. Due to the fragmented nature, low concentration of cfDNA, and high background noise, there are several challenges in its analysis for regular use in diagnosis of cancer. Such challenges in the analysis of the methylation profile of cfDNA are further aggravated due to heterogeneity, biomarker sensitivity, platform biases, and batch effects. This review delineates the origin of cfDNA methylation, its profiling, and associated computational problems in analysis for diagnosis. Here we also contemplate upon the multi-marker approach to handle the scenario of cancer heterogeneity and explore the utility of markers for 5hmC based cfDNA methylation pattern. Further, we provide a critical overview of deconvolution and machine learning methods for cfDNA methylation analysis. Our review of current methods reveals the potential for further improvement in analysis strategies for detecting early cancer using cfDNA methylation.

4.
Lung India ; 39(1): 16-26, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975048

RESUMO

Background: The "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic hit India from early April 2021 to June 2021. We describe the clinical features, treatment trends, and baseline laboratory parameters of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their association with the outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify clinical and biochemical predictors of developing hypoxia, deterioration during the hospital stay, and death. Results: A total of 2080 patients were included. The case fatality rate was 19.5%. Among the survivors, the median duration of hospital stay was 8 (5-11) days. Out of 853 (42.3%%) of patients who had COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome at presentation, 340 (39.9%) died. Patients aged >45 years had higher odds of death as compared to the 18-44 years age group. Vaccination reduced the odds of death by 40% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]]: 0.6 [0.4-0.9], P = 0.032). Patients with hyper inflammation at baseline as suggested by leukocytosis (OR [95% CI]: 2.1 [1.5-3.1], P < 0.001), raised d-dimer >500 mg/dL (OR [95% CI]: 3.2 [2.2-4.7], P < 0.001), and raised C-reactive peptide >0.5 mg/L (OR [95% CI]: 3.7 [2.2-13], P = 0.037) had higher odds of death. Patients who were admitted in the 2nd week had lower odds and those admitted in the 3rd week had higher odds of death. Conclusion: This study shows that vaccination status and early admission during the inflammatory phase can change the course of illness of these patients. Improving vaccination rates and early admission of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 can improve the outcomes.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050277

RESUMO

Literature studies on the effects of alkyne functionality in manipulating the optical properties of donor-π-acceptor-type molecular scaffolds have been scarce compared to those on the alkene functional group. Here, two structurally isomeric donor-acceptor (D-A) dyes were synthesized to study the positional effect of alkyne functionality (triple bond) on their optical, electrochemical and charge generation properties in order to design efficient dyes for possible application in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These dyes, named CAPC and PACC, contain carbazole and cyanoacrylic acid as the donor and acceptor units, respectively, and the π-conjugation length within the molecules was controlled by the introduction of an alkyne group. The D-π-A design was followed in designing CAPC with the alkyne serving as the π-spacer, while in PACC, alkyne was placed on the donor, which was directly in conjugation with the acceptor. This rendered equal conjugation lengths within the designed dyes. With the help of photophysical characterizations, it was concluded that CAPC featured better characteristics for a DSSC dye than PACC. Our conclusions were further supported by the results of transient absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical analysis, fluorescence lifetime studies and density functional theory.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150312, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844320

RESUMO

The single bioprocess approach has certain limitations in terms of process efficiency, product synthesis, and effective resource utilization. Integrated or combined bioprocessing maximizes resource recovery and creates a novel platform to establish sustainable biorefineries. Anaerobic fermentation (AF) is a well-established process for the transformation of organic waste into biogas; conversely, biogas CO2 separation is a challenging and expensive process. Biological fixation of CO2 for succinic acid (SA) mitigates CO2 separation issues and produces commercially important renewable chemicals. Additionally, utilizing digestate rich in volatile fatty acid (VFA) to produce medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) creates a novel integrated platform by utilizing residual organic metabolites. The present review encapsulates the advantages and limitations of AF along with biogas CO2 fixation for SA and digestate rich in VFA utilization for MCFA in a closed-loop approach. Biomethane and biohydrogen processes CO2 utilization for SA production is cohesively deliberated along with the role of biohydrogen as an alternative reducing agent to augment SA yields. Similarly, MCFA production using VFA as a substrate and functional role of electron donors namely ethanol, lactate, and hydrogen are comprehensively discussed. A road map to establish the fermentative biorefinery approach in the framework of AF integrated sustainable bioprocess development is deliberated along with limitations and factors influencing for techno-economic analysis. The discussed integrated approach significantly contributes to promote the circular bioeconomy by establishing carbon-neutral processes in accord with sustainable development goals.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Hidrogênio , Anaerobiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Hidrogênio/análise
7.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132285, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563769

