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1.
Adv Mater ; 33(12): e2005538, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565173

RESUMO

Advanced templating techniques have enabled delicate control of both nano- and microscale structures and have helped thrust functional materials into the forefront of society. Cellulose nanomaterials are derived from natural polymers and show promise as a templating source for advanced materials. Use of cellulose nanomaterials in templating combines nanoscale property control with sustainability, an attribute often lacking in other templating techniques. Use of cellulose nanofibers for templating has shown great promise in recent years, but previous reviews on cellulose nanomaterial templating techniques have not provided extensive analysis of cellulose nanofiber templating. Cellulose nanofibers display several unique properties, including mechanical strength, porosity, high water retention, high surface functionality, and an entangled fibrous network, all of which can dictate distinctive aspects in the final templated materials. Many applications exploit the unique aspects of templating with cellulose nanofibers that help control the final properties of the material, including, but not limited to, applications in catalysis, batteries, supercapacitors, electrodes, building materials, biomaterials, and membranes. A detailed analysis on the use of cellulose nanofibers templating is provided, addressing specifically how careful selection of templating mechanisms and methodologies, combined toward goal applications, can be used to directly benefit chosen applications in advanced functional materials.

2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 256: 117525, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483046

RESUMO

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is widely used as a reinforcement filler for biocomposites due to its unique properties. However, the challenge of drying MFC and the incompatibility between nanocellulose and polymer matrix still limits the mechanical performance of MFC-reinforced biocomposites. In this study, we used a water-based transesterification reaction to functionalize MFC and explored the capability of oven-dried MFC as a reinforcement filler for polylactic acid (PLA). Remarkably, this oven-dried, vinyl laurate-modified MFC improved the tensile strength by 38 % and Young's modulus by 71 % compared with neat PLA. Our results suggested improved compatibility and dispersion of the fibrils in PLA after modification. This study demonstrated that scalable water-based surface modification and subsequent straightforward oven drying could be a facile method for effectively drying cellulose nanomaterials. The method helps significantly disperse fibrils in polymers and enhances the mechanical properties of microfibrillar cellulose-reinforced biocomposites.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Lauratos/química , Nanocompostos/química , Poliésteres/química , Compostos de Vinila/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Celulose/ultraestrutura , Dessecação/métodos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração , Termogravimetria , Água/química
3.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957494

RESUMO

Wood and lignocellulosic-based material components are explored in this review as functional additives and reinforcements in composites for extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing. The motivation for using these sustainable alternatives in 3D printing includes enhancing material properties of the resulting printed parts, while providing a green alternative to carbon or glass filled polymer matrices, all at reduced material costs. Previous review articles on this topic have focused only on introducing the use of natural fillers with material extrusion AM and discussion of their subsequent material properties. This review not only discusses the present state of materials extrusion AM using natural filler-based composites but will also fill in the knowledge gap regarding state-of-the-art applications of these materials. Emphasis will also be placed on addressing the challenges associated with 3D printing using these materials, including use with large-scale manufacturing, while providing insight to overcome these issues in the future.

4.
Waste Manag ; 90: 94-99, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088677

RESUMO

In this work, we describe an efficient and environmentally benign method of recycling of additive printed Nd-Fe-B polymer bonded magnets. Rapid pulverization of bonded magnets into composite powder containing Nd-Fe-B particles and polymer binder was achieved by milling at cryogenic temperatures. The recycled bonded magnets fabricated by warm compaction of ground cryomilled coarse composite powders and nylon particles showed improved magnetic properties and density. Remanent magnetization and saturation magnetization increased by 4% and 6.5% respectively, due to enhanced density while coercivity and energy product were retained from the original additive printed bonded magnets. This study presents a facile method that enables the direct reuse of end-of-life bonded magnets for remaking new bonded magnets. In addition to magnetic properties, mechanical properties comparable to commercial products have been achieved. This research advances efforts to ensure sustainability in critical materials by forming close loop supply chain.


Assuntos
Metais Terras Raras , Neodímio , Imãs , Reciclagem , Temperatura
5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36212, 2016 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796339

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

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