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1.
Anal Methods ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955978

RESUMO

In view of the strong need to strengthen the national security arising from chemical terrorism, a rapid, specific, and onsite detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing a simple and easy-to-use kit is of utmost importance. Constant and sincere efforts are being carried out by the scientific community to find reliable techniques/methods for early warning detection. Herein, we designed a prototype technique in the form of a smart and portable chemical weapon detection kit (CWDK) to facilitate rapid and onsite detection. In this portable kit, a range of unique chemical probes were condensed to achieve the specific chromogenic and fluorogenic detection and discrimination of each member of blister and nerve agents. The embodiment of three chemical probes (Fc, SQ, and LH2) was eventually employed in a compact and flexible plastic packaging for detecting the presence of CWAs with the 'naked-eye' in the areas where laboratory services do not normally exist. The CWDK contains dye/reagent vials, sampling assembly, and a UV torch. The convenience and practicality of this technique suggest a great prospect for highly specific sensing of the complete class of CWAs with fast and accurate results in real-time scenarios with a sensitivity much below their lethal dose.

2.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809763

RESUMO

Prebiotics are either natural or synthetic non-digestible (non-)carbohydrate substances that boost the proliferation of gut microbes. Undigested fructooligosaccharides in the large intestine are utilised by the beneficial microorganisms for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids for their own growth. Although various food products are now recognized as having prebiotic properties, several others, such as almonds, artichoke, barley, chia seeds, chicory, dandelion greens, flaxseeds, garlic, and oats, are being explored and used as functional foods. Considering the benefits of these prebiotics in mineral absorption, metabolite production, gut microbiota modulation, and in various diseases such as diabetes, allergy, metabolic disorders, and necrotising enterocolitis, increasing attention has been focused on their applications in both food and pharmaceutical industries, although some of these food products are actually used as food supplements. This review aims to highlight the potential and need of these prebiotics in the diet and also discusses data related to the distinct types, sources, modes of action, and health benefits.

4.
Langmuir ; 37(15): 4611-4621, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843215

RESUMO

In this work, we characterize the micellization and morphology transition induced in aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution by the addition of the antioxidant propyl gallate (PG) using tensiometry, rheology, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques combined with the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach. The adsorption of CTAB at the air-water interface in the presence of varying [PG] revealed a progressive decrease in the critical micelle concentration (CMC), while the changes in different interfacial parameters indicated enhancement of the hydrophobicity induced by PG in the CTAB micellar system. The dynamic rheology behavior indicated an increase in the flow viscosity (η) as a function of [PG]. Moreover, the rheological components (storage modulus, G', and loss modulus, G″) depicted the viscoelastic features. SANS measurements depicted the existence of ellipsoidal micelles with varying sizes and aggregation number (Nagg) as a function of [PG] and temperature. Computational simulation performed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) provided an insight into the atomic composition of the examined system. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis depicted a close proximity of CTAB, i.e., emphasized favorable interactions between the quaternary nitrogen of CTAB and the hydroxyl group of the PG monomer, further validated by the two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (2D-NOESY), which showed the penetration of PG inside the CTAB micelles. In addition, various dynamic properties, viz., the radial distribution function (RDF), the radius of gyration (Rg), and solvent-accessible surface area (SASA), showed a significant microstructural evolution of the ellipsoidal micelles in the examined CTAB-PG system, where the changes in the micellar morphology with a more elongated hydrophobic chain and the increased Rg and SASA values indicated the notable intercalation of PG in the CTAB micelles.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250645, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901235