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is lauded for its potentials to solve both energy crisis and environmental pollution. Technologically, it offers the capability to harness electricity from the chemical energy stored in the organic substrate with no intermediate steps, thereby minimizes the entropic loss due to the inter-conversion of energy. The sciences underneath such MFCs include the electron and proton generation from the metabolic decomposition of the substrate by microbes at the anode, followed by the shuttling of these charges to cathode for electricity generation. While its promising prospects were mutually evinced in the past investigations, the upscaling of MFC in sustaining global energy demands and waste treatments is yet to be put into practice. In this context, the current review summarizes the important knowledge and applications of MFCs, concurrently identifies the technological bottlenecks that restricted its vast implementation. In addition, economic analysis was also performed to provide multiangle perspectives to readers. Succinctly, MFCs are mainly hindered by the slow metabolic kinetics, sluggish transfer of charged particles, and low economic competitiveness when compared to conventional technologies. From these hindering factors, insightful strategies for improved practicality of MFCs were formulated, with potential future research direction being identified too. With proper planning, we are delighted to see the industrialization of MFCs in the near future, which would benefit the entire human race with cleaner energy and the environment.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Elétrons , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 1): 150444, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571227

RESUMO

Biochar has been of considerable importance for various environmental applications in recent years. It has exhibited substantial advantages like favourable structural and surface properties, easy process of preparation and widely available feedstocks. These set of exceptional properties make it an efficient, cost-effective and environment friendly source for diversified elimination of pollutants. The heterogeneity of physico-chemical properties offers a possibility for biochar to optimize its efficacy for targeted applications. This review aims to highlight the critical role that biochar plays in various environmental applications, be it in soil, water or air. In particular the article offers a comprehensive review of the recent research findings and updates related to the diversified role of biochar. Also, the interaction of pollutants with biochar functional groups and the impact of variation of parameters on biochar attribute relevant to specific pollutant removal, modifications, mechanisms involved and competence for such removal has been discussed. Different technologies for production of biochar have also been summarized with an emphasis on post treatment of biochar, such as modification and doping. In addition to this, the underlying gaps in the studies carried out so far and recommendations for future research areas in biochar have also been deliberated.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água
9.
Biomed Signal Process Control ; 71: 103182, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580596

RESUMO

In this global pandemic situation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), it is of foremost priority to look up efficient and faster diagnosis methods for reducing the transmission rate of the virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent research has indicated that radio-logical images carry essential information about the COVID-19 virus. Therefore, artificial intelligence (AI) assisted automated detection of lung infections may serve as a potential diagnostic tool. It can be augmented with conventional medical tests for tackling COVID-19. In this paper, we propose a new method for detecting COVID-19 and pneumonia using chest X-ray images. The proposed method can be described as a three-step process. The first step includes the segmentation of the raw X-ray images using the conditional generative adversarial network (C-GAN) for obtaining the lung images. In the second step, we feed the segmented lung images into a novel pipeline combining key points extraction methods and trained deep neural networks (DNN) for extraction of discriminatory features. Several machine learning (ML) models are employed to classify COVID-19, pneumonia, and normal lung images in the final step. A comparative analysis of the classification performance is carried out among the different proposed architectures combining DNNs, key point extraction methods, and ML models. We have achieved the highest testing classification accuracy of 96.6% using the VGG-19 model associated with the binary robust invariant scalable key-points (BRISK) algorithm. The proposed method can be efficiently used for screening of COVID-19 infected patients.

