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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(44): 17696-17702, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608628

RESUMO

Engendering electrical conductivity in otherwise insulating metal-organic framework (MOF) materials is key to rendering these materials fully functional for a range of potential applications, including electrochemical and photo-electrochemical catalysis. Here we report that the platform MOF, NU-1000, can be made electrically conductive via reversible electrochemical oxidation of a fraction of the framework's tetraphenylpyrene linkers, where the basis for conduction is redox hopping. At a microscopic level, redox hopping is akin to electron self-exchange and is describable by Marcus' well-known theory of electron transfer. At a macroscopic level, the hopping behavior leads to diffusive charge transport and is quantifiable as an apparent diffusion coefficient, Dhopping. Theory suggests that the csq topology of NU-1000, together with its characteristic one-dimensional mesopores, will result in direction-dependent, that is, anisotropic, electrical conductivity. Detailed computations suggest that the governing factor is the strength of electronic coupling between pairs of linkers sited in the a,b plane of the MOF versus the mesopore-aligned c axis of the crystal. The notion has been put to the test experimentally by configuring the MOF as an array of selectively oriented, electrode-supported crystallites, where the rodlike crystallites are either oriented largely normal to the electrode (requiring redox hopping along the c direction) or mainly parallel (requiring redox hopping mainly through the a,b plane). The orientations are preselected by preparing MOF films either via interfacial solvothermal synthesis or via electrophoretic deposition. In semiquantitative accord with computational predictions, Dhopping is up to ∼3500 times larger in the c direction than through the a,b plane. In addition to their fundamental significance, the findings have clear implications for the design and optimization of MOFs for electrocatalysis and for other applications that rely upon electrical conductivity.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(38): 35319-35326, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423762

RESUMO

Graphene quantum dots (GQD) with an average size of 3.1 nm were incorporated into a mesoporous porphyrinic zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) by direct impregnation to render the donor-acceptor charge transfer from GQDs to porphyrinic linkers. The hybrid material still possesses around half porosity of the pristine MOF and shows a 100-fold higher electrical conductivity compared to that of the parent MOF. By utilizing the porphyrinic linkers as catalytically active units, the GQD-MOF material exhibits a better electrochemical sensing activity toward nitrite in aqueous solutions compared to both the pristine MOF and GQD.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(23): 7682-7686, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913356

RESUMO

The efficient fixation of excess CO2 from the atmosphere to yield value-added chemicals remains crucial in response to the increasing levels of carbon emission. Coupling enzymatic reactions with electrochemical regeneration of cofactors is a promising technique for fixing CO2 , while producing biomass which can be further transformed into biofuels. Herein, a bioelectrocatalytic system was established by depositing crystallites of a mesoporous metal-organic framework (MOF), termed NU-1006, containing formate dehydrogenase, on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass electrode modified with Cp*Rh(2,2'-bipyridyl-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid)Cl2 complex. This system converts CO2 into formic acid at a rate of 79±3.4 mm h-1 with electrochemical regeneration of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor. The MOF-enzyme composite exhibited significantly higher catalyst stability when subjected to non-native conditions compared to the free enzyme, doubling the formic acid yield.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(9): 3893-3900, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707577

RESUMO

Nanoparticle encapsulation inside zirconium-based metal-organic frameworks (NP@MOF) is hard to control, and the resulting materials often have nonuniform morphologies with NPs on the external surface of MOFs and NP aggregates inside the MOFs. In this work, we report the controlled encapsulation of gold nanorods (AuNRs) by a scu-topology Zr-MOF, via a room-temperature MOF assembly. This is achieved by functionalizing the AuNRs with poly(ethylene glycol) surface ligands, allowing them to retain colloidal stability in the precursor solution and to seed the MOF growth. Using this approach, we achieve core-shell yields exceeding 99%, tuning the MOF particle size via the solution concentration of AuNRs. The functionality of AuNR@MOFs is demonstrated by using the AuNRs as embedded probes for selective surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The AuNR@MOFs are able to both take-up or block molecules from the pores, thereby facilitating highly selective sensing at the AuNR ends. This proof-of-principle study serves to present both the outstanding level of control in the synthesis and the high potential for AuNR@Zr-MOF composites for SERS.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(7): 2997-3005, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640459

RESUMO

Practical applications involving the magnetic bistability of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) for next-generation computer technologies require nanostructuring, organization, and protection of nanoscale materials in two- or three-dimensional networks, to enable read-and-write processes. Owing to their porous nature and structural long-range order, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been proposed as hosts to facilitate these efforts. Although probing the channels of MOF composites using indirect methods is well established, the use of direct methods to elucidate fundamental structural information is still lacking. Herein we report the direct imaging of SMMs encapsulated in a mesoporous MOF matrix using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. These images deliver, for the first time, direct and unambiguous evidence to support the adsorption of molecular guests within the porous host. Bulk magnetic measurements further support the successful nanostructuring of SMMs. The preparation of the first magnetic composite thin films of this kind furthers the development of molecular spintronics.

