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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has been shown to ameliorate acetic acid induced colitis in rats by suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of roxithromycin on small intestinal transit and cholinergic responsiveness of the colonic smooth muscles of colitic rats. METHODS: Colitis was induced in rats by acetic acid and the small intestinal transit was determined by measuring the distance traversed by charcoal meal from the gastro-duodenal junction in 1 h. The test drug roxithromycin, reference drug mesalazine and anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac were administered orally before inducing colitis and their effect on intestinal transit was compared with colitic control group. The effect on cholinergic responsiveness of colonic smooth muscles was evaluated in vitro by plotting a dose-response curve using different concentrations of acetylcholine. The concentration producing 50% of maximal response (EC50) was calculated for all the treatment groups. RESULTS: The small intestinal transit was enhanced in colitic rats as compared to normal rats (86.00 ± 1.36 vs. 57.00 ± 1.34 cm; p<0.001). Like mesalazine, roxithromycin normalized intestinal transit while diclofenac was ineffective. The results of in vitro experiment show that colitis increased cholinergic responsiveness of the colonic smooth muscles that was not affected by roxithromycin and mesalazine while diclofenac significantly decreased it. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that like mesalazine, roxithromycin affords protection in colitis mainly by normalizing propulsive movement of the small intestine than by affecting cholinergic responsiveness of the colonic smooth muscles.

2.
J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) hinders the treatment of non-COVID illnesses like cancer, which may be pronounced in lower-middle-income countries. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study audited the performance of a tertiary care surgical oncology department at an academic hospital in India during the first six months of the pandemic. Difficulties faced by patients, COVID-19-related incidents (preventable cases of hospital transmission), and modifications in practice were recorded. RESULTS: From April to September 2020, outpatient consultations, inpatient admissions, and chemotherapy unit functioning reduced by 62%, 58%, and 56%, respectively, compared to the same period the previous year. Major surgeries dropped by 31% with a decrease across all sites, but an increase in head and neck cancers (p = .012, absolute difference 8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.75% - 14.12%). Postoperative complications were similar (p = .593, 95% CI: -2.61% - 4.87%). Inability to keep a surgical appointment was primarily due to apprehension of infection (52%) or arranging finances (49%). Two COVID-19-related incidents resulted in infecting 27 persons. Fifteen instances of possible COVID-19-related mishaps were averted. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a decrease in the operations of the department without any adverse impact in postoperative outcomes. While challenging, treating cancer adequately during COVID-19 can be accomplished by adequate screening and testing, and religiously following the prevention guidelines.

3.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593978

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens pose a significant public health threat. A major mechanism of resistance expressed by MDR pathogens is ß-lactamase-mediated degradation of ß-lactam antibiotics. The diazabicyclooctane (DBO) compounds zidebactam and WCK 5153, recognized as ß-lactam "enhancers" due to inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2), are also class A and C ß-lactamase inhibitors. To structurally probe their mode of PBP2 inhibition as well as investigate why P. aeruginosa PBP2 is less susceptible to inhibition by ß-lactam antibiotics compared to the Escherichia coli PBP2, we determined the crystal structure of P. aeruginosa PBP2 in complex with WCK 5153. WCK 5153 forms an inhibitory covalent bond with the catalytic S327 of PBP2. The structure suggests a significant role for the diacylhydrazide moiety of WCK 5153 in interacting with the aspartate in the S-X-N/D PBP motif. Modeling of zidebactam in the active site of PBP2 reveals a similar binding mode. Both DBOs increase the melting temperature of PBP2, affirming their stabilizing interactions. To aid in the design of DBOs that can inhibit multiple PBPs, the ability of three DBOs to interact with P. aeruginosa PBP3 was explored crystallographically. Even though the DBOs show covalent binding to PBP3, they destabilized PBP3. Overall, the studies provide insights into zidebactam and WCK 5153 inhibition of PBP2 compared to their inhibition of PBP3 and the evolutionarily related KPC-2 ß-lactamase. These molecular insights into the dual-target DBOs advance our knowledge regarding further DBO optimization efforts to develop novel potent ß-lactamase-resistant, non-ß-lactam PBP inhibitors.IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is a significant clinical problem. Developing novel antibiotics that overcome known resistance mechanisms is highly desired. Diazabicyclooctane inhibitors such as zidebactam possess this potential as they readily inactivate penicillin-binding proteins, yet cannot be degraded by ß-lactamases. In this study, we characterized the inhibition by diazabicyclooctanes of penicillin-binding proteins PBP2 and PBP3 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa using protein crystallography and biophysical analyses. These structures and analyses help define the antibiotic properties of these inhibitors, explain the decreased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa PBP2 to be inhibited by ß-lactam antibiotics, and provide insights that could be used for further antibiotic development.

