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1.
Neurochem Int ; 158: 105380, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718278

RESUMO

One of the most significant threats in Parkinson's disease (PD) is neurodegeneration. Neurodegeneration at both nigral as well as non-nigral regions of the brain is considered responsible for disease progression in PD. The key factors that initiate neurodegeneration are oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial complex-1 inhibition, and abnormal α-synuclein (SNCA) protein aggregations. Nigral neurodegeneration results in motor symptoms (tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, shuffling gait, and postural instability) whereas; non-nigral neurodegeneration is responsible for non-motor symptoms (depression, cognitive dysfunctions, sleep disorders, hallucination, and psychosis). The available therapies for PD aim at increasing dopamine levels. The medications such as Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors, catechol o-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, Dopamine precursor (Levodopa), dopamine agonists, and dopamine reuptake inhibitors drastically improve the motor symptoms and quality of life only in the early stages of the disease. However, dopa resistant motor symptoms (abnormality in posture, speech impediment, gait, and balance problems), dopa resistant non-motor signs (sleep problems, autonomic dysfunction, mood, and cognitive impairment, pain), and drug-related side effects (motor fluctuations, psychosis, and dyskinesias) are considered responsible for the failure of these therapies. Further, none of the treatments, alone or in combination, are capable of halting the disease progression in the long run. Therefore, there is a need to develop safe and efficient neuroprotective agents, which can slow or stop the disease progression for the better management of PD. In this review, an effort has been made to discuss the various mechanisms responsible for progressive neurodegeneration (disease progression) in PD and also multiple strategies available for halting disease progression.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos , Doença de Parkinson , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Dopamina , Dopaminérgicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida
2.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769163

RESUMO

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

3.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 11(4): 618-623, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888208

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive and heterogeneous cancer subtypes. High rates of metastasis, poor prognosis, and drug resistance are the major problems associated with TNBC. The current chemotherapeutics eliminate only the bulk tumor cells (non-BCSCs) and do not affect breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). The BCSCs which are left behind after chemotherapy is reported to promote recurrence and metastasis of TNBC. Death receptor-5 (DR-5) is exclusively expressed in TNBCs and mediates the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. DR-5, therefore, can be exploited for targeted drug delivery and to induce apoptosis. Gamma-secretase mediated Notch signaling in BCSCs regulates its proliferation, differentiation, and metastasis. The endogenous ligand, Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4), is reported to activate this Notch signaling in TNBC. Blocking this signaling pathway using both gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and DLL4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) may produce synergistic benefits. Further, the GSIs (DAPT, LY-411575, RO4929097, MK0752, etc.) suffer from poor bioavailability and off-target side effects such as diarrhea, suppression of lymphopoiesis, headache, hypertension, fatigue, and ventricular dysfunctions. In this hypothesis, we discuss Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) based drug delivery systems containing GSIs and surface modified with DR-5 and DLL4 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to effectivity target and treat TNBC. The delivery system is designed to deliver the drug cargo precisely to TNBCs through its DR-5 receptors and hence expected to reduce the off-target side effects of GSIs. Further, DLL4 mAb and GSIs are expected to act synergistically to block the Notch signal mediated BCSCs proliferation, differentiation, and metastasis.

4.
ACS Omega ; 6(2): 1415-1425, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33490801

RESUMO

In this work, Ru x Pd y alloy nanoparticles were uniformly decorated on a two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheet by an in situ chemical co-reduction process. The resulting products were characterized by various physiochemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Further, the synthesized Ru x Pd y @rGO nanocomposites have been employed as a heterogeneous catalyst for three different catalytic reactions: (1) dehydrogenation of aqueous ammonia borane (AB); (2) hydrogenation of aromatic nitro compounds using ammonia borane as the hydrogen source, and (3) for the synthesis of aromatic azo derivatives. The present work illustrates the sustainable anchoring of metal nanoparticles over the surface of rGO nanosheets, which could be used for multifarious catalytic reactions.