RESUMO

The microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning through interactions among individuals and taxonomic groups in a highly dynamic marine ecosystem. The structure and functioning of the microbial communities are often influenced by the changes in the surrounding environment. Monitoring the microbial diversity of the marine ecosystem helps to understand spatial patterns of microbial community and changes due to season, climate, and various drivers of biological diversity. Kuwait is characterized by an arid environment with a high degree of temperature variation during summer and winter. Our understanding of spatial distribution patterns of microbial communities, their diversity, and the influence of human activities on the degree of changes in the diversity of the microbial community in Kuwait territorial waters remain unclear. In this study, we employed 18S rRNA sequencing to explore marine microalgal community composition and dynamics in seawater samples collected from Kuwait waters over two seasonal cycles across six locations. A total of 448,184 sequences across 36 replicates corresponding to 12 samples from six stations were obtained. The quality-filtered sequences were clustered into 1,293 representative sequences, which were then classified into different eukaryotic taxa. This study reveals that the phytoplankton community in Kuwait waters is diverse and shows significant variations among different taxa during summer and winter. Dinoflagellates and diatoms were the most abundant season-dependent microalgae taxa in Kuwait waters. Alexandrium and Pyrophacus were abundant in summer, whereas Gonyaulax was abundant during the winter. The abundance of Coscinodiscus and Navicula, of the diatom genera, were also dependent upon both seasonal and possible anthropogenic factors. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of a sequencing-based approach, which could be used to improve the accuracy of quantitative eukaryotic microbial community profiles.

6.
J Exp Biol ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929543

RESUMO

Daylength regulates the development of spring migratory and subsequent reproductive phenotypes in avian migrants. This study used molecular approaches, and compared mRNA and proteome-wide expressions in captive redheaded buntings that were photostimulated under long days (LD) for 4 days (early stimulated, LD-eS) or for ∼3 weeks until each bird had shown successive 4 nights of Zugunruhe (stimulated, LD-S); controls were maintained under short-days. After ∼3 weeks of LD, photostimulated indices of the migratory preparedness (fattening, weight gain and Zugunruhe) were paralleled with upregulated expression of acc, dgat2 and apoa1 genes in the liver, and of cd36, fabp3 and cpt1 genes in the flight muscle, suggesting an enhanced fatty acids (FAs) synthesis and transport in the LD-S state. Concurrently elevated expression of genes involved in the calcium-ion signaling and transport (camk1 and atp2a2; camk2a in LD-eS instead), cellular stress (hspa8 and sod1, not nos2) and metabolic pathways (apoa1 and sirt1), but not of the genes associated with migratory behaviour (adcyap1 and vps13a), were found in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Further, the MBH-specific quantitative proteomics revealed that out of 503 annotated proteins, 28 were differentially expressed (LD-eS vs. LD-S: 21 up- and 7 down-regulated) and they enriched five physiological pathways that are associated with fatty acids transport and metabolism. These first comprehensive results on gene and protein expressions suggest that changes in molecular correlates of fatty acids transport and metabolism may aid the decision for migratory departure from wintering areas in obligate songbird migrants.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9252, 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927210

RESUMO

Celiac disease is an auto-immune disease in which an immune response to dietary gluten leads to inflammation and subsequent atrophy of small intestinal villi, causing severe bowel discomfort and malabsorption of nutrients. The major instigating factor for the immune response in celiac disease is the activation of gluten-specific CD4+ T cells expressing T cell receptors that recognize gluten peptides presented in the context of HLA-DQ2 and DQ8. Here we provide an in-depth characterization of 28 gluten-specific T cell clones. We assess their transcriptional and epigenetic response to T cell receptor stimulation and link this to genetic factors associated with celiac disease. Gluten-specific T cells have a distinct transcriptional profile that mostly resembles that of Th1 cells but also express cytokines characteristic of other types of T-helper cells. This transcriptional response appears not to be regulated by changes in chromatin state, but rather by early upregulation of transcription factors and non-coding RNAs that likely orchestrate the subsequent activation of genes that play a role in immune pathways. Finally, integration of chromatin and transcription factor binding profiles suggest that genes activated by T cell receptor stimulation of gluten­specific T cells may be impacted by genetic variation at several genetic loci associated with celiac disease.