4.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566285

RESUMO

Mitochondria are vital cellular organelles associated with energy production as well as cell signaling pathways. These organelles, responsible for metabolism, are highly abundant in hepatocytes that make them key players in hepatotoxicity. The literature suggests that mitochondria are targeted by various environmental pollutants. Arsenic, a toxic metalloid known as an environmental pollutant, readily contaminates drinking water and exerts toxic effects. It is toxic to various cellular organs; among them, the liver seems to be most affected. A growing body of evidence suggests that within cells, arsenic is highly toxic to mitochondria and reported to cause oxidative stress and alter an array of signaling pathways and functions. Hence, it is imperative to highlight the mechanisms associated with altered mitochondrial functions and integrity in arsenic-induced liver toxicity. This review provides the details of mechanistic aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity as well as various ameliorative measures undertaken concerning mitochondrial functions.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 869-875, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Facial emotion recognition (FER) deficit is documented in many psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD). However, its role as a risk-marker in BD is not well researched. In the present study, we investigated the role of FER and the corresponding prefrontal neurohemodynamic changes (PNHC) with functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) in patients with BD and subjects at high risk for BD compared to healthy subject. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional case-control design we compared 14 patients with first episode mania (FEM) in remission (BD group), 14 healthy siblings of BD patients (HR group), and 13 matched healthy subjects (HC group). FER was assessed using a computer-based task called Tool for Recognition of Emotions in Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TRENDS). Simultaneously, the corresponding PNHC was recorded with fNIRS. Kruskal Wallis H test was used to analyze between-group differences and Spearman's rho for correlation analysis. RESULTS: The three groups were comparable on socio-demographics (all p>0.09) except education (p = 0.03). HR group had the most hyper-activation in the bilateral DLPFC during the TRENDS task (all p<0.05). There was no significant between-group differences in the FER performance and no significant correlation between the FER performance and the PNHC in the HR and BD groups (all p>0.35). LIMITATIONS: The potential confounding effect of medications in the BD group. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-activation of the DLPCF in HR group during FER could indicate an increased risk for BD. However, the lack of similar findings in the BD group might reflect a possible normalizing effect of medications. It is equally likely that differences in the PNHC are detectable earlier than the differences in FER task performance during the course of the illness. This requires further exploration.