10.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132416, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600014

RESUMO

The healthcare community acknowledged that bio-medical wastes (BMWs) have reached a colossal level across the globe. The recent pandemic (COVID-19) has brought a deluge of contaminated waste which calls for an urgent need of treatment technology for its safe disposal. BMW generally undergoes a conservative treatment approach of incineration which in turn generates potentially toxic ash known as BMW ash. BMW ash, if directly dumped in landfill, leaches and further pollutes both land and groundwater. The present study deployed Brassica juncea [Indian Mustard (IM)], Chrysopogon zizanioides [Vetiver Grass (VG)], and Pistia stratiotes [Water Lettuce (WL)] to remediate toxicity of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) i.e., Cd, Al, Pb, Cu, Mn, Co and Zn in BMW ash both in the presence and absence of chelate with an increased dosage of toxicity. The phyto-assessment results showed that IM extracted 202.2 ± 0.1-365.5 ± 0.02, 7.8 ± 0.03-12.5 ± 0.3, 132.1 ± 0.1-327.3 ± 0.1 and >100 mg kg-1 of Al, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively without the assistance of a chelating agent. The VG accumulated heavy metals in greater concentration up to 10.5 ± 0.1 and 290.1 ± 0.05 mg kg-1 of Cd and Zn, respectively, and similar trends were observed in the WL set-up. However, the application of an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) had also increased the efficiency on an average by 20-30% for IM, 35-45% for VG, and 25-35% for WL. The experimental set-up shows that the BCF for IM, VG and WL was found to be greater than 1 for most of the PTEs. The higher value of BCF resulted in a better ability to phytoextract the heavy metals from the soil. The results suggested that IM, VG and WL have the potential to phytoextract PTEs both in the absence and presence of chelating agents.


Assuntos
Araceae , COVID-19 , Vetiveria , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Quelantes , Humanos , Mostardeira , SARS-CoV-2 , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 57-91, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914042

RESUMO

Immune principles formulated by Jenner, Pasteur, and early immunologists served as fundamental propositions for vaccine discovery against many dreadful pathogens. However, decisive success in the form of an efficacious vaccine still eludes for diseases such as tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. Several antileishmanial vaccine trials have been undertaken in past decades incorporating live, attenuated, killed, or subunit vaccination, but the goal remains unmet. In light of the above facts, we have to reassess the principles of vaccination by dissecting factors associated with the hosts' immune response. This chapter discusses the pathogen-associated perturbations at various junctures during the generation of the immune response which inhibits antigenic processing, presentation, or remodels memory T cell repertoire. This can lead to ineffective priming or inappropriate activation of memory T cells during challenge infection. Thus, despite a protective primary response, vaccine failure can occur due to altered immune environments in the presence of pathogens.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149823, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454140

RESUMO

Rising level of micro-nano plastics (MNPs) in the natural ecosystem adversely impact the health of the environment and living organisms globally. MNPs enter in to the agro-ecosystem, flora and fauna, and human body via trophic transfer, ingestion and inhalation, resulting impediment in blood vessel, infertility, and abnormal behaviors. Therefore, it becomes indispensable to apply a novel approach to remediate MNPs from natural environment. Amongst the several prevailing technologies of MNPs remediation, microbial remediation is considered as greener technology. Microbial degradation of plastics is typically influenced by several biotic as well as abiotic factors, such as enzymatic mechanisms, substrates and co-substrates concentration, temperature, pH, oxidative stress, etc. Therefore, it is pivotal to recognize the key pathways adopted by microbes to utilize plastic fragments as a sole carbon source for the growth and development. In this context, this review critically discussed the role of various microbes and their enzymatic mechanisms involved in biodegradation of MNPs in wastewater (WW) stream, municipal sludge, municipal solid waste (MSW), and composting starting with biological and toxicological impacts of MNPs. Moreover, this review comprehensively discussed the deployment of various MNPs remediation technologies, such as enzymatic, advanced molecular, and bio-membrane technologies in fostering the bioremediation of MNPs from various environmental compartments along with their pros and cons and prospects for future research.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Ecossistema , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
13.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132386, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606888