8.
Waste Manag ; 126: 861-871, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901887

RESUMO

According to the US Department of Energy, succinic acid (SA) is a top platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. Bread waste, which has high starch content, is the second most wasted food in the UK and can serve as a potential low cost feedstock for the production of SA. This work evaluates the environmental performance of a proposed biorefinery concept for SA production by fermentation of waste bread using a cradle-to-factory gate life cycle assessment approach. The performance was assessed in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-renewable energy use (NREU). Waste bread fermentation demonstrated a better environmental profile compared to the fossil-based system, however, GHG emissions were about 50% higher as compared to processes using other biomass feedstocks such as corn wet mill or sorghum grains. NREU for fermentative SA production using waste bread was significantly lower (~ 46%) than fossil-based system and about the same as that of established biomass-based processes, thus proving the great potential of waste bread as a valuable feedstock for bioproduction of useful chemicals. The results show that steam and heating oil used in the process were the biggest contributors to the NREU and GHG emissions. Sensitivity analyses highlighted the importance of the solid biomass waste generated in the process which can potentially be used as fish feed. The LCA analysis can be used for targeted optimization of SA production from bread waste, thereby enabling the utilization of an otherwise waste stream and leading to the establishment of a circular economy.

9.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 308: 113783, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862051

RESUMO

Over the last century, wild tiger (Panthera tigris) numbers have declined from over 100 000 individuals to fewer than 4 000, with animals now confined to less than 5% of their historic range due to habitat loss, persecution, inadequate management, and poaching. In contrast, 15 000-20 000 tigers are estimated to be housed in captivity, experiencing conditions vastly different than their wild counterparts. A total of 280 tigers are currently held at 44 different facilities within South Africa, including zoos, semi-captive 're-wilded' populations, and pets; these animals provide a unique opportunity to measure the impact of extrinsic factors, found in exotic habitats, on the adrenocortical activity of tigers. By monitoring and comparing stress-related faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations of tigers housed at different locations, and free ranging tigers in natural tiger reserves, this project aimed to get a better understanding of the impact of extrinsic factors on adrenocortical function as a measure of stress. The results of this study showed no significant difference in fGCM concentrations between captive, re-wilded, and free-ranging tigers with the exception of one site. Furthermore, factors such as sex and season were not significant drivers of fGCM concentrations. One study group had elevated fGCM concentrations, showing population variation in the stress response. This indicates that populations are able to cope with exotic environments, however, as population-specific differences in the stress response exist, we suggest management protocols be created for each population. This study offered the unique opportunity to see how well tigers are faring outside of their native range and if having re-wilded tigers in exotic locations is a potential welfare-acceptable management option for tiger conservation globally.

10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(4): 824-835, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727441

RESUMO

The peripheral retina is affected in a variety of retinal disorders. Traditional fundus cameras capture only a part of the fundus even when montaging techniques are used. Ultra-wide field imaging enables us to delve into the retinal periphery in greater detail. It not only facilitates assessing color images of the fundus, but also fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and red and green free images. In this review, a literature search using the keywords "ultra-widefield imaging", "widefield imaging", and "peripheral retinal imaging" in English and non-English languages was done and the relevant articles were included. Ultra-wide field imaging has made new observations in the normal population as well as in eyes with retinal disorders including vascular diseases, degenerative diseases, uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, retinal and choroidal tumors and hereditary retinal dystrophies. This review aims to describe the utility of ultra-wide field imaging in various retinal disorders.