6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 77, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gloriosa superba L. (Colchicaceae) is a high-value medicinal plant indigenous to Africa and Southeast Asia. Its therapeutic benefits are well-established in traditional medicines including Ayurveda. It is well known for its natural bioactive compound colchicine which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities i.e. rheumatism, gout and was also introduced into clinical practices. The increasing demand as well as its illegal harvesting has brought this valuable plant under threatened category. METHODS: The present investigation describes a microwave assisted extraction (MAE) strategy coupled with a densitometric-high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methodology for the analysis of colchicine from 32 different populations of G. superba. A Box-Behnken statistical design (3 level factor) has been employed to optimize MAE, in which power of microwave, time of irradiation, aqueous ethanol and pH were used as independent variables whereas colchicine was used as the dependent variables. Chromatography was carried out on Silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates with toluene: methanol, 85:15 (v/v) being used as solvent system. Densitometric measurement was performed at λ=254 nm following post-derivatization (10% methanolic sulphuric acid). RESULTS: Optimal conditions for extraction to obtain the maximum colchicine yield was found to be 7.51 mg g- 1 which was very close to be predicted response 7.48 mg g- 1 by maintaining microwave power (460 W), irradiation time (6.4 min), aqueous ethanol-30, pH -3. Colchicine content ranged between 2.12-7.58 mg g- 1 among 32 G. superba populations in which only three chemotypes viz. GS- 1, GS- 3, and GS- 2 collected from West Bengal and Sikkim, respectively exhibited maximum yield of colchicine. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this newly developed optimized MAE coupled with HPTLC densitometry methodology not only quantifies colchicine in order to identify elite chemotypes of G. superba, but it also encourages in selecting high yielding populations of the plants for industrial use and economic boost for the farmers. This validated, simple and reproducible HPTLC protocol is being used for the first time to estimate colchicine from natural populations of G. superba obtained from 32 different geographical regions of India.

7.
J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted cancer care globally. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on cancer healthcare from the perspective of patients with cancer. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June 19, 2020, to August 7, 2020, using a questionnaire designed by patients awaiting cancer surgery. We examined the impact of COVID-19 on five domains (financial status, healthcare access, stress, anxiety, and depression) and their relationship with various patient-related variables. Factors likely to determine the influence of COVID-19 on patient care were analyzed. RESULTS: A significant adverse impact was noted in all five domains (p = < 0.05), with the maximal impact felt in the domain of financial status followed by healthcare access. Patients with income levels of INR < 35 K (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.61, p < 0.05), and 35K- 100 K (AOR = 1.96, p < 0.05), married patients (AOR = 3.30, p < 0.05), and rural patients (AOR = 2.82, p < 0.05) experienced the most adverse COVID-19-related impact. CONCLUSION: Delivering quality cancer care in low to middle-income countries is a challenge even in normal times. During this pandemic, deficiencies in this fragile healthcare delivery system were exacerbated. Identification of vulnerable groups of patients and strategic utilization of available resources becomes even more important during global catastrophes, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic. Further work is required in these avenues to not only address the current pandemic but also any potential future crises.

9.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576013

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses such as temperature (high/low), drought, salinity, and others make the environment hostile to plants. Abiotic stressors adversely affect plant growth and development; and thereby makes a direct impact on overall plant productivity. Plants confront stress by developing an internal defense system orchestrated by compatible solutes, reactive oxygen species scavengers and phytohormones. However, routine exposure to unpredictable environmental stressors makes it essential to equip plants with a system that contributes to sustainable agricultural productivity, besides imparting multi-stress tolerance. The sustainable approach against abiotic stress is accomplished through breeding of tolerant cultivars. Though eco-friendly, tedious screening and crossing protocol limits its usage to overcome stress and in attaining the goal of global food security. Advancement on the technological front has enabled adoption of genomic engineering approaches to perform site-specific modification in the plant genome for improving adaptability, increasing the yield and in attributing resilience against different stressors. Of the different genome editing approaches, CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized biological research with wider applicability to crop plants. CRISPR/Cas emerged as a versatile tool in editing genomes for desired traits in highly accurate and precise manner. The present study summarizes advancement of the CRISPR/Cas genome editing tool in its adoption to manipulate plant genomes for novel traits towards developing high-yielding and climate-resilient crop varieties.

