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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285621

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245813, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285592

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis B virus infection is perilous among the five types of Hepatitis, as it remains clinically asymptomatic. The present study draws up-to-date prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the general population of Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The blood samples from 4803 individuals including 2399 male and 2404 females were investigated. All the suspected samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen using Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and followed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that 312 (13.00%) out of 2399 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HBV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HBV antibodies were found in the age of 21-30 groups (10.73%). Furthermore, the ICT positive samples were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the existence of active HBV-DNA. It was observed that 169 (7.04%) out of (2399) male of the total population (4803) tested was positive. On the other hand, the female 463 (19.25%) possessed antibodies in their blood against HBV. Accumulatively, our results showed a higher percentage of HBV prevalence in males than females in the age group 21-30 years. The total HCV infected in Mardan general population was recorded at 5.7% comprising both male and female.


Resumo A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B é perigosa entre os cinco tipos de hepatite, pois permanece clinicamente assintomática. O presente estudo traça a prevalência atualizada do vírus da hepatite B (HBV) na população geral de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 4.803 indivíduos, incluindo 2.399 homens e 2.404 mulheres, foram investigadas. Todas as amostras suspeitas foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite B usando teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), seguido por transcrição reversa-reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR). Os resultados mostraram que 312 (13,00%) de 2.399 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o VHB, enquanto, entre as diferentes faixas etárias, as maiores incidências de anticorpos VHB foram encontradas nos grupos de 21 a 30 anos (10,73%). Além disso, amostras positivas para ICT foram rastreadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase aninhada para detectar a existência de HBV-DNA ativo. Observou-se que 169 (7,04%) de 2.399 homens do total da população (4803) testados foram positivos. Por outro lado, 463 mulheres (19,25%) possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra VHB. Acumulativamente, nossos resultados mostraram uma porcentagem maior de prevalência de HBV em homens do que em mulheres na faixa etária de 21 a 30 anos. O total de HCV infectados na população geral de Mardan foi registrado em 5,7%, incluindo homens e mulheres.

4.
Osteoporos Int ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432115

RESUMO

The study was conducted to illustrate the effect of Romosozumab in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. Romosozumab decreased the incidence of vertebral, nonvertebral, and clinical fractures significantly. In addition, decreased incidence of falls and increased bone mineral density at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was observed. Romosozumab is a monoclonal antibody that acts against the sclerostin pathway leading to enhanced bone formation and reduced bone resorption in patients with osteoporosis. Electronic search was performed on Medline (via PubMed), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrials.gov, till May 2020, for RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of Romosozumab in postmenopausal osteoporosis. RCTs evaluating the effect of Romosozumab on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. Meta-analysis was performed by Cochrane review manager 5 (RevMan) version 5.3. Cochrane risk of bias 2.0 tool and GRADE pro-GDT were applied for methodological quality and overall evidence quality, respectively. One hundred seventy-nine studies were screened, and 10 eligible studies were included in the analysis, with a total of 6137 patients in romosozumab group and 5732 patients in control group. Romosozumab significantly reduced the incidence of vertebral fractures [OR = 0.43 (95%CI = 0.35-0.52), High-quality evidence], nonvertebral fractures [OR = 0.78 (95%CI = 0.66-0.92), High quality], and clinical fractures [OR = 0.70 (95%CI = 0.60-0.82), High quality] at 24 months. Significant reduction in incidence risk of falls [OR = 0.87 (95%CI = 0.78-0.96), High quality] was observed with romosozumab. Bone mineral density was significantly increased in the romosozumab treated groups at lumbar spine [MD = 12.66 (95%CI = 12.66-12.67), High quality], total hip [MD = 5.69 (95%CI = 5.68 - 5.69), Moderate quality], and femoral neck [MD = 5.18 (95%CI = 5.18-5.19), Moderate quality] at 12 months. The total adverse events [RR = 0.98(95%CI = 0.96-1.01), Moderate quality] and serious adverse events [RR = 0.98(95%CI = 0.88-1.08), Moderate quality] with romosozumab were comparable to the control group. The current analysis with evidence on efficacy and safety of Romosozumab, authors opine to recommend the use of Romosozumab treatment for post-menopausal osteoporosis.Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019112196.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333729

RESUMO

A complete peptide-based drug delivery unit has been designed with a tumor homing domain chemically linked to a syndiotactic cell-penetrating domain. The designed peptides were synthesized, characterized, and tested in vitro for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity evaluation. The differential uptake, cellular internalization, negligible hemotoxicity, selective toxicity to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and the superior penetration in three-dimensional MDA-MB-231 tumorospheres confirm their utility as a promising delivery vector.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244977, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287506