11.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725219

RESUMO

Extraglottic airway devices (EAD) have revolutionized the perioperative airway management. The accuracy of clinical tests to identify malposition has been questioned by recent studies where fibreoptic evaluation identified various malpositions that were undiagnosed by a clinical test. Ultrasound (USG) has evolved to guide various airway interventions. However, USG is under-evaluated in the assessment of the EADs position. Our study aimed to compare clinical versus USG assessment of optimal placement of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA). This randomized control trial was done in 212 consenting patients undergoing onco-surgery with PLMA as an airway device. Patients were randomized in Group CL (n-107) and US (n-105). Following primary assessment-using clinical tests and USG evaluation using a scoring system, fibreoptic evaluation of the placement of PLMA was done and then assessed for optimal position. The accuracy of each technique for optimal placement was compared statistically. We found that the sensitivity and specificity of the clinical evaluation were 98.77% and 34.62% with a diagnostic accuracy of 83.18% when compared with fibreoptic evaluation. While USG evaluation using the scoring system has sensitivity and specificity of 95.45% and 29.41% with a diagnostic accuracy of 84.76%. It was noted that USG assessment has a higher positive predictive value (87.5%) as compared to clinical assessment (82.47%). The incidence of rotation was higher in the clinical group. There was no difference in airway related morbidity. USG is comparable to clinical tests for evaluation of the optimal placement of PLMA. However, USG has various advantages over clinical assessment as it is quick and identifies the unacceptable placement of PLMA where the tip of PLMA may not lie over the tip of the esophagus, thereby, avoiding unnecessary mucosal injury during forceful or repeated attempts for gastric drainage tube insertion.Trial registration: Clinical Trials Registry (CTRI/2017/11/010359) dated 3rd November 2017.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750638

RESUMO

Assessment of individual constitution (prakriti) has been an important basic construct of the Ayurveda system of medicine. The AyuSoft prakriti diagnostic tool has been extensively used in Ayurveda research. However, we could not find any literature regarding reliability of a prakriti diagnostic tool in patients with psychiatric conditions. One hundred and twelve patients (M = 70) suffering from various psychiatric disorders as per ICD-10 criteria were recruited (Depression = 31; Schizophrenia = 30, Anxiety disorders = 27; OCD = 9; BPAD = 15). The AyuSoft tool (developed by C-DAC, Pune, India) was applied to determine their prakriti after obtaining written informed consent. Two Ayurveda physicians independently assessed prakriti of the same patients through clinical examination. Inter-rater reliability was assessed between prakriti scores obtained from AyuSoft and those from the Ayurveda physicians by determining Cohen's Kappa intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC estimates and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated using SPSS statistical package (version 24.0) based on a mean-rating (k = 2), consistency and two-way mixed-effects model. We observed that there was a significant correlation between dosha scores obtained through AyuSoft and those from the two Ayurveda physicians (for all three doshas: p < 0.01). Inter-rater reliability was moderately strong for vata (ICC = 0.72; Cronbach's alpha = 0.83), good for pitta (ICC = 0.58; Cronbach's alpha = 0.62) and comparatively weak for kapha dosha (ICC = 0.44; Cronbach's alpha = 0.51) respectively. Prakriti diagnosis by AyuSoft was feasible in stabilized psychiatric patients and was found comparable to clinical diagnosis of prakriti by Ayurveda physicians in patients with psychiatric disorders.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765291

RESUMO

Endoxylanase production from M. thermophila BJTLRMDU3 using rice straw was enhanced to 2.53-fold after optimization in solid state fermentation (SSF). Endoxylanase was purified to homogeneity employing ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by gel filtration chromatography and had a molecular mass of ~ 25 kDa estimated by SDS-PAGE. Optimal endoxylanase activity was recorded at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. Purified enzyme showed complete tolerance to n-hexane, but activity was slightly inhibited by other organic solvents. Among surfactants, Tweens (20, 60, and 80) and Triton X 100 slightly enhanced the enzyme activity. The Vmax and Km values for purified endoxylanase were 6.29 µmol/min/mg protein and 5.4 mg/ml, respectively. Endoxylanase released 79.08 and 42.95% higher reducing sugars and soluble proteins, respectively, which control after 48 h at 60 °C from poultry feed. Synergistic effect of endoxylanase (100 U/g) and phytase (15 U/g) on poultry feed released higher amount of reducing sugars (58.58 mg/feed), soluble proteins (42.48 mg/g feed), and inorganic phosphate (28.34 mg/feed) in contrast to control having 23.55, 16.98, and 10.46 mg/feed of reducing sugars, soluble proteins, and inorganic phosphate, respectively, at 60 °C supplemented with endoxylanase only.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736455