10.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606519

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 represents a global public health emergency. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells requires the activation of its spike protein by host cell proteases. The serine protease, TMPRSS2, and cysteine proteases, Cathepsins B/L, activate spike protein and enable SARS-CoV-2 entry to the host cell through two completely different and independent pathways. Therefore, inhibiting either TMPRSS2 or cathepsin B/L may not sufficiently block the virus entry. We here hypothesized that simultaneous targeting of both the entry pathways would be more efficient to block the virus entry rather than targeting the entry pathways individually. To this end, we utilized the network-based drug repurposing analyses to identify the possible common drugs that can target both the entry pathways. This study, for the first time, reports the molecules like cyclosporine, calcitriol, and estradiol as candidate drugs with the binding ability to the host proteases, TMPRSS2, and cathepsin B/L. Next, we analyzed drug-gene and gene-gene interaction networks using 332 human targets of SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The network results indicate that, out of 332 human proteins, cyclosporine interacts with 216 (65%) proteins. Furthermore, we performed molecular docking and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the binding of drug with TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. The molecular docking and MD simulation results showed strong and stable binding of cyclosporine A (CsA) with TMPRSS2 and CTSL genes. The above results indicate cyclosporine as a potential drug molecule, as apart from interacting with SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, it also interacts with most of SARS-CoV-2 target host genes; thus it could potentially interfere with functions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in human cells. We here also suggest that these antiviral drugs alone or in combination can simultaneously target both the entry pathways and thus can be considered as a potential treatment option for COVID-19.

11.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; : 100696, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458450

RESUMO

The unprecedented novel coronavirus disease pandemic has wreaked havoc on healthcare systems worldwide and raised myriads of questions. The delivery of cancer care is an essential service that cannot take a backseat, even amid a global pandemic. Oncology involves the disciplines of surgical oncology, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and palliative care which are all affected, including the possible impact of the pandemic on the mental health of patients and healthcare workers alike. This commentary attempted to review these questions in light of the best available evidence. The delivery of cancer care is generally safe when routine safety precautions are followed, and decisions are based on rational scheduling and logistical prioritisation. The impact on the mental health is profound that needs to be addressed with adequate avenues. Teleoncology is a reasonable alternative, whenever applicable. Evidence-based decision making should be the standard of care, and multidisciplinary management decisions are as indispensable as ever.

13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(2): 569-585, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404834

RESUMO

Diosgenin is a plant-derived secondary metabolite mainly present in the members of the plant family Dioscoreaceae. It is a pharmaceutically important compound because of its anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, anticoagulant, anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-ageing and other properties. Biotechnology provides an opportunity to genetically manipulate cells, tissues, organs or the whole organisms by propagating them in vitro in order to harvest the bioactive compounds. Diosgenin production from botanical sources is being improved by in vitro techniques which include elicitation, genetic transformations and bioconversions. Various techniques have been developed to obtain compounds for drug detection including separation from plants and other natural sources, molecular modelling, synthetic chemistry and combinatorial chemistry. Development in molecular markers determines genetic relationship, genetic linkage map construction, genetic diversity and identification. For rapid clonal propagation and ex situ conservation, the in vitro tools involving plant cell, tissue and organ culture have been well documented for plant-derived diosgenin production. The present review encompasses the wide application of the biotechnological techniques for diosgenin production via elucidating its biosynthetic pathway, in vitro production and mass propagation and elicitation. In addition, molecular marker-mediated diversity assessment of diosgenin containing plant species is also discussed. The review also presents the recent literature to explore the limitations of the relevant studies and future direction of research on production of diosgenin from Dioscorea spp. KEY POINTS: • Critical and updated assessment on sustainable production of diosgenin from Dioscorea spp. • In vitro propagation of Dioscorea spp. and elicitation of diosgenin production. • Diversity assessment of Dioscorea spp. using molecular markers.