RESUMO

The rapid growth in population has increased the demand for potable water. Available technologies for its generation are the desalination of sea water through reverse osmosis, electrodialysis etc., which are energy and cost intensive. In this context, microbial desalination cell (MDC) presents a low-cost and sustainable option which can simultaneously treat wastewater, desalinate saline water, produce electrical energy and recover nutrients from wastewater. This review paper is focussed on presenting a detailed analysis of MDCs starting from the principle of operation, microbial community analysis, basic architecture, evolution in design, operational challenges, effect of process parameters, scale-up studies, application in multiple arenas and future prospects. After thorough review, it can be inferred that MDCs can be used as a stand-alone option or pre-treatment step for conventional desalination techniques without the application of external energy. MDCs have been used in multiple applications ranging from desalination, remediation of contaminated water, recovery of energy and nutrients from wastewater, softening of hardwater, biohydrogen production to degradation of waste engine oil. Although, MDCs have been used for multiple applications, still a number of operational challenges have been reported viz., interference of co-existing ions during desalination, membrane fouling, pH imbalance and limited potential of exoelectrogens. However, the re-circulation of anolytes with electrodialysis chamber has led to the maintenance of optimal pH for favourable microbial growth leading to improvement in the overall performance of MDCs. In future, genetic engineering may be used for improving the electrogenic activity of microbial community, next generation materials may be used as anode and cathode, varied sources of wastewater may be explored as anolytes, life cycle analysis and exergy analysis may be carried out to study the impact on environment and detailed pilot scale studies have to be carried out for assessing the feasibility of operation at large scale.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Purificação da Água , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Salinidade , Água do Mar , Águas Residuárias
14.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132451, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624350

RESUMO

Solid waste management (SWM) is a service of public health that is often understated in its significance. If a public health emergency like the COVID-19 outbreak exacerbates the SWM problem, its true importance as an imperative service becomes more apparent. The crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the dynamics of waste generation globally in nearly every sector and has therefore raised the need for special attention. The unpredictable variations in the quantity and composition of waste also pressurize policymakers to react dynamically. This review highlights the major problems faced during the pandemic by SWM sector and the underlying possibilities to fill the gaps in the existing system. The review focuses on particular areas that have been the most important cause of concern throughout the crisis in the process of waste management. In addition, the mixing of virus infected biomedical waste with the stream of normal solid waste and lack of active involvement of the citizen and cooperation presents the major negative safety and health concerns for the workers involved in the sanitation process. Apart from presenting innovative solutions to tackle current waste management issues, this study also proposes several key potential guidelines to holistically mitigate possible future pandemics, if any. This article can also be of great implication for creation of a specific strategy towards preventing/controlling any potential pandemic of similar kind in the near future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
15.
J Environ Manage ; 302(Pt A): 113953, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715610

RESUMO

Technological interventions and eco-innovative solutions are necessary to cope with the adverse environmental impacts of waste accumulation. The notion to consider "waste as a resource and recycling of the same for getting the value of the waste" has truly transformed the approach towards solid waste management (SWM). Technological eco-innovations rely on the automation of waste segregation, collection, route optimization, digital apps for creating communication (enhanced efficiency by 40-85%) and treatment technologies. The regulatory framework with amendments in rules, new policies, schemes, smart city missions are responsible for the implementation of "Tech-innovations" at the ground level and has shown societal benefits. India has significantly shown progress in sustainable development goals (SDGs) score from 50.93 to 60.23 (year 2000-2019). The innovative and sustainable waste management practices in India have increased contribution to renewable energy (approx. 2554 MW/annum), 15-billion-USD business opportunity by the circular economy, 25-30% resale profit from processed E-waste, increased co-operative collaborations, trailblazing start-ups, improved SDG 3,7,8,9,11,12,13, improved market for green products and services, brilliant institutional and regional innovations addressing the issue of climate change. The present article critically reviews the exemplary eco-innovations (technological and non-technological) including resource recovery and viable technologies for SWM in India. The review also illustrates the lacunae (in awareness, bioproducts adoption and advanced technologies), recommendations based on findings and future research areas. The paper can also assist researchers, entrepreneurs and the policy makers for improving the status of SWM in India as well as other developing countries with the same societal and economic status.