5.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins ; 13(2): 453-467, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808141

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known for their probiotic properties, but only a few strains produce riboflavin. We evaluated the probiotic properties of four riboflavin-producing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (BBC33, BBC32A, BIF43, and BBC32B) by using in vitro assessment and carried out multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) to select the best strain. Safety, antioxidant, and exopolysaccharide-producing properties were also studied. Lact. plantarum BBC33 showed better probiotic potential, followed by strain BIF43. Lact. plantarum BBC32A degraded mucin and excluded as a potential probiotic candidate. Lact. plantarum BIF43, BBC33, and BBC32A tolerated simulated gastrointestinal conditions and their overnight cell-free culture supernatants (CFSs, pH 4.0-4.3) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli AF10, Salmonella Typhi MTCC98, Bacillus cereus NCDC250, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCDC105. Lact. plantarum BIF43 and BBC33 did not degrade mucin, adhered to human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells (22-25%), and aggregated with indicators (30-50%). Moreover, both were non-hemolytic and sensitive to most antibiotics tested. Of the two selected strains, BIF43 showed better exopolysaccharides (EPS) producing phenotype. The CFSs of all strains showed high (85-93%) 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. PCA confirmed the results obtained from in vitro probiotic experiments and supported the selection of Lact. plantarum BIF33 and BBC43, as potential probiotics.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum , Probióticos , Riboflavina/biossíntese , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Mucinas , Análise de Componente Principal
6.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(12): 8407-8423, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005944

RESUMO

The ß-diketo-modified isoxazole derivative of curcumin (IOC) is well renowned for its anticancer, antioxidant, antimalarial, antiproliferative, and many other biological activities. With the aim of obtaining fundamental knowledge on the photophysics of IOC, the present work was directed toward delineating those at different pH environments and studying the degradation profiles of IOC at five different pH values. Because one of the primary drawbacks of curcumin is its rapid degradation at physiological conditions, the studies showed that the problem could be resolved, as the IOC molecule was extremely stable even in a highly alkaline medium. Further, in order to encounter the problems associated with the low solubility of IOC in aqueous media, ß-CD (ß-cyclodextrin) was used and calculations of the thermodynamic parameters revealed that the process of development of the host-guest inclusion complex was highly spontaneous in nature. The synthesis of the IOC:ß-CD inclusion complex has also been accomplished in the solid state, and the solid formed has been characterized using various physicochemical techniques. Finally, while variations in the pH as well as addition of foreign metal ions in +1 and +2 oxidation states showed minimal effect on the photophysics of the IOC:ß-CD inclusion complex, antiproliferative studies performed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays revealed their nontoxic nature on fibroblast L929 normal cell lines and extremely toxic activity on human lung cancer A549 cell lines.


Assuntos
Curcumina , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Curcumina/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Isoxazóis , Solubilidade , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
7.
Natl J Maxillofac Surg ; 12(3): 426-430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35153444

RESUMO

Cranial vault defects are either congenital or acquired in origin. Cranioplasty is most commonly done in patients after trauma, decompressive craniectomies, tumor resections, infections or because of congenital malformations. The purpose of a Cranioplast is to protect the underlying brain tissues, reduce pain, and to improve the calvarial contour, symmetry, and esthetics. Rehabilitation of these defects possesses a challenge to the surgical team and prosthodontist. With advancement in three-dimensional (3D) engineering technology, the use of rapid prototyping technology (RPT) can be used in the fabrication of 3D skull eliminating conventional impression for recording defect region. Custom-made cranial prosthesis now can be fabricated using the conventional method of wax-up and lost-wax method. Case 1 had a history of road traffic accident followed by decompressive craniectomy, which led to frontoparietotemporal defect of the right side. The 3D model was fabricated using RPT technology. The wax pattern fabricated on 3D prototyped skull was contoured using digital photographic superimposition method. Case 2 had a history of trauma on the head causing intracerebral hemorrhage followed by decompressive craniectomy which led to frontoparietotemporal defect of the right side. The 3D model was fabricated using RPT. The wax pattern fabricated on 3D prototyped skull was contoured using the compass method. The use of these methods with the added advantage of RPT resulted in prosthesis with good esthetics and better fit. The contour of the prosthesis was replicated in the same manner as compared to the contralateral side. These techniques are easy to use and are less time consuming and had few chances of errors.