14.
Eur J Nutr ; 60(1): 55-64, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) has a diverse role in many biological processes, such as growth, immunity, anti-oxidation system, homeostatic, and repairing. It acts as a regulatory and structural catalyst ion for activities of various proteins, enzymes, and signal transcription factors, as well as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The Zn ion is essential for neuronal signaling and is mainly distributed within presynaptic vesicles. Zn modulates neuronal plasticity and synaptic activity in both neonatal and adult stages. Alterations in brain Zn status results in a dozen neurological diseases including impaired brain development. Numerous researchers are working on neurogenesis, however, there is a paucity of knowledge about neurogenesis, especially in neurogenesis in adults. Neurogenesis is a multifactorial process and is regulated by many metal ions (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, etc.). Among them, Zn has an essential role in neurogenesis. At the molecular level, Zn controls cell cycle, apoptosis, and binding of DNA and several proteins including transcriptional and translational factors. Zn is needed for protein folding and function and Zn acts as an anti-apoptotic agent; organelle stabilizer; and an anti-inflammatory agent. Zn deficiency results in aging, neurodegenerative disease, immune deficiency, abnormal growth, cancer, and other symptoms. Prenatal deficiency of Zn results in developmental disorders in humans and animals. CONCLUSION: Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown an association between Zn deficiency and increased risk of neurological disorders. This article reviews the existing knowledge on the role of Zn and its importance in neurogenesis.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 612, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504787

RESUMO

The motile cilia of ependymal cells coordinate their beats to facilitate a forceful and directed flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Each cilium originates from a basal body with a basal foot protruding from one side. A uniform alignment of these basal feet is crucial for the coordination of ciliary beating. The process by which the basal foot originates from subdistal appendages of the basal body, however, is unresolved. Here, we show FGFR1 Oncogene Partner (FOP) is a useful marker for delineating the transformation of a circular, unpolarized subdistal appendage into a polarized structure with a basal foot. Ankyrin repeat and SAM domain-containing protein 1A (ANKS1A) interacts with FOP to assemble region I of the basal foot. Importantly, disruption of ANKS1A reduces the size of region I. This produces an unstable basal foot, which disrupts rotational polarity and the coordinated beating of cilia in young adult mice. ANKS1A deficiency also leads to severe degeneration of the basal foot in aged mice and the detachment of cilia from their basal bodies. This role of ANKS1A in the polarization of the basal foot is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. Thus, ANKS1A regulates FOP to build and maintain the polarity of subdistal appendages.


Assuntos
Cílios/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Corpos Basais/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Cílios/ultraestrutura , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Xenopus/embriologia , Xenopus/metabolismo
16.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409839

RESUMO

Although COVID-19 largely causes respiratory complications, it can also lead to various extrapulmonary manifestations resulting in higher mortality and these comorbidities are posing a challenge to the health care system. Reports indicate that 30-60% of patients with COVID-19 suffer from neurological symptoms. To understand the molecular basis of the neurologic comorbidity in COVID-19 patients, we have investigated the genetic association between COVID-19 and various brain disorders through a systems biology-based network approach and observed a remarkable resemblance. Our results showed 123 brain-related disorders associated with COVID-19 and form a high-density disease-disease network. The brain-disease-gene network revealed five highly clustered modules demonstrating a greater complexity of COVID-19 infection. Moreover, we have identified 35 hub proteins of the network which were largely involved in the protein catabolic process, cell cycle, RNA metabolic process, and nuclear transport. Perturbing these hub proteins by drug repurposing will improve the clinical conditions in comorbidity. In the near future, we assumed that in COVID-19 patients, many other neurological manifestations will likely surface. Thus, understanding the infection mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 and associated comorbidity is a high priority to contain its short- and long-term effects on human health. Our network-based analysis strengthens the understanding of the molecular basis of the neurological manifestations observed in COVID-19 and also suggests drug for repurposing.

17.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 56: 102507, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388563