6.
Langmuir ; 34(47): 14143-14150, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380883

RESUMO

Atomic layer deposition is employed to install nickel oxide into NU-1000. Upon heating to 900 °C under nitrogen, a carbon material containing ZrO2 and Ni is formed. In notable contrast to the parent metal-organic framework, the pyrolyzed material is: (a) stable in highly alkaline solutions (typical conditions for water electro-oxidation) and (b) electrically conductive and thus able to deliver oxidizing equivalents (holes) to catalytic sites located far from the underlying conductive-glass electrode. The pyrolysis-derived material was characterized and its electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution was investigated.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(36): 30532-30540, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113802

RESUMO

A representative mesoporous metal-organic-framework (MOF) material, NU-1000, has been rendered electronically conductive via a robust inorganic approach that permits retention of MOF crystallinity and porosity. The approach is based on condensed-phase grafting of molecular tin species onto the MOF nodes via irreversible reaction with hydroxyl and aqua ligands presented at the node surface, a self-limiting process termed solvothermal installation (of metal ions) in MOFs (SIM, a solution-phase analog of atomic layer deposition in MOFs). Treatment of the modified MOF with aerated steam at 120 °C converts the grafted tin molecules to tetratin(IV)oxy clusters, with the clusters being sited between insulating pairs of zirconia-like nodes (the zirconium component being key to endowing the parent material with requisite chemical and thermal stability). By introducing new O-H presenting ligands on the modified-MOF node, the high-temperature steam step additionally serves to reset the material to reactive form, thus enabling a second self-limiting tin-grafting step to be run (and after further steam treatment, enabling a third). Difference-envelop-density (DED) analyses of synchrotron-derived X-ray scattering data, with and without installed tin species, show that the clusters formed after one cycle are spatially isolated, but that repetitive SIM cycling adds metal and oxygen ions in a way that enshrouds nodes, links clusters, and yields continuous one-dimensional strands of oxy-tin(IV), oriented exclusively along the c axis of the MOF. Two-probe conductivity measurements show that the parent MOF and the version containing isolated oxy-tin(IV) clusters are electrically insulating, but that the versions featuring continuous strands show an electrical conductivity of 1.8 × 10-7 S/cm after three Sn-SIM cycles. When combined with interdigitated microelectrodes, the solvent-free and conductive-glass-modified material (three Sn-SIM cycles) displays a substantial and persistent increase in electrical conductivity during exposure to 5% H2, indicating a role for dissociated H2 as an electronic dopant. The increase can be repetitively reversed by alternating H2 with air, illustrating the ability of the conductive MOF to function as a resistive sensor for H2 and suggesting further potential applications that may capitalize on the combination of high volumetric surface area, high mesoporosity, high chemical and thermal stability, and significant electrical conductivity.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(36): 11402-11407, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092139

RESUMO

A class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-namely CD-MOFs-obtained from natural products has been grown in an epitaxial fashion as films on the surfaces of glass substrates, which are modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) molecules. The SAMs are created by host-guest complexation of γ-CD molecules with surface-functionalized pyrene units. The CD-MOF films have continuous polycrystalline morphology with a structurally out-of-plane ( c-axial) orientation, covering an area of several square millimeters, with a thickness of ∼2 µm. Furthermore, this versatile host-guest strategy has been applied successfully in the growth of CD-MOFs as the shell on the curved surface of microparticles as well as in the integration of CD-MOF films into electrochemical devices for sensing carbon dioxide. In striking contrast to the control devices prepared from CD-MOF crystalline powders, these CD-MOF film-based devices display an enhancement in proton conductance of up to 300-fold. In addition, the CD-MOF film-based device exhibits more rapid and highly reversible CO2-sensing cycles under ambient conditions, with a 50-fold decrease in conductivity upon exposure to CO2 for 3 s which is recovered within 10 s upon re-exposure to air.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(28): 23802-23806, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979020

RESUMO

The photocatalytically driven partial oxidation of a mustard gas simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), was studied using the perylene-based metal-organic framework (MOF) UMCM-313 and compared to the activities of the Zr-based MOFs: PCN-222/MOF-545 and NU-1000. The rates of CEES oxidation positively correlated with the singlet oxygen quantum yield of the MOF linkers, porphyrin (PCN-222/MOF-545) < pyrene (NU-1000) < perylene (UMCM-313). Subsequently, thin films of UMCM-313 and NU-1000 were solvothermally grown on a conductive glass substrate to minimize catalyst loading and prevent light scattering by suspended MOF particles. Using a conductive glass support, the initial turnover frequencies of the MOFs in the photocatalytic reaction improved by 10-fold.

