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1.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365848

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of nutrient intake on hydration biomarkers in cyclists before and after a 161 km ride, including one hour after a 650 mL water bolus consumed post-ride. To control for multicollinearity, we chose a clustering-based, machine learning statistical approach. Five hydration biomarkers (urine color, urine specific gravity, plasma osmolality, plasma copeptin, and body mass change) were configured as raw- and percent change. Linear regressions were used to test for associations between hydration markers and eight predictor terms derived from 19 nutrients merged into a reduced-dimensionality dataset through serial k-means clustering. Most predictor groups showed significant association with at least one hydration biomarker: 1) Glycemic Load + Carbohydrates + Sodium, 2) Protein + Fat + Zinc, 3) Magnesium + Calcium, 4) Pinitol, 5) Caffeine, 6) Fiber + Betaine, and 7) Water; potassium + three polyols, and mannitol + sorbitol showed no significant associations with any hydration biomarker. All five hydration biomarkers were associated with at least one nutrient predictor in at least one configuration. We conclude that in a real-life scenario, some nutrients may serve as mediators of body water, and urine-specific hydration biomarkers may be more responsive to nutrient intake than measures derived from plasma or body mass.

2.
J Sci Med Sport ; 21(12): 1180-1184, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784554

RESUMO

Exercise, especially in the heat, can contribute to acute kidney injury, which can expedite chronic kidney disease onset. The additional stress of ibuprofen use is hypothesized to increase renal stress. OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of endurance cycling in the heat on renal function. Secondarily, we investigated the effect of ibuprofen ingestion on kidney stress. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo controlled and observational methods were utilized. METHODS: Forty cyclists (52±9y, 21.7±6.5% body fat) volunteered and completed an endurance cycling event (5.7±1.2h) in the heat (33.2±5.0°C, 38.4±10.7% RH). Thirty-five participants were randomized to ingest a placebo (n=17) or 600mg ibuprofen (n=18) pre-event. A blood sample was drawn before and following the event. Serum creatinine was assessed by colorimetric assay. An ELISA was used to measure serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Fractional excretion of sodium was calculated after urinary and serum electrolyte analyses. RESULTS: Placebo versus ibuprofen groups contributed no significant difference in any variable (p>0.05). Serum creatinine significantly increased from pre- (0.52±0.14mg/dL) to post-event (0.88±0.21mg/dL; p<0.001). Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin significantly increased (pre: 68.51±17.54ng/mL; post: 139.12±36.52ng/mL; p<0.001) and fractional excretion of sodium was significantly reduced from pre- (0.52±0.24%) to post-event (0.27±0.18%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Changes in renal biomarkers suggest mild acute kidney injury and reduced kidney function during a single bout of endurance cycling in the heat, without influence from moderate ibuprofen ingestion.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resistência Física
3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 31(3): 638-643, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27552210