8.
ACS Omega ; 5(40): 25582-25592, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073084

RESUMO

The naturally occurring polyphenolic compound curcumin has shown various medicinal and therapeutic effects. However, there are various challenges associated with curcumin, which limits its biomedical applications, such as its high degradation rate and low aqueous solubility at neutral and alkaline pH. In the present study, efforts have been directed towards trying to resolve such issues by encapsulating curcumin inside the micelles formed by imidazolium-based surface-active ionic liquid (SAIL). The shape and size of the micelles formed by the SAIL have been characterized by using DLS analysis as well as TEM measurements. The photo-physics of curcumin in the presence of ionic liquid (IL) and also with the addition of salt (NaCl) has been explored by using different optical spectroscopic tools. The time-dependent absorption studies have shown that there is relatively higher suppression in the degradation rate of curcumin after encapsulation by the imidazolium-based SAIL in an aqueous medium. The TCSPC studies have revealed that there is deactivation in the nonradiative intramolecular hydrogen transfer process of curcumin in the presence of IL micelles as well as with the addition of salt. Furthermore, the time-dependent fluorescence anisotropy measurement has been carried out to figure out the location of curcumin inside the micellar system. In order to correlate all experimental findings, density functional theory (DFT) and classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at neutral pH media have been performed. It has been found that the van der Waals force of interactions plays a major role in the stabilization of curcumin in the micelles rather than the coulombic forces. It also has been observed that the van der Waals interactions remain unaffected in the presence of salt. However, as revealed by the MD simulation results, the micelles are found to be more compact in size after the addition of salt. The RMSD results show that the micelles formed by the SAIL achieve greater stability after a particular time constraint. Our results have divulged that the SAIL could act as a promising drug delivery system.

9.
Expert Opin Drug Deliv ; 17(8): 1119-1132, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: α-synuclein (SNCA), a major component of Lewy body is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the SNCA gene cause misfolding and aggregation of SNCA protein, which results in neurodegeneration. Several studies have established the neuroprotective benefits of ß2-adrenoreceptor (ß2AR) agonists in PD However, ß2AR agonists are associated with peripheral side effects- tachycardia, palpitation, pulmonary edema, myocardial ischemia, and cardiac arrhythmia due to ßARactivation in peripheral tissues. PD therapy with ß2AR agonists, therefore, warrants a brain-specific delivery. AREA COVERED: This review highlights the SNCA mediated neurodegenerative pathways in PD and various treatment strategies under investigation to lower SNCA gene expression, primarily focusing on ß2AR mediated pathway. The review also discusses the beneficial and side effects of ß2AR agonists in PD treatment by reviewing clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and meta-analysis data. Here we depict the need to develop a novel drug delivery system to achieve brain-specific delivery of ß2AR agonists to overcome peripheral side effects and also propose various nano delivery strategies to achieve the same. EXPERT OPINION: Brain targeted delivery of ß2AR agonists via various nano delivery systems will significantly downregulate SNCA gene expression in PD and also overcomes peripheral side effects of ß2AR agonists.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo
10.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets ; 20(8): 559-572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370716

RESUMO

Triple-negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive and prevailing breast cancer subtype. The chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of TNBC suffer from chemoresistance, dose-limiting toxicities and off-target side effects. As a result, conventional chemotherapeutics are unable to prevent tumor growth, metastasis and result in failure of therapy. Various new targets such as BCSCs surface markers (CD44, CD133, ALDH1), signaling pathways (IL-6/JAK/STAT3, notch), pro and anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, DR4, DR5), hypoxic factors (HIF-1α, HIF-2α) and drug efflux transporters (ABCC1, ABCG2 and ABCB1) have been exploited to treat TNBC. Further, to improve the efficacy and safety of conventional chemotherapeutics, researchers have tried to deliver anticancer agents specifically to the TNBCs using nanocarrier based drug delivery. In this review, an effort has been made to highlight the various factors responsible for the chemoresistance in TNBC, novel molecular targets of TNBC and nano-delivery systems employed to achieve sitespecific drug delivery to improve efficacy and reduce off-target side effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
11.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1875-1887, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241467