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Hepatite C , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e245813, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287527

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus infection is perilous among the five types of Hepatitis, as it remains clinically asymptomatic. The present study draws up-to-date prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the general population of Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The blood samples from 4803 individuals including 2399 male and 2404 females were investigated. All the suspected samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen using Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and followed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that 312 (13.00%) out of 2399 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HBV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HBV antibodies were found in the age of 21-30 groups (10.73%). Furthermore, the ICT positive samples were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the existence of active HBV-DNA. It was observed that 169 (7.04%) out of (2399) male of the total population (4803) tested was positive. On the other hand, the female 463 (19.25%) possessed antibodies in their blood against HBV. Accumulatively, our results showed a higher percentage of HBV prevalence in males than females in the age group 21-30 years. The total HCV infected in Mardan general population was recorded at 5.7% comprising both male and female.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 491, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259956

RESUMO

Coral reefs are fragile and endangered ecosystems in the tropical marine and coastal environment. Thermal stress due to marine heat waves (MHW) could cause significantly negative impacts on the health conditions, i.e., bleaching of the coral ecosystem. The current study is an attempt to quantify the intensity of coral bleaching in the Andaman region in recent decades using the intensity of marine heat wave (IMHW) estimated from satellite measured sea surface temperature (SST). A linear regression model was developed between IMHW and in situ observations of percent coral bleaching (PCB) which has the slope 7.767 (of IMHW unit) and intercept (- 141.7). Further, an attempt was also made to establish the relationship between PCB and the ratio between the remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) at 443 and 531 nm to upscale the percentage of coral bleaching at synoptic scales. A significant positive correlation between the PCB and band ratio index was found (R2 = 0.72). This approach can be used for the operational monitoring of coral reef beaching in this region.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura Alta
9.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat ; 156: 106581, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273492

RESUMO

Leucas vestita Wall. ex. Benth., is an endemic species restricted to Western Ghats, India. In this study, the carrageenan-induced anti-inflammatory model was used to evaluate the influence of L. vestita ethanol extract on inflammation. The Ethanol extract was tested for its anti-inflammatory property at a dose of 200mg/kg po. and 400mg/kg po. The paw volume was reduced gradually, three hours after administration of the extract. The extract showed a dosage dependant activity. The compounds present in the ethanol extract were identified by using HPLC and the binding affinity of these compounds against Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, the enzyme involved in the perception of pain) was analyzed by using FlexX molecular docking suite.

11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 222: 113574, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126459

RESUMO

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates six LPA receptors (LPAR1-6) and regulates various cellular activities such as cell proliferation, cytoprotection, and wound healing. Many studies elucidated the pathological outcomes of LPA are due to the alteration in signaling pathways, which include migration and invasion of cancer cells, fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and inflammation. Current pathophysiological research on LPA and its receptors provides a means that LPA receptors are new therapeutic targets for disorders associated with LPA. Various chemical modulators are developed and are under investigation to treat a wide range of pathological complications. This review summarizes the physiological and pathological roles of LPA signaling, development of various LPA modulators, their structural features, patents, and their clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Lisofosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/agonistas , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Lisofosfolipídeos/química , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(13): 2261-2272, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125534

RESUMO

Understanding various aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD) by researchers could lead to a better understanding of the disease and provide treatment alternatives that could significantly improve the quality of life of patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders. Significant progress has been made in recent years toward this goal, but there is yet no available treatment with confirmed neuroprotective effects. Recent studies have shown the potential of PPARγ agonists, which are the ligand activated transcriptional factor of the nuclear hormone superfamily, as therapeutic targets for various neurodegenerative disorders. The activation of central PGC-1α mediates the potential role against neurogenerative diseases like PD, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Further understanding the mechanism of neurodegeneration and the role of glitazones in the activation of PGC-1α signaling could lead to a novel therapeutic interventions against PD. Keeping this aspect in focus, the present review highlights the pathogenic mechanism of PD and the role of glitazones in the activation of PGC-1α via PPARγ for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Tiazolidinedionas , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR gama , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Exp Neurol ; 344: 113792, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181928

