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1.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(9): 1355-1364, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538607

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: (1) Review the prevalence and comorbidity of sleep disorders among United States military personnel and veterans. (2) Describe the status of sleep care services at Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities. (3) Characterize the demand for sleep care among veterans and the availability of sleep care across the VHA. (4) Describe the VA TeleSleep Program that was developed to address this demand. METHODS: PubMed and Medline databases (National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States National Library of Medicine) were searched for terms related to sleep disorders and sleep care in United States military and veteran populations. Information related to the status of sleep care services at VHA facilities was provided by clinical staff members at each location. Additional data were obtained from the VA Corporate Data Warehouse. RESULTS: Among United States military personnel, medical encounters for insomnia increased 372% between 2005-2014; encounters for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increased 517% during the same period. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep disorder diagnoses among veterans increased nearly 6-fold between 2000-2010; the prevalence of OSA more than doubled in this population from 2005-2014. CONCLUSIONS: Most VA sleep programs are understaffed for their workload and have lengthy wait times for appointments. The VA Office of Rural Health determined that the dilemma of limited VHA sleep health care availability and accessibility might be solved, at least in part, by implementing a comprehensive telehealth program in VA medical facilities. The VA TeleSleep Program is an expansion of telemedicine services to address this need, especially for veterans in rural or remote regions. CITATION: Sarmiento KF, Folmer RL, Stepnowsky CJ, Whooley MA, Boudreau EA, Kuna ST, Atwood CW, Smith CJ, Yarbrough WC. National expansion of sleep telemedicine for veterans: the telesleep program. J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(9):1355-1364.

2.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482815

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: (1) Review the prevalence and comorbidity of sleep disorders among United States military personnel and veterans. (2) Describe the status of sleep care services at Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities. (3) Characterize the demand for sleep care among veterans and the availability of sleep care across the VHA. (4) Describe the VA TeleSleep Program that was developed to address this demand. METHODS: PubMed and Medline databases (National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States National Library of Medicine) were searched for terms related to sleep disorders and sleep care in United States military and veteran populations. Information related to the status of sleep care services at VHA facilities was provided by clinical staff members at each location. Additional data were obtained from the VA Corporate Data Warehouse. RESULTS: Among United States military personnel, medical encounters for insomnia increased 372% between 2005-2014; encounters for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increased 517% during the same period. The age-adjusted prevalence of sleep disorder diagnoses among veterans increased nearly 6-fold between 2000-2010; the prevalence of OSA more than doubled in this population from 2005-2014. CONCLUSIONS: Most VA sleep programs are understaffed for their workload and have lengthy wait times for appointments. The VA Office of Rural Health determined that the dilemma of limited VHA sleep health care availability and accessibility might be solved, at least in part, by implementing a comprehensive telehealth program in VA medical facilities. The VA TeleSleep Program is an expansion of telemedicine services to address this need, especially for veterans in rural or remote regions.

3.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(10): 1580-1590, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532580

RESUMO

Many patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but not all, have a reduction in blood pressure (BP) with positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Our objective was to determine whether the BP response following PAP treatment is related to obesity. A total of 188 adults with OSA underwent 24-hour BP monitoring and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine collection at baseline. Obesity was assessed by waist circumference, body mass index, and abdominal visceral fat volume. Participants adherent to PAP treatment were reassessed after 4 months. Primary outcomes were 24-hour mean arterial pressure (MAP) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine level. Obstructive sleep apnea participants had a significant reduction in 24-hour MAP following PAP treatment (-1.22 [95% CI: -2.38, -0.06] mm Hg; P = .039). No significant correlations were present with any of the 3 obesity measures for BP or urinary norepinephrine measures at baseline in all OSA participants or for changes in BP measures in participants adherent to PAP treatment. Changes in BP measures following treatment were not correlated with baseline or change in urinary norepinephrine. Similar results were obtained when BP or urinary norepinephrine measures were compared between participants dichotomized using the sex-specific median of each obesity measure. Greater reductions in urinary norepinephrine were correlated with higher waist circumference (rho = -0.21, P = .037), with a greater decrease from baseline in obese compared to non-obese participants (-6.26 [-8.82, -3.69] vs -2.14 [-4.63, 0.35] ng/mg creatinine; P = .027). The results indicate that the BP response to PAP treatment in adults with OSA is not related to obesity or urinary norepinephrine levels.