RESUMO

Neurocognitive cognitive deficits including working memory (WM) impairment is a key component of schizophrenia (SCZ). Though a prefrontal cortex (PFC) abnormality is recognised to contribute to WM impairment, the exact nature of its neurobiological basis in SCZ is not well established. Functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging low-cost neuroimaging tool to study neuro-hemodynamics. In this background, we examined the hemodynamic activity during a WM task in schizophrenia using fNIRS. fNIRS was acquired during computerised N-back (zero-, one- & two-back) task in 15 SCZ patients and compared with 22 healthy controls. Performance in N-back test were calculated using signal detection theory alongside the mean reaction times. Concentration and latencies of oxy-, deoxy-, and totalhaemoglobin, and oxygen saturation were computed from 8*8 optodes positioned over bilateral PFC. SCZ performed poorly as measured by most of the WM parameters (p < 0.05). Lesser deoxyhemoglobin concentration (two > zero, at right BA10, p = 0.006) was noted in the right frontopolar cortex in SCZ surviving multiple-comparison correction. In addition, olanzapine equivalent doses correlated negatively with right frontopolar cortex activation (two > zero back, BA10, ρ = 0.70, p = 0.004) and better performance in two back (false alarm rate, ρ = 0.61, p = 0.015). A delayed but compensatory hyperactivation of right frontopolar cortex noted in SCZ may underlie the WM deficit in SCZ. Future studies are recommended to replicate the role of right frontopolar cortex in WM using larger samples and systematically explore the effect of antipsychotics on them.

19.
Clin Nucl Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512950

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore the utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the assessment of response to antitubercular treatment (ATT) and identification of treatment endpoint. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty patients (mean age, 35.3 years; 27 men) with clinically, radiologically, and histopathologically proven joint tuberculosis prospectively underwent clinical, biochemical, and PET/CT evaluation at baseline and after ~6, 12, and 18 months of ATT. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and 1 defaulted treatment. The remaining 37 were followed up until complete response (CR) was achieved. Images were visually and quantitatively (SUVmax ratio and metabolically active disease volume [MV]) evaluated by 2 experienced nuclear medicine physicians. RESULTS: Knee (n = 18) and ankle (n = 7) were the most frequently involved sites. The median MV and SUVmax ratio at baseline were 85.10 mL and 7.21, respectively. Five patients had noncontiguous vertebral involvement, 12 had pulmonary lesions, 2 had abscesses, 6 had mediastinal, and 30 had local lymph nodal involvement. Complete response was seen in 1/39, 11/37, and 30/37 patients after 6, 12, and 18 months of ATT. Significant reductions in visual analog scale score, tenderness, joint swelling, SUVmax ratios, and MVs (Friedman test, P < 0.001) were seen after each follow-up. The median time-to-CR in skeletal lesions was significantly longer than extraskeletal lesions (591 vs 409 days; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P < 0.001). Time-to-CR in joint lesions positively correlated with MV at first follow-up (Pearson = 0.452, P = 0.005) and negatively correlated with percentage change in MV (first follow-up from baseline) (Pearson = -0.620, P < 0.001). ROC analysis yielded a cutoff of ≤71% reduction in MV at first follow-up (80.8% sensitivity, 81.8% specificity) to predict extension of ATT beyond 12 months. Using ROC analysis at second follow-up, a cutoff of ≤12.67 mL (for CR) was derived and was validated in patients at the third follow-up, with an accuracy of 84.4%. Patients with CR in PET/CT maintained disease-free state during a mean follow-up of 271 days. CONCLUSIONS: 18F-FDG PET/CT is an excellent tool in estimating total disease burden, assessing response to ATT and identification of treatment endpoint in joint tuberculosis.

20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 319: 110655, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360602

RESUMO

The derivative diffuse reflectance UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy combined with the multivariate methods are utilized for the discrimination and classification of the soil samples collected from the north-western part of India. The acquired spectra reveal the presence of different organic and inorganic minerals such as humic acid, fulvic acid, hematite, etc. in varying amounts. The differentiation/segregation among soil samples is achieved by peak comparison and chemometric methods like clustering algorithm and principal component analysis (PCA). Among these, the PCA method gives clear discrimination of soil samples. The developed PCA model is further validated by analyzing unknown samples for the prediction to their respective clusters significantly. Principal component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) based discriminant model is developed to classify the unknown soil samples to its respective groups. PC-LDA based model reveals 95 % accurate clustering of the soil by the leave-one-out cross-validation approach.

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