Assuntos
Resíduos Sólidos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Tecnologia
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114647, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562562

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a well known medicinal plant belonging to family Apocynaceae that have been traditionally used as medicine since ancient times. C. roseus is a well-recognized herbal medicine due to its anticancer bisindole alkaloids (vinblastine (111), vincristine (112) and vindesine (121)). In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, different parts of C. roseus are used in folklore herbal medicine for treatment of many types of cancer, diabetes, stomach disorders, kidney, liver and cardiovascular diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main idea behind this communication is to update comprehensively and analyze critically the traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and toxicity of various extracts and isolated compounds from C. roseus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presented data covers scientific works on C. roseus published across the world between 1967 and 2021 was searched from various international publishing houses using search engines as well as several traditional texts like Ayurveda and relevant books. Collected data from different sources was comprehensively summarized/analyzed for ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, analytical chemistry, biological activities and toxicity studies of C. roseus. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: C. roseus has a wide range of applications in the traditional system of medicine especially in cancer and diabetes. During phytochemical investigation, total of 344 compounds including monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) (110), bisindole alkaloids (35), flavonoids (34), phenolic acids (9) and volatile constituents (156) have been reported in the various extracts and fractions of different plant parts of C. roseus. The extracts and isolated compounds of C. roseus have to exhibit many pharmacological activities such as anticancer/cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, larvicidal and pupicidal. The comparative toxicity of extracts and bioactive compounds investigated in dose dependent manner. The investigation of toxicity showed that the both extracts and isolated compounds are safe to a certain limit beyond that they cause adverse effects. CONCLUSION: This review is a comprehensive, critically analyzed summarization of sufficient baseline information of selected topics in one place undertaken till date on C. roseus for future works and drug discovery. The phytochemical investigation including biosynthetic pathways showed that the MIAs and bisindole alkaloids are major and characteristic class of compounds in this plant. The present data confirm that the extracts/fractions and their isolated alkaloids especially vinblastine (111) and vincristine (112) have a potent anticancer/cytotoxic and antidiabetic property and there is a need for further study with particular attention to the mechanisms of anticancer activity. In biosynthesis pathways of alkaloids especially bisindole alkaloids, some enzymes and rearrangement are unexposed therefore it is required to draw special attention. It also focuses on attracting the attention of scientific communities about the widespread biological activities of this species for its better utilization prospects in the near future.

17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 433-461, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914062

RESUMO

Search for an efficacious antileishmanial vaccine has led to clinical trials of numerous vaccine candidates in the past few decades. As no promising candidate has emerged from these studies, novel vaccine modalities and vaccine assessment techniques are still emerging for antileishmanial vaccine development. Briefly, this chapter discusses: (a) history and timeline of antileishmanial vaccine development; (b) techniques utilized for developing whole-parasite and subunit-based antileishmanial vaccine formulations, and (c) immunogenicity and post-challenge protective efficacy assessment of vaccine candidates.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Vacinas de Subunidades
18.
Chemosphere ; 290: 133255, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922959

RESUMO

Leachate treatment is an essential and integral part of solid waste management system, and its efficient treatment becomes more crucial when the leachate is produced from industrial or hazardous waste landfills (HWLs), as it is multi-fold more toxic than the leachate produced from municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs). Electrocoagulation has appeared to be a promising technology for treating complex wastewater including MSWL leachate, but specific treatability studies dedicated to HWL leachate are rarely available, and thus pose a demand for fundamental and advance research in this area to bridge the existing gap. The current study delves into systematic design of experiments to check the treatability of HWL leachate through electrocoagulation, considering reduction (maximum) in chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a response variable. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for design of experiments and process optimization and three-dimensional surface response was also created to understand the relationship among process parameters and response variables. After extensive experimental trials and data analysis, it was observed that electrocoagulation can be used as a potential treatment technology for leachate with Galvanized Iron (GI) as preferable electrode material and it resulted up to 90% reduction in COD under optimized condition. Significant reduction in other parameters was also observed with a removal efficiency of 58.1%, 63.6%, 42.4%, 52.5%, 54.7% and 84% for cadmium, zinc, phenolic compounds, lead, TOC, and colour, respectively. The results showed that Electrocoagulation can be used as a replacement of currently practised energy extensive treatment technologies like multiple effect evaporators, which are used by landfill operators for managing their HWL leachate. The methodology and results from this research may be utilized by the researchers and operators of HWL landfills to decide the treatment trail for HWL leachate.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Eletrocoagulação , Resíduos Perigosos , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0110821, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34878310