5.
J Sleep Res ; 28(6): e12852, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968492

RESUMO

Many different subjective tools are being used to measure excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) but the most widely used is the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). However, it is unclear if using the ESS is adequate on its own when assessing EDS. The aim of this study was to estimate the characteristics and prevalence of EDS using the ESS and the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ) in general population samples. Participants aged 40 years and older answered questions about sleepiness, health, sleep-related symptoms and quality of life. Two groups were defined as suffering from EDS: those who scored >10 on the ESS (with increased risk of dozing off) and those reporting feeling sleepy during the day ≥3 times per week on the BNSQ. In total, 1,338 subjects (53% male, 74.1% response rate) participated, 13.1% reported an increased risk of dozing off, 23.2% reported feeling sleepy and 6.4% reported both. The prevalence of restless leg syndrome, nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux, difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and nocturnal sweating was higher among subjects reporting feeling sleepy compared to non-sleepy subjects. Also, subjects reporting feeling sleepy had poorer quality of life and reported more often feeling unrested during the day than non-sleepy subjects. However, subjects reporting increased risk of dozing off (ESS > 10) without feeling sleepy had a similar symptom profile as the non-sleepy subjects. Therefore, reporting only risk of dozing off without feeling sleepy may not reflect problematic sleepiness and more instruments in addition to ESS are needed when evaluating daytime sleepiness.

6.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(4): 587-596, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952218

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Clinical practice guidelines recommend polysomnography (PSG) for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with major comorbidities. We evaluated home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) using a type 3 portable monitor (PM, Nox-T3, Nox Medical, Reykjavik, Iceland) to diagnose OSA in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Ninety adults with COPD (89.0% males, mean ± standard deviation age 66.5 ± 7.8 years, body mass index 27.5 ± 5.8 kg/m2, forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced vital capacity [FEV1/ FVC] 53.5 ± 12.4%, FEV1 54.0 ± 18.4% predicted) underwent unattended HSAT followed by an in-laboratory PSG with simultaneous PM recording. RESULTS: Scoring hypopneas with a ≥ 4% oxygen desaturation, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 16.7 ± 20.6 events/h on HSAT, 20.0 ± 23.3 events/h on in-laboratory PM, and 21.2 ± 26.2 events/h on PSG (P < .0001). Bland-Altman analysis of AHI on HSAT versus PSG showed a mean difference (95% confidence interval) of -5.08 (-7.73, -2.42) events/h (P = .0003) and limits of agreement (± 2 standard deviations) of -30.00 to 19.85 events/h; HSAT underestimated AHI to a greater extent for more severe values (rho = -.529, P < .0001). Using an AHI ≥ 5 events/h to diagnose OSA, HSAT had 95% sensitivity, 78% specificity, 88% positive predictive value, and 89% negative predictive value compared to PSG. Mean oxygen saturation was 93.2 ± 3.7% on PSG, 91.0 ± 3.3% on in-laboratory PM, and 90.8 ± 4.0% on HSAT (P < .0001). Percentage time oxygen saturation ≤ 88% was 17.9 ± 26.4% on HSAT, 17.4 ± 25.5% on in-laboratory PM, and 10.0 ± 21.1% on PSG (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: The Nox-T3 PM can be used to diagnose OSA in patients with COPD but, most likely due to differences among pulse oximeters, a greater number of patients with COPD and without OSA qualified for nocturnal oxygen treatment using this PM than PSG.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5229, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523329

RESUMO

Analysis of sleep for the diagnosis of sleep disorders such as Type-1 Narcolepsy (T1N) currently requires visual inspection of polysomnography records by trained scoring technicians. Here, we used neural networks in approximately 3,000 normal and abnormal sleep recordings to automate sleep stage scoring, producing a hypnodensity graph-a probability distribution conveying more information than classical hypnograms. Accuracy of sleep stage scoring was validated in 70 subjects assessed by six scorers. The best model performed better than any individual scorer (87% versus consensus). It also reliably scores sleep down to 5 s instead of 30 s scoring epochs. A T1N marker based on unusual sleep stage overlaps achieved a specificity of 96% and a sensitivity of 91%, validated in independent datasets. Addition of HLA-DQB1*06:02 typing increased specificity to 99%. Our method can reduce time spent in sleep clinics and automates T1N diagnosis. It also opens the possibility of diagnosing T1N using home sleep studies.