RESUMO

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in severe neuronal dysfunction and degeneration. Since the nicotinic acetylcholine α7 receptors (α7-AChR) are involved in neuronal function and survival, we investigated if stimulation of α7-AChR would promote neuronal survival and improve behavioral outcome following SAH in mice. Male mice subjected to SAH were treated with either galantamine (α7-AChR agonist) or vehicle. Neurobehavioral testing was performed 24 h after SAH, and mice were euthanized for analysis of neuronal cell death or a cell survival (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. Neuron cell cultures were subjected to hemoglobin toxicity to assess the direct effects of α7-AChR agonism independent of other cells. Treatment with the α7-AChR agonist promoted neuronal survival and improved functional outcomes 24 h post-SAH. The improved outcomes corresponded with increased PI3K/Akt activity. Antagonism of α7-AChR or PI3K effectively reversed galantamine's beneficial effects. Tissue from α7-AChR knockout mice confirmed α7-AChR's role in neuronal survival after SAH. Data from the neuronal cell culture experiment supported a direct effect of α7-AChR agonism in promoting cell survival. Our findings indicate that α7-AChR is a therapeutic target following SAH which can promote neuronal survival, thereby improving neurobehavioral outcome. Thus, the clinically relevant α7-AChR agonist, galantamine, might be a potential candidate for human use to improve outcome after SAH.

14.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 194(2-3): 113-120, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137452

RESUMO

Measurement of dissolved radon concentrations in the water samples collected from selected borewells (depth ~300 ft), wells (depth ~25 ft) and overhead tanks (height ~30 ft) of Mandya city, Karnataka, India, has been carried out by using Emanometry method. The radon concentrations in the waters of borewell, well and overhead tank ranges from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 102.8 ± 5.1, 1.3 ± 0.1 to 3.8 ± 0.4 and 2.5 ± 0.2 to 9.7 ± 1.1 Bq l-1 with the mean values of 16.8, 2.5 and 6.2 Bq l-1, respectively. Majority of borewell water samples showed higher concentrations of dissolved 222Rn compared to waters of well and overhead tank. The overall mean value of dissolved radon concentration of 12.2 Bq l-1 is found to be close to the maximum contaminant level of 11 Bq l-1 suggested by US Environment Protection Agency. The physicochemical parameters like pH, TDS and conductivity were also measured, and dependence of dissolved 222Rn on these parameters has been studied. Using the mean value of dissolved radon concentration, a new attempt has been made to compute the doses imparted to different organs and tissues of the human body. Dosimetric calculations showed that stomach and small intestine receive greater doses due to dissolved radon compared to other organs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Humanos , Índia , Doses de Radiação , Radônio/análise , Água , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
15.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X211020865, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112003

RESUMO

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients develop delayed cerebral ischemia and delayed deficits (DCI) within 2 weeks of aneurysm rupture at a rate of approximately 30%. DCI is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality after SAH. The cause of DCI is multi-factorial with contributions from microthrombi, blood vessel constriction, inflammation, and cortical spreading depolarizations. Platelets play central roles in hemostasis, inflammation, and vascular function. Within this review, we examine the potential roles of platelets in microthrombi formation, large artery vasospasm, microvessel constriction, inflammation, and cortical spreading depolarization. Evidence from experimental and clinical studies is provided to support the role(s) of platelets in each pathophysiology which contributes to DCI. The review concludes with a suggestion for future therapeutic targets to prevent DCI after aSAH.

16.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046904, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Though dissertation is mandatory for postgraduates (PG), it is unknown if adequate knowledge on plagiarism exists at that level. Thus, we intended to study the knowledge and attitude towards plagiarism among junior doctors in India. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: PG medical residents and Junior faculty from various teaching institutions across south India. PARTICIPANTS: A total of N=786 doctors filled the questionnaires of which approximately 42.7% were from government medical colleges (GMCs) and the rest from private institutions. METHODS: Participants were given a pretested semistructured questionnaire which contained: (1) demographic details; (2) a quiz developed by Indiana University, USA to assess knowledge and (3) Attitudes towards Plagiarism Questionnaire (ATPQ). OUTCOME MEASURES: The Primary outcome measure was knowledge about plagiarism. The secondary outcome measure was ATPQ scores. RESULTS: A total of N=786 resident doctors and junior faculty from across 11 institutions participated in this study. Of this, 42.7% were from GMCs and 60.6% were women. The mean (SD) knowledge score was 4.43 (1.99) out of 10. The factors (adjusted OR; 95% CI; p value) that emerged as significant predictors of knowledge were number of years in profession (-0.181; -0.299 to -0.062; 0.003), no previous publication (0.298; 0.099 to 0.498; 0.003) and working in a GMC (0.400; 0.106 to 0.694; 0.008). The overall mean (SD) scores of the three attitude components were: Permissive attitudes-37.33 (5.33), critical attitudes -20.32 (4.82) and subjective norms-31.05 (4.58), all of which corresponded to the moderate category. CONCLUSION: Participants lacked adequate knowledge on how to avoid plagiarism suggesting a need for a revamp in medical education curriculum in India by incorporating research and publication ethics.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Plágio , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Indiana , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; : 306624X211028774, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189984