RESUMO

Caldwell, AR, Tucker, MA, Butts, CL, McDermott, BP, Vingren, JL, Kunces, LJ, Lee, EC, Munoz, CX, Williamson, KH, Armstrong, LE, and Ganio, MS. Effect of caffeine on perceived soreness and functionality following an endurance cycling event. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 638-643, 2017-Caffeine can reduce muscle pain during exercise; however, the efficacy of caffeine in improving muscle soreness and recovery from a demanding long-duration exercise bout has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine intake on ratings of perceived muscle soreness (RPMS) and perceived lower extremity functionality (LEF) following the completion of a 164-km endurance cycling event. Before and after cycling RPMS (1-to-6; 6 = severe soreness) and LEF (0-to-80; 80 = full functionality) were assessed by questionnaires. Subjects ingested 3 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or placebo pills in a randomized, double-blind fashion immediately after the ride and for the next 4 mornings (i.e., ∼800 hours) and 3 afternoons (i.e., ∼1200 hours). Before each ingestion, RPMS and LEF were assessed. Afternoon ratings of LEF were greater with caffeine ingestion the first day postride (65.0 ± 6.1 vs. 72.3 ± 6.7; for placebo and caffeine, respectively; p = 0.04), but at no other time points (p > 0.05). The caffeine group tended to have lower overall RPMS in the afternoon versus placebo (i.e., main effect of group; 1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.2; p = 0.09). Afternoon RPMS for the legs was significantly lower in the caffeine group (main effect of caffeine; 1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.3; p = 0.05). In conclusion, ingesting caffeine improved RPMS for the legs, but not LEF in the days following an endurance cycling event. Athletes may benefit from ingesting caffeine in the days following an arduous exercise bout to relieve feelings of soreness and reduced functionality.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Cafeína/uso terapêutico , Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Metabolism ; 65(3): 100-10, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months). RESULTS: Peak fat oxidation was 2.3-fold higher in the LC group (1.54±0.18 vs 0.67±0.14 g/min; P=0.000) and it occurred at a higher percentage of VO2max (70.3±6.3 vs 54.9±7.8%; P=0.000). Mean fat oxidation during submaximal exercise was 59% higher in the LC group (1.21±0.02 vs 0.76±0.11 g/min; P=0.000) corresponding to a greater relative contribution of fat (88±2 vs 56±8%; P=0.000). Despite these marked differences in fuel use between LC and HC athletes, there were no significant differences in resting muscle glycogen and the level of depletion after 180 min of running (-64% from pre-exercise) and 120 min of recovery (-36% from pre-exercise). CONCLUSION: Compared to highly trained ultra-endurance athletes consuming an HC diet, long-term keto-adaptation results in extraordinarily high rates of fat oxidation, whereas muscle glycogen utilization and repletion patterns during and after a 3 hour run are similar.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Limiar Anaeróbio , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 30(6): 1607-12, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26492102

RESUMO

Dietary approaches for optimizing exercise performance have been debated in the literature for years. For endurance athletes, various position stands focus on recommendations for high-carbohydrate diets to maximize performance in events. However, theories of low-carbohydrate diets and their ability to provide more fuel may prove beneficial to ultraendurance athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to observe the food and fluid consumption of successful recreational ultraendurance cyclists on the day before (ED-1), Event Day, and the day after (ED+1), a 162 km endurance event in a hot environment, and subsequently compare dietary intakes to recommendations and other observed dietary practices. Twenty men (age, 48 ± 8 years; mass, 85.1 ± 13.4 kg; height, 178.2 ± 7.4 cm) recorded all dietary items during ED-1, Event Day, and ED+1. Diet composition and the relationships between carbohydrate and caloric intake with finish time were examined. Results show athletes consumed a high-carbohydrate diet on ED-1 (384 g·d), Event Day (657 g·d), and ED+1 (329 g·d). However, there were no significant associations between carbohydrate (p > 0.05), or caloric intake (p > 0.05), and finish time. This study results great variation in diets of recreational endurance cyclists, although most consume within nationally recognized dietary recommendation ranges. Because there is great variation and lack of correlation with performance, these findings suggest that current high-carbohydrate dietary recommendations for general endurance athletes may not be sport specific or individualized enough for recreational ultraendurance cyclists, and that individualized dietary macronutrient composition manipulations may improve performance outcomes.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Ciclismo/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Sports Sci ; 33(18): 1962-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25793570