8.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(10): 1705-1715, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353806

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the level of physical activity (PA) before and following positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment in adults who have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with obesity versus without obesity. METHODS: Simultaneous waist accelerometer and wrist actigraphy recordings were obtained in 129 adults with obesity and 69 adults without obesity and who had OSA prior to and following 4 months of PAP therapy and in 52 patients in a control group. Primary PA measurements were average steps per day on waist accelerometry and average counts per minute (CPM) per day on wrist actigraphy. RESULTS: At baseline, participants with obesity and OSA exhibited fewer steps per day on waist accelerometer and fewer CPM per day on wrist actigraphy compared to participants without obesity and with OSA (despite similar apnea-hypopnea index between groups). Following PAP treatment, participants with OSA had modestly increased CPM per day on wrist actigraphy (17.69 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.67-29.71], P = .005) and increased light PA time (0.26 [95% CI, 0.07-0.44] hours, P = .008) on waist accelerometer. Participants without obesity and with OSA had greater improvements in PA measures on average compared to participants with obesity and OSA, although the differences were not statistically significant. Weight increased following PAP treatment in the participants with obesity and OSA (1.71 [95% CI, 0.41-3.02] kg, P = .010) but was unchanged in the group without obesity (0.93 [95% CI, -0.89 to 2.76] kg, P = .311). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to study participants without obesity and with OSA, participants with obesity and OSA had reduced PA at baseline. PA increased significantly in participants without obesity, with OSA, and who were adherent to PAP treatment. Results indicate that treatment of OSA is unlikely to be associated with a change in PA in adults with obesity and OSA and help explain the absence of weight loss following PAP treatment in adults with OSA. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, title: The Effects of Treating Obese and Lean Patients With Sleep Apnea (PISA), identifier: NCT01578031, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01578031.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375723

RESUMO

Short sleep duration has been widely linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We performed a post hoc analysis of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in the Lifestyle Modification in Blood Pressure Lowering Study (LIMBS) and Penn Icelandic Sleep Apnea (PISA) Study. The 24-hour mean systolic blood pressure (BP) was 12.7 mm Hg higher in LIMBS (P < 0.001; n = 66) and 4.7 mm Hg higher in PISA (P = 0.005; n = 153) among participants with shorter sleep duration (less than 7 hours) compared to those with longer sleep duration (at least 7 hours). In multivariable adjusted models, shorter sleep duration was strongly associated with higher systolic BP on 24-hour ABPM, independent of nocturnal BP and in-office BP. There was no effect modification by obstructive sleep apnea. Adults with shorter sleep duration may benefit from screening with 24-hour ABPM to promote earlier detection of hypertension and potentially mitigate their increased risk for future cardiovascular disease.

11.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 14(2): 205-213, 2018 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351821

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has published manuals for scoring polysomnograms that recommend time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep stages (stage N1, N2, and N3 sleep) be reported. Given the well-established large interrater variability in scoring stage N1 and N3 sleep, we determined the range of time in stage N1 and N3 sleep scored by a large number of technologists when compared to reasonably estimated true values. METHODS: Polysomnograms of 70 females were scored by 10 highly trained sleep technologists, two each from five different academic sleep laboratories. Range and confidence interval (CI = difference between the 5th and 95th percentiles) of the 10 times spent in stage N1 and N3 sleep assigned in each polysomnogram were determined. Average values of times spent in stage N1 and N3 sleep generated by the 10 technologists in each polysomnogram were considered representative of the true values for the individual polysomnogram. Accuracy of different technologists in estimating delta wave duration was determined by comparing their scores to digitally determined durations. RESULTS: The CI range of the ten N1 scores was 4 to 39 percent of total sleep time (% TST) in different polysomnograms (mean CI ± standard deviation = 11.1 ± 7.1 % TST). Corresponding range for N3 was 1 to 28 % TST (14.4 ± 6.1 % TST). For stage N1 and N3 sleep, very low or very high values were reported for virtually all polysomnograms by different technologists. Technologists varied widely in their assignment of stage N3 sleep, scoring that stage when the digitally determined time of delta waves ranged from 3 to 17 seconds. CONCLUSIONS: Manual scoring of non-rapid eye movement sleep stages is highly unreliable among highly trained, experienced technologists. Measures of sleep continuity and depth that are reliable and clinically relevant should be a focus of clinical research.