RESUMO

Equitable and timely access to COVID-19-related care has emerged as a major challenge, especially in developing and low-income countries. In India, ∼65% of the population lives in villages where infrastructural constraints limit the access to molecular diagnostics of COVID-19 infection. Especially, the requirement of a cold chain transport for sustained sample integrity and associated biosafety challenges pose major bottlenecks to the equitable access. Here, we developed an innovative clinical specimen collection medium, named SupraSens microbial transport medium (SSTM). SSTM allowed a cold chain-independent transport at a wide temperature range (15°C to 40°C) and directly inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (<15 min). Evaluation of SSTM compared to commercial viral transport medium (VTM) in field studies (n = 181 patients) highlighted that, for the samples from same patients, SSTM could capture more symptomatic (∼26.67%, 4/15) and asymptomatic (52.63%, 10/19) COVID-19 patients. Compared to VTM, SSTM yielded significantly lower quantitative PCR (qPCR) threshold cycle (Ct) values (mean ΔCt > -3.50), thereby improving diagnostic sensitivity of SSTM (18.79% [34/181]) versus that of VTM (11.05% [20/181]). Overall, SSTM had detection of COVID-19 patients 70% higher than that of VTM. Since the logistical and infrastructural constraints are not unique to India, our study highlights the invaluable global utility of SSTM as a key to accurately identify those infected and control COVID-19 transmission. Taken together, our data provide a strong justification to the adoption of SSTM for sample collection and transport during the pandemic. IMPORTANCE Approximately forty-four percent of the global population lives in villages, including 59% in Africa (https://unhabitat.org/World%20Cities%20Report%202020). The fast-evolving nature of SARS-CoV-2 and its extremely contagious nature warrant early and accurate COVID-19 diagnostics across rural and urban population as a key to prevent viral transmission. Unfortunately, lack of adequate infrastructure, including the availability of biosafety-compliant facilities and an end-to-end cold chain availability for COVID-19 molecular diagnosis, limits the accessibility of testing in these countries. Here, we fulfill this urgent unmet need by developing a sample collection and transport medium, SSTM, that does not require cold chain, neutralizes the virus quickly, and maintains the sample integrity at broad temperature range without compromising sensitivity. Further, we observed that use of SSTM in field studies during pandemic improved the diagnostic sensitivity, thereby establishing the feasibility of molecular testing even in the infrastructural constraints of remote, hilly, or rural communities in India and elsewhere.

20.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882853

RESUMO

The effect of two (2W) vs. three (3W) wave patterns of follicular dynamics and concurrent endocrine milieu of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol 17-ß (E2) and progesterone (P4) were investigated during one interestrus interval (IEI) before insemination, on ensuing pregnancy, in 70 lactating Jersey crossbred cows. The findings were evaluated for between [included all (overall) 2W-O and 3W-O cows] and within [after separating pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) cows in 2W and 3W] wave patterns. The propensity of two (58.6%, n=41) and three (41.4%, n=29) wave patterns was similar (P=0.15). The IEI, shorter by 2.6 days for 2W-O vs. 3W-O (P<0.0009), predicted wave pattern as 100% 2W-O cows had IEI of ≤ 21d, present only in 27.6% 3W-O cows (P <0.0001). The ovulatory follicle persisted for a significantly shorter duration for 3W-O vs. 2W-O cows. The average FSH, LH, E2 and P4 concentrations during the IEI did not differ for between and within the wave patterns. Pregnancy rate (%) of 58.6 vs. 41.4 (P = 0.15) for 2W-O vs. 3W-O and 56.1-P vs. 43.9-NP (P = 0.44) for within 2W was similar, but tended to differ for within the 3W pattern (69.0-P vs. 31.0-NP, P = 0.06). The pregnancy outcome was influenced by the age of ovulatory follicle for between the wave patterns and by follicular count as well as FSH surge concentration for within the wave patterns. A shorter luteal phase reduced the pregnancy outcome, a novel finding of the present study.

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