RESUMO

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aqueous Withania somnifera root (WSR) extract in broiler chicks experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 @ 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Clinical signs and mortality due to colibacillosis observed in infected chicks were mild and lasted for short duration in WSR extract supplemented group as compared with the nonsupplemented group. A significant increase in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase activities and a decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations were observed in the infected groups, though these changes were of lower magnitude in WSR extract supplemented group. A significantly higher activity of oxidative blood parameters such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzymes were noticed in WSR extract supplemented group. The WSR extract supplemented group revealed significantly higher E. coli-specific antibody titer and enhanced lymphocyte proliferation response as compared with the nonsupplemented group. The gross and histopathological lesions of colibacillosis were mild in the WSR extract-supplemented infected group as compared with the nonsupplemented infected group. Withania somnifera root extract supplementation produced 31.48 and 34.38% protection in the gross and histopathological lesions in E. coli infected chicks, respectively. It is concluded that supplementation of 20% WSR extract @ 20 ml/L of water caused a reduction in the severity, mortality, and recovery period of E. coli infection and enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses suggesting its protective effect on limiting the pathology of E. coli infection in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Withania/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 36(3): 138-150, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046540

RESUMO

Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has been associated with overall survival (OS) and event-free survival, but we do not know if ALC is associated with minimal residual disease (MRD) at the end of induction (EOI) and whether it can be used as surrogate marker in resource limited settings. Immunological differences between MRD-positive and MRD-negative B ALL patients at the EOI are not known at present. This prospective study evaluated the association of ALC and peripheral blood lymphocyte subset percentage at the EOI with MRD. ALC was done at baseline, day 8, and day 15 and at EOI. Assessment for MRD and peripheral blood lymphocyte subset was done at EOI. In 2-year study duration, 197 B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients were recruited out of which 150 were analyzed. Peripheral lymphocyte subset percentage was available for 58 patients. We found that ALC at baseline, day 8, day 15, and EOI was not associated with MRD. Day 8 ALC was significantly higher in poor steroid responders (day 8 blasts > 1 × 109 cells/l) (p < 0.0001). At the EOI, CD4-CD8+ cell percentage in peripheral blood were significantly higher in MRD-positive patients than MRD-negative patients (p = 0.01). Our study suggests that ALC at any point is not a surrogate marker for MRD. Immunologically MRD-positive and MRD-negative patients differ in CD4-CD8+ cells. The role of CD8+T and TCRαßCD3+T cells in eliminating residual leukemic cells need to be studied further by functional assays.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Neoplasia Residual , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Ocul Oncol Pathol ; 5(2): 139-146, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976594

RESUMO

Purpose: To report our 5-year experience with intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) in the intravitreal chemotherapy (IvitC) era. Methods: Retrospective review of retinoblastoma treated with primary unilateral IAC in the IvitC era (2012-2017). Results: There were 34 eyes treated with IAC alone versus 20 eyes treated with IAC plus IvitC for vitreous seeds. IAC (IAC alone vs. IAC plus IvitC) consisted of melphalan (41 vs. 10%) or melphalan plus topotecan (59 vs. 90%, p = 0.03). IvitC consisted of melphalan (60%) or melphalan plus topotecan (40%). Tumor control and globe salvage were achieved in 100% of group B and C eyes without IvitC. Despite more extensive vitreous seeds in the IvitC group (p < 0.01), comparison of IAC alone versus IAC plus IvitC revealed no difference in tumor control for group D (88 vs. 69%, p = 0.36) or group E (67 vs. 100%, p = 0.25) and no difference in globe salvage for group D (88 vs. 69%, p = 0.36) or group E (58 vs. 57%, p = 0.39). Conclusions: IAC is effective as primary therapy for unilateral group B, C, D, and E retinoblastoma. IvitC is an important adjuvant therapy to achieve comparable globe salvage rates for group D and E eyes with persistent active vitreous seeds.