12.
Hypertension ; 70(6): 1283-1290, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038203

RESUMO

Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea tend to coexist. Little is known about the effects of obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, or their treatment on central aortic pressures and large artery stiffness. We randomized 139 adults with obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m2) and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea to (1) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy (n=45), (2) weight loss (WL) therapy (n=48), or (3) combined CPAP and WL (n=46) for 24 weeks. We assessed the effect of these interventions on central pressures and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (a measure of large artery stiffness), measured with arterial tonometry. Central systolic pressure was reduced significantly only in the combination arm (-7.4 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -12.5 to -2.4 mm Hg; P=0.004), without significant reductions detected in either the WL-only (-2.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -7.5 to 3.0; P=0.39) or the CPAP-only (-3.1 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -8.3 to 2.0; P=0.23) arms. However, none of these interventions significantly changed central pulse pressure, pulse pressure amplification, or the central augmentation index. The change in mean arterial pressure (P=0.008) and heart rate (P=0.027) induced by the interventions was significant predictors of the change in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. However, after adjustment for mean arterial pressure and heart rate, no significant changes in carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were observed in any group. In obese subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, combination therapy with WL and CPAP is effective in reducing central systolic pressure. However, this effect is largely mediated by changes in mean, rather than central pulse pressure. WL and CPAP, alone or in combination, did not reduce large artery stiffness in this population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00371293.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Polissonografia , Prognóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sístole
13.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 13(11): 1337-1344, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942765

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Positive airway pressure (PAP) adherence data are a routine aspect of clinical care for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but not uniformly available. We hypothesized that mask refills are a measure of PAP adherence. METHODS: We measured PAP use over the first 90 days of treatment in 123 patients with OSA. The number and timing of mask refills was assessed over 18 months. Demographic and medical information was obtained from the electronic medical record. RESULTS: Average PAP use in the first week of more than 4 h/d was a predictor of adherence over the first 90 days (P < .0001). PAP use over 90 days was greater in datacard-derived data dependent on patients presenting a datacard to the clinic compared to modem-derived data (P = .0006). A mask refill within the first 30 days of treatment was associated with a 1.3 h/d lower PAP usage in the first 90 days (P = .0044). Conversely, the number of mask refills between 30 days and 18 months was associated with higher PAP adherence during the first 90 days, with an additional 0.61 h/d of use for each additional refill (P = .0015). CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective cohort of veterans with OSA, first week PAP use was a strong predictor of 90-day use. Use of autonomously transmitted modem data avoided potential selection bias in adherence estimates. Mask refills in the first month were associated with less 90-day PAP use, whereas more mask refills after 30 days were associated with greater PAP use.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Veteranos
14.
Sleep ; 40(9)2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934533

RESUMO

Study objectives: Debate persists as to whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an early sign of atherosclerosis, in obese and nonobese adults with OSA before and following positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods: A total of 206 adults newly diagnosed with OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 15-75 events/hour and 53 controls with AHI <10 were studied. Waist circumference was used to classify participants as obese and nonobese. Bilateral common carotid artery B-mode ultrasound was performed at baseline to assess IMT, arterial diameter, arterial-wall mass, and circumferential wall stress. Measurements were repeated in 118 participants with OSA who completed a 4-month PAP treatment and had an average daily use over that period of ≥4 hours/day. Results: No significant differences in carotid IMT, diameter, or arterial-wall mass were present at baseline between participants with OSA and controls stratified by waist circumference, after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors. In participants with OSA, who had adequate PAP adherence over the 4-month treatment, carotid artery diameter significantly increased (mean change [95% confidence interval] = 0.13 [0.06, 0.20] mm; p = .0004), but no significant changes in carotid IMT, arterial-wall mass, and circumferential stress were observed in obese and nonobese participants. Conclusions: Regardless of obesity status, carotid IMT is not increased in adults with moderate to severe OSA versus controls and does not change following 4 months of PAP treatment.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Obesidade/complicações , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Circunferência da Cintura
15.
J Sleep Res ; 26(6): 747-755, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28560832

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine if an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) reduces the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, and to determine if longitudinal changes in glycaemic control are related to changes in OSA severity during REM sleep over a 4-year follow-up. This was a randomized controlled trial including 264 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and OSA. Participants were randomized to an ILI targeted to weight loss or a diabetes support and education (DSE) control group. Measures included anthropometry, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) during REM sleep (REM-AHI) and non-REM sleep (NREM-AHI) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at baseline and year 1, year 2 and year 4 follow-ups. Mean baseline values of REM-AHI were significantly higher than NREM-AHI in both groups. Both REM-AHI and NREM-AHI were reduced significantly more in ILI versus DSE, but these differences were attenuated slightly after adjustment for weight changes. Repeated-measure mixed-model analyses including data to year 4 demonstrated that changes in HbA1c were related significantly to changes in weight, but not to changes in REM-AHI and NREM-AHI. Compared to control, the ILI reduced REM-AHI and NREM-AHI during the 4-year follow-up. Weight, as opposed to REM-AHI and NREM-AHI, was related to changes in HbA1c. The findings imply that weight loss from a lifestyle intervention is more important than reductions in AHI for improving glycaemic control in T2D patients with OSA.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Estilo de Vida , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Sono REM , Perda de Peso , Idoso , Antropometria , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações
16.
Sleep ; 40(6)2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431171