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule involved in a plethora of physiologic and pathologic processes. It is primarily synthesised by cystathionine-ß-synthase, cystathionine-γ-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase as a metabolite of the transsulfuration pathway. H2S has been shown to exert beneficial roles in lung disease acting as an anti-inflammatory and anti-viral, and to ameliorate cell metabolism and protect from oxidative stress. H2Sinteracts with transcription factors, ion channels and a multitude of proteins via post-translational modifications through S-persulfidation ('sulfhydration'). Perturbation of endogenous H2Ssynthesis and/or levels have been implicated in the development of accelerated lung aging and diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and fibrosis. Furthermore, evidence indicate that persulfidation is decreased with aging. Here we review the use of H2Sas a biomarker of lung pathologies and discuss the potential of using H2S-generating molecules and synthesis inhibitors to treat respiratory diseases. Furthermore, we provide a critical appraisal of methods of detection used to quantify H2Sconcentration in biological samples and discuss the challenges of characterising physiological and pathological levels. Considerations and caveats of using H2S delivery molecules, the choice of generating molecules and concentrations are also reviewed.

15.
Biotechnol Adv ; 49: 107736, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781888

RESUMO

Acetate is regarded as a promising carbon feedstock in biological production owing to its possible derivation from C1 gases such as CO, CO2 and methane. To best use of acetate, comprehensive understanding of acetate metabolisms from genes and enzymes to pathways and regulations is needed. This review aims to provide an overview on the potential of acetate as carbon feedstock for industrial biotechnology. Biochemical, microbial and biotechnological aspects of acetate metabolism are described. Especially, the current state-of-the art in the production of value-added chemicals from acetate is summarized. Challenges and future perspectives are also provided.

16.
3 Biotech ; 11(4): 164, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786281

RESUMO

This study investigated the yield and biochemical potential of Agaricus bisporus mushroom cultivated on agricultural waste substrate supplemented with treated sugar industry effluent (SIE). Laboratory-scale experiments were performed for the cultivation of A. bisporus on a mixture of wheat straw and sugar cane bagasse moistened with different doses of borewell water (BWW) and treated SIE (0-100%). Besides this, the simultaneous effects of the SIE amendment on total Kjeldahl's nitrogen (TKN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents of substrate and kinetics of their utilization by A. bisporus were studied. Results showed a relatively higher utilization of TKN (38.10 ± 1.60%) and TP (47.4 ± 6.44%) in a 25:75 ratio of BWW and SIE, respectively. The kinetics studies of TKN and TP utilization using Lineweaver-Burk models described the maximum specific utilization rates (V max) of 0.165 and 0.125 mg·kg-1·d-1 and saturation points (K m ) of 72.401 and 33.283 mg·kg-1, respectively, which are in good agreement as indicated by R 2 values (> 0.90). In addition, the maximum significant (P < 0.01) yield (159.31 ± 8.85 g·Kg-1), biological efficiency (106.21 ± 3.84%), total phenols (3.03 ± 0.07 mg·g-1), ascorbic acid (0.44 ± 0.03 mg·g-1), and ß-carotene (3.36 ± 0.05 µg·g-1) of A. bisporus were observed using the same treatment. Therefore, this paper reported sustainable utilization of TKN and TP nutrients from SIE for A. bisporus mushroom cultivation.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(28): 3430-3444, 2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725077