RESUMO

Laboratory-based studies indicate mild dehydration adversely affects mood. Although ultra-endurance events often result in mild to moderate dehydration, little research has evaluated whether the relationship between hydration status and mood state also exists in these arduous events. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how hydration status affected mood state and perceptual measures during a 161 km ultra-endurance cycling event. One hundred and nineteen cyclists (103 males, 16 females; age = 46 ± 9 years; height = 175.4 ± 17.9 cm; mass = 82.8 ± 16.3 kg) from the 2011 and 2013 Hotter'N Hell events participated. Perceived exertion, Thermal, Thirst, and Pain sensations, Brunel Profile of Mood States, and urine specific gravity (USG) were measured pre- (~1 h before), mid- (~97 km), and post-ride. Participants were classified at each time point as dehydrated (USG ≥ 1.022) or euhydrated (USG ≤ 1.018). Independent of time point, dehydrated participants (USG = 1.027 ± 0.004) had decreased Vigour and increased Fatigue, Pain, Thirst, and Thermal sensations compared to euhydrated participants (USG = 1.012 ± 0.004; all P < 0.01). USG significantly correlated with Fatigue (r = 0.36), Vigour (r = -0.27), Thirst (r = 0.15), and Pain (r = 0.22; all P < 0.05). In conclusion, dehydrated participants had greater Fatigue and Pain than euhydrated participants. These findings indicate dehydration may adversely affect mood state and perceptual ratings during ultra-endurance cycling.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/psicologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Sede
8.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 115(6): 1295-303, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25603777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the impact of completing the Hotter'n Hell Hundred (HHH), an annual 164 km road cycling event performed in a hot environment, on hemostatic balance in men. METHODS: Sixteen men who completed the ride in <6 h were included in this study. Plasma samples were collected on that morning of the ride (PRE) and immediately on the completion of the ride (IP). Primary hemostasis was assessed by platelet count and von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag). Coagulation was assessed by measuring prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (PTF 1 + 2) and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), whereas fibrinolysis was assessed by plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen (PAI-1 Ag), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA Ag), and D-Dimer analyses. RESULTS: Compared to PRE, increases (p < 0.001) were observed at IP for platelets (39 %), vWF:Ag (65 %), PTF 1 + 2 (47 %), TAT (81 %), tPA Ag (231 %), PAI-1 Ag (148 %), and D-Dimer (54 %). PRE PAI-1 Ag concentrations were directly related to BMI and waist circumference (p < 0.05). D-Dimer concentrations at IP correlated positively with age (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Completing the HHH activated the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in balance. Age was positively correlated with IP D-Dimer concentrations. Additionally, participants displaying a larger BMI and waist circumference exhibited a positive correlation with PRE PAI-1 Ag concentrations.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Fibrinólise , Temperatura Alta , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antitrombinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esforço Físico , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Protrombina/metabolismo , Trombina/metabolismo , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
9.
J Sports Sci ; 33(2): 125-35, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24992367

RESUMO

Because body mass change (ΔMb) does not represent all water losses and gains, the present field investigation determined if (a) ΔMb equalled the net effective body water change during ultra-endurance exercise and (b) ground speed and exercise duration influenced these variables. Thirty-two male cyclists (age range, 35-52 years) completed a 164-km event in a hot environment, were retrospectively triplet matched and placed into one of three groups based on exercise duration (4.8, 6.3, 9.6 h). Net effective body water loss was computed from measurements (body mass, total fluid intake and urine excreted) and calculations (water evolved and mass loss due to substrate oxidation, solid food mass and sweat loss), including (ΔEBWgly) and excluding (ΔEBW) water bound to glycogen. With all cyclists combined, the mean ΔMb (i.e. loss) was greater than that of ΔEBWgly by 1200 ± 200 g (P = 1.4 × 10(-18)), was similar to ΔEBW (difference, 0 ± 200 g; P = .21) and was strongly correlated with both (R(2) = .98). Analysis of equivalence indicated that ΔMb was not equivalent to ΔEBWgly, but was equivalent to ΔEBW. Due to measurement complexity, we concluded that (a) athletes will not calculate the effective body water calculations routinely and (b) body mass change remains a useful field-expedient estimate of net effective body water change.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Ingestão de Alimentos , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Urina
10.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e113605, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25415333

RESUMO

Recent meta-analyses have found no association between heart disease and dietary saturated fat; however, higher proportions of plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) predict greater risk for developing type-2 diabetes and heart disease. These observations suggest a disconnect between dietary saturated fat and plasma SFA, but few controlled feeding studies have specifically examined how varying saturated fat intake across a broad range affects circulating SFA levels. Sixteen adults with metabolic syndrome (age 44.9±9.9 yr, BMI 37.9±6.3 kg/m2) were fed six 3-wk diets that progressively increased carbohydrate (from 47 to 346 g/day) with concomitant decreases in total and saturated fat. Despite a distinct increase in saturated fat intake from baseline to the low-carbohydrate diet (46 to 84 g/day), and then a gradual decrease in saturated fat to 32 g/day at the highest carbohydrate phase, there were no significant changes in the proportion of total SFA in any plasma lipid fractions. Whereas plasma saturated fat remained relatively stable, the proportion of palmitoleic acid in plasma triglyceride and cholesteryl ester was significantly and uniformly reduced as carbohydrate intake decreased, and then gradually increased as dietary carbohydrate was re-introduced. The results show that dietary and plasma saturated fat are not related, and that increasing dietary carbohydrate across a range of intakes promotes incremental increases in plasma palmitoleic acid, a biomarker consistently associated with adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Athl Train ; 49(5): 624-31, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25098657