RESUMO

Objectives: To determine if the large and highly reproducible interindividual differences in arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal (ΔHR) during non-REM sleep are heritable. Methods: Polysomnograms of 55 monozygotic (14 male and 41 female pairs) and 36 dizygotic (15 male and 21 female pairs) same-sex twin pairs were analyzed. Arousals were scored using the 2012 American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Arousal intensity was scaled (between 0 and 9) using an automatic algorithm based on the change in electroencephalogram time and frequency characteristics. The ΔHR was determined at each arousal. We calculated average arousal duration, average arousal intensity, average overall ΔHR, average ΔHR at a given arousal intensity, slope of ΔHR per arousal intensity, and arousal intensity threshold of ΔHR. Results: The intraclass correlations among monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were 0.663 and 0.146, respectively, for average arousal intensity, and 0.449 and 0, respectively, for arousal intensity threshold of ΔHR controlling for age, sex, and race. These values imply large broad sense heritability (H2) for these traits. This evidence was confirmed by a robust maximum likelihood-based variance components estimation approach, with an additive genetic heritability of 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.48 to 0.80) for average arousal intensity and a combined additive and dominance genetic heritability and of 0.46 (0.25 to 0.68) for arousal intensity threshold of ΔHR. Results also suggested significant additive genetic effects for average arousal duration, ΔHR at arousal intensity scale 4 and the overall average ΔHR. Conclusion: Genetic factors explain a significant fraction of the phenotypic variability for average arousal intensity and arousal intensity threshold of ΔHR. Results suggest that the duration of arousals and specific average ΔHR values may also be heritable traits. Clinical trial registration: NCT02827461.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto , Algoritmos , Nível de Alerta/genética , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polissonografia
17.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 13(5): 675-683, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356181

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of a portable monitor (Nox-T3, Nox Medical Inc. Reykjavik, Iceland) used to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea in Chinese adults. METHODS: Eighty Chinese adults (mean ± standard deviation age 47.6 ± 14.0 years, 77.5% males, body mass index 27.5 ± 5.4 kg/m2) underwent overnight, unattended home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) with the Nox-T3 portable monitor followed by an overnight in-laboratory polysomnogram (PSG) with simultaneous portable monitor recording. The portable monitor recordings were scored using automated analysis and then manually edited using different criteria for scoring hypopneas. Polysomnography was scored based on recommended guidelines. RESULTS: When scoring of hypopneas required a ≥ 4% oxygen desaturation event, the mean ± standard deviation apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 24.4 ± 20.8 events/h on HSAT, 28.0 ± 22.9 events/h on in-laboratory portable monitor recording, and 28.6 ± 23.9 events/h on PSG (P < .0001). Bland-Altman analysis of AHI on PSG versus HSAT showed a mean difference (95% confidence interval) of -4.64 (-7.15, -2.13); limits of agreement (equal to ± 2 standard deviations) was -26.62 to 17.35 events/h. Based on a threshold of AHI ≥ 5 events/h, HSAT had 95% sensitivity, 69% specificity, 94% positive predictive value, and 75% negative predictive value compared to PSG. Using an AHI ≥ 15 events/h, HSAT had 93% sensitivity, 85% specificity, 89% positive predictive value, and 91% negative predictive value. Closer agreements were present when comparing the simultaneous recordings. Similar results were obtained using different scoring criteria for hypopneas. CONCLUSIONS: Despite known differences between HSAT and PSG, the results show close agreement between the two diagnostic tests in Chinese adults, especially when controlling for night-to-night variability and changes in sleeping environment.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Polissonografia/instrumentação , Polissonografia/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , China , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Sleep Res ; 26(2): 159-165, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27976438