RESUMO

Consumption of alcohol has an impact on violent crimes and homicides. The study examines the association between aggregate level consumption of spirit and homicide rates in the State of Kerala in India. Time-series analyses were conducted by building Autoregressive Moving Average with Exogenous Variables (ARMAX) models and OLS Regression models to explain the relationship between the monthly rate of consumption of alcoholic spirits and homicide rates. The study concludes that consumption of alcoholic spirits has a statistically significant impact on the total homicide rates and the male and female homicide rates. The study has significant policy implications being one of the first studies examining the relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide rates in India and suggesting methods to address challenges of adverse public health consequences associated with alcohol consumption.

18.
Indian Pediatr ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical profile, treatment, and outcomes of PCR-positive and PCR-negative antibody-positive critically ill children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). METHODS: This retrospective observational study was done at a tertiary care coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pediatric intensive care unit in India. The baseline characteristics, clinical profile, treatment, and outcomes in seventeen critically ill children diagnosed with MIS-C were analyzed from 1 July to 31 October, 2020. RESULTS: Sixteen out of 17 children presented with hypotensive shock and respiratory distress. Mean (SD) age of PCR-negative antibody-positive and PCR-positive children was 11 (4.4) and 5 (3.7) years, respectively; P=0.007. The former group had significantly higher mean (SD) D-dimer levels [16,651 (14859) ng/mL vs 3082 (2591) ng/mL; P=0.02]. All received intensive care management and steroid therapy; 7 children received intravenous immunoglobulin. 14 children survived and 3 died. CONCLUSION: The outcome of children with MIS-C was good if recognized early and received intensive care.

19.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 183: 107624, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077765

RESUMO

Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) is an infectious shrimp disease caused by the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). In recent years, the widespread occurrence of EHP poses a significant challenge to the shrimp aquaculture industry. Early, rapid and accurate diagnosis of EHP infection is very much essential for the control of HPM crop-related losses. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a robust, sensitive, cost-effective disease diagnostic technique. Here, we demonstrate an improved, simple, closed-tube, colorimetric EHP LAMP diagnostic assay. LAMP assay was illustrated with the specific EHP spore wall protein (SWP) gene primers. Naked eye visual detection of LAMP amplicons was achieved using Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB) or Phenol red dye without opening the tubes. This LAMP assay is efficient in detecting the EHP pathogen in all clinical samples include shrimp hepatopancreas, FTA card samples, feces, pond water, and soil. Also, the elution of EHP DNA from FTA cards was demonstrated within 17 min using a simple dry bath. In clinical evaluation, the visual LAMP assay established 100% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% diagnostic specificity. The visual LAMP assay is rapid, can detect the EHP pathogen within 40 min using a simple dry bath, and does not require any expensive instruments and technical proficiency. In conclusion, this visual LAMP protocol is a user-friendly, specific assay that can be conceivably operated at the farm-site/ resource-limited settings by the farmer himself with simple equipment.

20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114235, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044081

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trichodesma indicum (L.) R. Br. (family: Boraginaceae) is a medicinal herb largely used to treat arthralgia, rheumatoid arthritis, wound healing, dysentery, etc. It's mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity has not been systematically analyzed yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of successive solvent extracts (n-hexane extract (HE), ethyl acetate extract (EA), ethanol extract (EE), aqueous extract (AE) and fractions of HE) from the aerial parts of Trichodesma indicum (TI) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated inflammatory reaction using mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxic effects of the extracts and fractions of TI were assessed by MTT assay. The effect of extracts and fractions on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 macrophages were measured using the Griess reagent method. IL - 6, IL - 1ß, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2 gene expressions were examined by a qRT-PCR method. RESULTS: RAW 264.7 macrophages pretreated with HE, EA, EE and AE of TI showed a significant decrease in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and NO without exhibiting cytotoxicity. The potent HE was fractionated using flash chromatography into FA, FB, FC, FD and FE. Among the five fractions, FE displayed a stronger ability to reduce IL - 1ß, TNF-α, iNOS, COX2 and NO importantly no cytotoxicity was observed. The phytochemical compounds present in FE were further screened by Gas chromatography - Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester is the major compound in FE. Molecular docking analysis showed good inhibition of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester against TLR-4, NIK and TACE. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid diisooctyl ester could be a potential candidate in alleviating inflammatory reactions in TI.

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