14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 50: 75-82, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27522002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There have been no long-term studies on trends in antibiotic resistance (ABR) on a national scale in India. Using a private laboratory network, the ABR patterns of organisms most commonly associated with bacteremia, obtained from patients across India between 2008 and 2014, were examined. METHODS: A retrospective study of patient blood cultures collected over a 7-year period (January 1, 2008-December 31, 2014) was conducted. Data on the microorganism(s) identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility were obtained from SRL Diagnostics (Mumbai, India). RESULTS: Of 135268 blood cultures, 18695 (14%) had at least one identified pathogen. In addition to continual high rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; approximately 44.2%), high resistance to nalidixic acid among Salmonella Typhi (98%) was observed, and carbapenem resistance increased in both Escherichia coli (7.8% to 11.5%; p=0.332) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (41.5% to 56.6%; p<0.001). Carbapenem resistance was also stable and high for both Acinetobacter species (approximately 69.6%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (approximately 49%). Resistance was also detected to colistin in the Gram-negatives and to vancomycin and linezolid in S. aureus. CONCLUSION: Increasing resistance to antibiotics of last-resort, particularly among Gram-negatives, suggests an urgent need for new antibiotics and improved antimicrobial stewardship programs in India.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Adulto , Idoso , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Hemocultura , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 63(7): 1287-9, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27038275

RESUMO

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in retinoblastoma survivors was assessed using parent proxy report of PedsQL(TM) 4.0 generic core scale. One hundred twenty-two parents of retinoblastoma survivors filled the questionnaire satisfactorily. This was compared with parent-reported HRQOL of 50 siblings. The median age of survivors was 98 (range, 60-247) months and male:female ratio was 2:1. The overall parent-reported HRQOL was significantly worse in survivors as compared to controls (74.4 ± 8.5 vs. 85.1 ± 4.6, P < 0.001). All health domains were significantly affected when compared with controls. None of the baseline and treatment-related factors predicted HRQOL.


Assuntos
Pais , Qualidade de Vida , Retinoblastoma , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 63(2): 313-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26488435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With current modalities, cure rates of retinoblastoma are high and hence the number of survivors is increasing. However, data on quality of life (QOL) are minimal. PROCEDURE: We analyzed QOL in 122 retinoblastoma survivors using the PedsQL(TM) 4.0 generic core scale. The self-reported questionnaire was filled by children of more than 5 years of age who had completed treatment for more than 12 months. The questionnaire consists of 23 questions on physical, social, emotional, and school domains on a scale from 0 to 4. This was converted to a scale from 0 to 100, where higher values represented better QOL. The QOL was compared with 50 siblings. Factors predicting the QOL were assessed. RESULTS: The median age of retinoblastoma survivors was 98 months (range 60-247) and 68% were males. Overall QOL was significantly poorer in retinoblastoma survivors as compared with the controls. The emotional health domain of QOL was significantly affected. Difficulties in maintaining friendships and competing were reported in the social health domain. The school health domain showed significantly higher absenteeism. However, the physical health domain, including household work, exercise, and self-care, was similar in both the groups. Lower age at diagnosis (≤ 18 months) predicted better QOL (P = 0.05), whereas age at assessment, sex, IRSS stage, and previous surgery and radiotherapy were not predictive of poor QOL. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significantly poorer QOL in retinoblastoma survivors with the psychosocial health domain being more affected than the physical domain. Age less than 18 months at diagnosis predicted better QOL.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Retina/psicologia , Retinoblastoma/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Neoplasias da Retina/complicações , Retinoblastoma/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 80: 177-88, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123815

RESUMO

In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli.