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of long-term adherence to positive airway pressure treatment among patients with obstructive sleep apnea, with special emphasis on patients who stop positive airway pressure treatment within 1 year. This is a prospective long-term follow-up of subjects in the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort who were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea between 2005 and 2009, and started on positive airway pressure treatment. In October 2014, positive airway pressure adherence was obtained by systematically evaluating available clinical files (n = 796; 644 males, 152 females) with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per h). The mean follow-up time was 6.7 ± 1.2 years. In total, 123 subjects (15.5%) returned their positive airway pressure device within the first year, 170 (21.4%) returned it later and 503 (63.2%) were still using positive airway pressure. The quitters within the first year had lower body mass index, milder obstructive sleep apnea, less sleepiness, and more often had symptoms of initial and late insomnia compared with long-term positive airway pressure users at baseline. Both initial and late insomnia were after adjustment still significantly associated with being an early quitter among subjects with body mass index <30 kg m-2 , but not among those with body mass index ≥30 kg m-2 . The prevalence of early quitters decreased significantly during the study period (2005-2009). Almost two-thirds of patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea are positive airway pressure users after 7 years. Obesity level, obstructive sleep apnea severity and daytime sleepiness are important determinants of long-term adherence. Symptoms of initial and late insomnia are associated with early quitting on positive airway pressure among non-obese subjects.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Cooperação do Paciente , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Magreza/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/psicologia , Bruxismo do Sono/complicações , Fases do Sono
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 5(9)2016 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27572821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite pronounced increases in central pulse wave velocity (PWV) with aging, reflected wave transit time (RWTT), traditionally defined as the timing of the inflection point (TINF) in the central pressure waveform, does not appreciably decrease, leading to the controversial proposition of a "distal-shift" of reflection sites. TINF, however, is exceptionally prone to measurement error and is also affected by ejection pattern and not only by wave reflection. We assessed whether RWTT, assessed by advanced pressure-flow analysis, demonstrates the expected decline with aging. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied a sample of unselected adults without cardiovascular disease (n=48; median age 48 years) and a clinical population of older adults with suspected/established cardiovascular disease (n=164; 61 years). We measured central pressure and flow with carotid tonometry and phase-contrast MRI, respectively. We assessed RWTT using wave-separation analysis (RWTTWSA) and partially distributed tube-load (TL) modeling (RWTTTL). Consistent with previous reports, TINF did not appreciably decrease with age despite pronounced increases in PWV in both populations. However, aging was associated with pronounced decreases in RWTTWSA (general population -15.0 ms/decade, P<0.001; clinical population -9.07 ms/decade, P=0.003) and RWTTTL (general -15.8 ms/decade, P<0.001; clinical -11.8 ms/decade, P<0.001). There was no evidence of an increased effective reflecting distance by either method. TINF was shown to reliably represent RWTT only under highly unrealistic assumptions about input impedance. CONCLUSIONS: RWTT declines with age in parallel with increased PWV, with earlier effects of wave reflections and without a distal shift in reflecting sites. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the role of wave reflections with aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Artérias Carótidas/fisiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso
20.
Sleep Med ; 17: 25-31, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26847970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired sleep efficiency is independently associated with worse prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Therefore, a test was conducted on whether auto-servo ventilation (ASV, biphasic positive airway pressure [BiPAP]-ASV, Philips Respironics) reduces sleep fragmentation and improves sleep efficiency in CHF patients with central sleep apnea (CSA) or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, parallel group trial, a study was conducted on 63 CHF patients (age 64 ± 10 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 29 ± 7%) with CSA or OSA (apnea-hypopnea Index, AHI 47 ± 18/h; 46% CSA) referred to sleep laboratories of the four participating centers. Participants were randomized to either ASV (n = 32) or optimal medical treatment alone (control, n = 31). RESULTS: Polysomnography (PSG) and actigraphy at home (home) with centralized blinded scoring were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. ASV significantly reduced sleep fragmentation (total arousal indexPSG: -16.4 ± 20.6 vs. -0.6 ± 13.2/h, p = 0.001; sleep fragmentation indexhome: -7.6 ± 15.6 versus 4.3 ± 13.9/h, p = 0.003, respectively) and significantly increased sleep efficiency assessed by actigraphy (SEhome) compared to controls (2.3 ± 10.1 vs. -2.1 ± 6.9%, p = 0.002). Effects of ASV on sleep fragmentation and efficiency were similar in patients suffering from OSA and CSA. CONCLUSIONS: At home, ASV treatment modestly improves sleep fragmentation as well as sleep efficiency in CHF patients having either CSA or OSA.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/terapia , Privação do Sono/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações
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