RESUMO

The existence of chemical weapons (blister and nerve agents) is an unfortunate reality of the modern world. The usage of these chemical agents by rogue states or terrorist groups has showcased their ugly faces in the past and even in recent years. Despite extensive and strenuous efforts by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to eliminate chemical warfare agents (CWAs) by the prohibition of their production and the destruction of their stockpiles, many countries still possess them in enormous quantities. Given the potential threat from these lethal agents, it is imperative to have a foolproof chemical sensor and detection system, which should consist of readily deployable chemical probes that can operate with high specificity and sensitivity. Over the last decade, our group has been engaged in designing and developing novel field-deployable sensing techniques by exploring approaches based on supramolecular tools, which can result in excellent specificity, sensitivity, high speed, portability and low cost. In this article, I describe our group's journey and success stories in the development of chemical warfare detection protocols, detailing the range of unique chemical probes and methods explored to achieve the specific detection of individual agents under real environmental conditions. It is interesting to note that the combination of three molecular probes (SQ, Fc and LH2) could simply achieve the detection of all CWAs at room temperature in one go without the need for nonportable and expensive instruments. The ease and generality of these techniques/methods suggest great promise for the highly specific chemical sensing of almost the entire class of CWAs. In this paper, a brief introduction is first provided to present the basic chemistry related to CWAs and the importance of supramolecular chemistry in the design of new protocols with new insights. The manipulation of molecular probes is then debated towards the development of a system for the chromo-fluorogenic sensing of CWAs without interference from most relevant analytes. Finally, the outlook of open challenges and the future developments of this rapidly evolving field is discussed.

19.
Water Environ Res ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565675

RESUMO

The present study describes the phytoremediation performance of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for physicochemical pollutants elimination from paper mill effluent (PME). For this, pot (glass aquarium) experiments were conducted using 0% (BWW: borewell water), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% treatments of PME under natural day/light regime. Results of the experiments showed that the highest removal of pH (10.75%), electrical conductivity (EC: 63.82%), total dissolved solids (TDS: 71.20%) biological oxygen demand (BOD: 85.03%), chemical oxygen demand (COD: 80.46%), total Kjeldahl's nitrogen (TKN: 93.03%), phosphorus (P: 85.56%), sodium (Na: 91.89%), potassium (K: 84.04%), calcium (Ca: 84.75%), and magnesium (Mg: 83.62%), most probable number (MPN: 77.63%), and standard plate count (SPC: 74.43%) was noted in 75% treatment of PME after treatment by P. stratiotes. PCA showed the best vector length for TKN, Na, and Ca. The maximum plant growth parameters including, total fresh biomass (81.30 ± 0.28 g), chlorophyll content (3.67 ± 0.05 mg g-1  f.wt), and relative growth rate (0.0051 gg-1  d-1 ) was also measured in 75% PME treatment after phytoremediation experiments. The findings of this study make useful insight into the biological management of PME through plant-based pollutant eradication while leftover biomass may be used as a feedstock for low-cost bioenergy production. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Biological treatment of paper mill effluent using water lettuce is presented. Best reduction of physicochemical and microbiological pollutants was attained in 75% treatment. Maximum production of chlorophyll, plant biomass, and highest growth rate was also observed in 75% treatment.

20.
J Infect Dis ; 223(8): 1322-1333, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524124

RESUMO

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies and the differences in host response characterizing this variation have not been fully elucidated. COVID-19 disease severity correlates with an excessive proinflammatory immune response and profound lymphopenia. Inflammatory responses according to disease severity were explored by plasma cytokine measurements and proteomics analysis in 147 COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production assays and whole blood flow cytometry were performed. Results confirm a hyperinflammatory innate immune state, while highlighting hepatocyte growth factor and stem cell factor as potential biomarkers for disease severity. Clustering analysis revealed no specific inflammatory endotypes in COVID-19 patients. Functional assays revealed abrogated adaptive cytokine production (interferon-γ, interleukin-17, and interleukin-22) and prominent T-cell exhaustion in critically ill patients, whereas innate immune responses were intact or hyperresponsive. Collectively, this extensive analysis provides a comprehensive insight into the pathobiology of severe to critical COVID-19 and highlights potential biomarkers of disease severity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , /virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/virologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/imunologia , Linfopenia/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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