Assuntos
Acrilatos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Goma Arábica/química , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nitrato de Prata/química , Acrilatos/farmacologia , Adsorção , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óleo de Cravo/química , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Teste de Materiais , Nanocompostos/química , Polimerização , Difração de Raios X
18.
Vet World ; 8(1): 57-60, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27046997

RESUMO

AIM: The aim was to investigate antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), an Indian traditional medicinal plant against Escherichia coli O78, a pathogenic strain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-fold serial dilutions of 20% aqueous W. somnifera root (WSR) extract were inoculated with E. coli O78 @ 1*10(7) colony forming units grown in nutrient broth. Following inoculation, turbidity optical density was measured by spectrophotometer at 600 nm in all the tubes at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h of incubation at 37°C. RESULT: The results revealed that the maximum inhibition of bacterial growth was observed at 1:8 dilution of WSR extract. The highest dilution of the extract that showed inhibited growth of the test organism when compared with control was 1:16. Therefore, the minimum inhibitory concentration of aqueous extract of WSR is 1:16. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that WSR possessed good antibacterial activity, confirming the great potential of bioactive compounds and its rationalizing use in health care.

19.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 62(3): 424-32, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25041078

RESUMO

Bioreduction of metal ions for the synthesis of stable nanoparticles (NPs) in physiological environment has been a great challenge in the field of nanotechnology and its application. In the present study, well-defined biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were developed following a biomimetic approach for an enhanced anticancer activity. The fucoxanthins-capped crystalline AuNPs showed a particle size of 14 nm. The temperature-mediated biosynthesized NPs were characterized by UV-vis, dynamic light scattering, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the NPs was analyzed on liver (HepG2) and lung (A549) cancerous cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay infers that the biofunctionalized polyshaped AuNPs synthesized with an aqueous macroalgae extract showed a satisfactory anticancer effect on the cell lines, as evaluated by changes in cell morphology, cell viability, and metabolic activity. An altered cellular function and the morphology of cancer cell lines suggest a potential for in vivo application of AuNPs and the need to understand the interactions between nanomaterials, biomolecules, and cellular components. With continued improvements, these NPs may prove to be potential drug delivery vehicles for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Xantofilas , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro/química , Ouro/toxicidade , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Xantofilas/química , Xantofilas/toxicidade
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 926: 399-410, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22975978

RESUMO

Increasing application of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) in consumer products like textiles, cosmetics, washing machines and other household products increases their chance to reach the environment. Intensive research is required to assess the nanoparticles' toxicity to the environmental system. The toxicological effect of nanoparticles has been studied at the miniscule scale and requires intensive research to be conducted to assess its unknown effects. Plants are the primary target species which need to be included to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. So far, the mechanisms of toxicity of nanoparticles to the plant system remains largely unknown and little information on the potential uptake of nanoparticles by plants and their subsequent fate within the food chain is available. The phytoxicological behaviour of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa and seeds of Zea mays (maize), Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato) was done. The in vitro studies on A. cepa have been done to check the cytotoxicological effects including mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, vagrant chromosomes, sticky chromosomes, disturbed metaphase, breaks and formation of micronucleus. In vitro and in vivo studies on seed systems exposed to different concentration of nanoparticles dispersion to check phytotoxicity end point as root length, germination effect, adsorption and accumulation of nanoparticles (uptake studies) into the plant systems. In vivo studies in a seed system was done using phytagel medium. Biochemical studies were done to check effect on protein, DNA and thiobarbituric acid reactive species concentration. FT-IR studies were done to analyze the functional and conformational changes in the treated and untreated samples. The toxicological effects of nanoparticles had to be studied at the miniscule scale to address existing environment problems or prevent future problems. The findings suggest that the engineered nanoparticles, though having significant advantages in research and medical applications, requires a great deal of toxicity database to ascertain the biosafety and risk of using engineered nanoparticles in consumer products.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Adsorção/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes para Micronúcleos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Índice Mitótico , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prata/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
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