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The sensation of thirst is different from the complex behavior of drinking ad libitum. Rehydration recommendations to athletes differ, depending on the source, yet no previous researchers have systematically compared drinking to thirst (D(TT)) versus ad libitum drinking behavior (D(AL)). OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 groups of trained cyclists (D(TT) and D(AL)) who had similar physical characteristics and training programs (P > .05). The D(TT) group (n = 12, age = 47 ± 7 years) drank only when thirsty, whereas the D(AL) group (n = 12, age = 44 ± 7 years) consumed fluid ad libitum (ie, whenever and in whatever volume desired). DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Road cycling (164 km) in the heat (36.1 °C ± 6.5 °C). PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Ultraendurance cyclists (4 women, 20 men). INTERVENTION(S): We recorded measurements 1 day before the event, on event day before the start, at 3 roadside aid stations, at the finish line, and 1 day after the event. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Body mass, urinary hydration indices, and food and fluids consumed. RESULTS: No between-groups differences were seen on event day for total exercise time (DTT = 6.69 ± 0.89 hours, DAL = 6.66 ± 0.77 hours), urinary indices (specific gravity, color), body mass change (D(TT) = -2.22% ± 1.73%, DAL = -2.29% ± 1.62%), fluid intake (D(TT) = 5.63 ± 2.59 L/6.7 h, D(AL) = 6.04 ± 2.37 L/6.7 h), dietary energy intake, macronutrient intake, ratings of thirst (D(TT) start = 2 ± 1, D(TT) finish = 6 ± 1, DAL start = 2 ± 1, D(AL) finish = 6 ± 1), pain, perceived exertion, or thermal sensation. Total fluid intake on recovery day +1 was the primary significant difference (D(AL) = 5.13 ± 1.87 L/24 h, D(TT) = 3.13 ± 1.53 L/24 h, t18 = 2.59, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Observations on event day indicated that drinking to thirst and drinking ad libitum resulted in similar physiologic and perceptual outcomes. This suggests that specific instructions to "drink to thirst" were unnecessary. Indeed, if athletes drink ad libitum, they can focus on training and competition rather than being distracted by ongoing evaluation of thirst sensations.


Assuntos
Atletas , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Sede/fisiologia , Adulto , Desidratação/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 32(4): 234-42, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24024768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Foods incorporating plant sterols (PS) consistently decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), although results vary depending on the PS form and food matrix. The objective was to study the effect of a novel triglyceride-recrystallized phystosterol (TRP) incorporated into fat-free milk on markers of cardiovascular risk compared to unmodified free sterols alone in the same fat-free milk. METHODS: Hypercholesterolemic men and women (n = 13 males/7 females; 56 ± 10 years; body mass index 27.3 ± 5.9 kg/m(2)) participated in 3 sequential 4-week phases of 480 mL milk consumption. During phase 1 (control) all subjects consumed 2% milk containing no PS, followed by phase 2 with fat-free milk containing free PS (2 g/d fPS) and phase 3 with fat-free milk with TRP (2 g/d). After each phase, determinations of lipoprotein cholesterol distribution, particle concentration via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), apolipoproteins, inflammatory markers, and fat-soluble dietary antioxidants were made. RESULTS: Body mass, body composition, dietary energy and macronutrients, and physical activity were unaffected throughout the study. Compared to the control 2% milk, LDL-C was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by fPS (-9.1%) and was further decreased by TRP (-15.4%); reductions with TRP were significantly greater. Total LDL particle concentration was decreased to a greater extent after TRP (-8.8%) than fPS (-4.8%; p < 0.05). Only TRP significantly decreased serum levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB; -6%), interleukin-8 (IL-8; -11%) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; -19%). Plasma α- and γ-tocopherols and carotenoids, normalized to cholesterol, remained unchanged throughout the study with the exception that ß-carotene was lowered by 18%. CONCLUSION: In summary, TRP in fat-free milk may provide cardiovascular benefits beyond that of fPS by inducing more substantial decreases in LDL cholesterol and particle concentration, associated with declines in markers of vascular inflammation.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Leite/química , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Carotenoides/sangue , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Interleucina-8/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitosteróis/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Tocoferóis/sangue
13.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 32(2): 122-35, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24015719

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Compared to soy, whey protein is higher in leucine, absorbed quicker and results in a more pronounced increase in muscle protein synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation with whey promotes greater increases in muscle mass compared to soy or carbohydrate, we randomized non-resistance-trained men and women into groups who consumed daily isocaloric supplements containing carbohydrate (carb; n = 22), whey protein (whey; n = 19), or soy protein (soy; n = 22). METHODS: All subjects completed a supervised, whole-body periodized resistance training program consisting of 96 workouts (~9 months). Body composition was determined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months. Plasma amino acid responses to resistance exercise followed by supplement ingestion were determined at baseline and 9 months. RESULTS: Daily protein intake (including the supplement) for carb, whey, and soy was 1.1, 1.4, and 1.4 g·kg body mass⁻¹, respectively. Lean body mass gains were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in whey (3.3 ± 1.5 kg) than carb (2.3 ± 1.7 kg) and soy (1.8 ± 1.6 kg). Fat mass decreased slightly but there were no differences between groups. Fasting concentrations of leucine were significantly elevated (20%) and postexercise plasma leucine increased more than 2-fold in whey. Fasting leucine concentrations were positively correlated with lean body mass responses. CONCLUSIONS: Despite consuming similar calories and protein during resistance training, daily supplementation with whey was more effective than soy protein or isocaloric carbohydrate control treatment conditions in promoting gains in lean body mass. These results highlight the importance of protein quality as an important determinant of lean body mass responses to resistance training.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas do Leite/administração & dosagem , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Aminoácidos/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Leucina/sangue , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 113(11): 2705-12, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23974848

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine coagulatory and fibrinolytic responses to the Western States Endurance Run (WSER, June 23 to 24, 2012). The WSER is a 161-km (100 mile) trail foot race through the Sierra Nevada Mountains that involves 6,030 m of climb and 7,001 m of descent. METHODS: We examined 12 men and 4 women [mean (95 % CI), age 44.6 years (38.7-50.6)] who completed the race (24.64 h; range 16.89-29.46). Blood samples were collected the morning before the race, immediately post-race, and 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) days post-race (corresponding to 51-54 h and 75-78 h from the start of the race, respectively). Hypercoagulable state was characterized by prothrombin fragment 1+2 (PTF 1+2) and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT). Fibrinolytic state was assessed by plasminogen activator inhibitor antigen (PAI-1 Ag), tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPA Ag), and D-Dimer. Muscle damage was assessed by serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin concentrations. RESULTS: Significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases were observed immediately post-race for thrombin generation markers, PTF 1+2 (3.9-fold) and TAT (2.4-fold); markers of fibrinolysis, tPA Ag (4.0-fold), PAI-1 Ag (4.5-fold), and D-Dimer (2.2-fold); and muscle damage markers, CK (154-fold) and myoglobin (114-fold). Most markers continued to be elevated at D1, as seen by PTF 1+2, TAT (1.5- and 1.3-fold increase at D1), and D-Dimer (2.5- and 2.1-fold increase at D1 and D2, respectively). Additionally, PTF 1+2:tPA and TAT:tPA ratios, which assessed balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis, were slightly, but significantly increased at D1 (69 and 36 %) and D2 (19 and 31 %). CK and myoglobin also remained elevated at D1 (54- and 7-fold) and D2 (25- and 2-fold) time points. CONCLUSION: The WSER produced extensive muscle damage and activated the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Since we observed a slight imbalance response between the two systems, a limited potential for thrombotic episodes is apparent in these highly trained athletes.


Assuntos
Altitude , Fibrinólise , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mioglobina/sangue , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Inativadores de Plasminogênio/sangue , Protrombina/análise , Trombina/análise
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