10.
Chem Sci ; 9(19): 4477-4482, 2018 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896389

RESUMO

Engendering electrical conductivity in high-porosity metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) promises to unlock the full potential of MOFs for electrical energy storage, electrocatalysis, or integration of MOFs with conventional electronic materials. Here we report that a porous zirconium-node-containing MOF, NU-901, can be rendered electronically conductive by physically encapsulating C60, an excellent electron acceptor, within a fraction (ca. 60%) of the diamond-shaped cavities of the MOF. The cavities are defined by node-connected tetra-phenyl-carboxylated pyrene linkers, i.e. species that are excellent electron donors. The bulk electrical conductivity of the MOF is shown to increase from immeasurably low to 10-3 S cm-1, following fullerene incorporation. The observed conductivity originates from electron donor-acceptor interactions, i.e. charge-transfer interactions - a conclusion that is supported by density functional theory calculations and by the observation of a charge-transfer-derived band in the electronic absorption spectrum of the hybrid material. Notably, the conductive version of the MOF retains substantial nanoscale porosity and continues to display a sizable internal surface area, suggesting potential future applications that capitalize on the ability of the material to sorb molecular species.

11.
Langmuir ; 34(16): 4707-4714, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652507

RESUMO

Here, we describe the installation of a ferrocene derivative on and within the archetypal metal-organic framework (MOF), UiO-66, by solvent-assisted ligand incorporation. Thin films of the resulting material show a redox peak characteristic of the Fc/Fc+ couple, as measured by cyclic voltammetry. Consistent with restriction of redox reactivity solely to Fc molecules sited at or near the external surfaces of MOF crystallites, chronoamperometry measurements indicate that less than 20% of the installed Fc molecules are electrochemically active. Charge-transport diffusion coefficients, DCT, of 6.1 ± 0.8 × 10-11 and 2.6 ± 0.2 × 10-9 cm2/s were determined from potential step measurements, stepping oxidatively and reductively, respectively. The 40-fold difference in DCT values contrasts with the expectation, for simple systems, of identical values for oxidation-driven versus reduction-driven charge transport. The findings have implications for the design of MOFs suitable for delivery of redox equivalents to framework-immobilized electrocatalysts and/or delivery of charges from a chromophoric MOF film to an underlying electrode, processes that may be central to MOF-facilitated conversion of solar energy to chemical or electrical energy.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(11): 3871-3875, 2018 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502408

RESUMO

Nickel(IV) bis(dicarbollide) is incorporated in a zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, to create an electrically conductive MOF with mesoporosity. All the nickel bis(dicarbollide) units are located as guest molecules in the microporous channels of NU-1000, which permits the further incorporation of other active species in the remaining mesopores. For demonstration, manganese oxide is installed on the nodes of the electrically conductive MOF. The electrochemically addressable fraction and specific capacitance of the manganese oxide in the conductive framework are more than 10 times higher than those of the manganese oxide in the parent MOF.

13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 4(11): 1700261, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29201623

RESUMO

With the aim of a reliable biosensing exhibiting enhanced sensitivity and selectivity, this study demonstrates a dopamine (DA) sensor composed of conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) conformally coated with porphyrin-based metal-organic framework nanocrystals (MOF-525). The MOF-525 serves as an electrocatalytic surface, while the PEDOT NTs act as a charge collector to rapidly transport the electron from MOF nanocrystals. Bundles of these particles form a conductive interpenetrating network film that together: (i) improves charge transport pathways between the MOF-525 regions and (ii) increases the electrochemical active sites of the film. The electrocatalytic response is measured by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques, where the linear concentration range of DA detection is estimated to be 2 × 10-6-270 × 10-6 m and the detection limit is estimated to be 0.04 × 10-6 m with high selectivity toward DA. Additionally, a real-time determination of DA released from living rat pheochromocytoma cells is realized. The combination of MOF5-25 and PEDOT NTs creates a new generation of porous electrodes for highly efficient electrochemical biosensing.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(42): 15251-15258, 2017 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976757

RESUMO

Few-atom cobalt-oxide clusters, when dispersed on a Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000, have been shown to be active for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane at low temperatures (<230 °C), affording a selective and stable propene production catalyst. In our current work, a series of promoter ions with varying Lewis acidity, including Ni(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Ti(IV) and Mo(VI), are anchored as metal-oxide,hydroxide clusters to NU-1000 followed by Co(II) ion deposition, yielding a series of NU-1000-supported bimetallic-oxo,hydroxo,aqua clusters. Using difference envelope density (DED) analyses, the spatial locations of the promoter ions and catalytic cobalt ions are determined. For all samples, the promoter ions are sited between pairs of Zr6 nodes along the MOF c-axis, whereas the location of the cobalt ions varies with the promoter ions. These NU-1000-supported bimetallic-oxide clusters are active for propane ODH after thermal activation under O2 to open a cobalt coordination site and to oxidize Co(II) to Co(III), as evidenced by operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Co K-edge. In accord with the decreasing Lewis acidity of the promoter ion, catalytic activity increases in the following order: Mo(VI) < Ti(IV) < Al(III) < Zn(II) < Ni(II). The finding is attributed to increasing ease of formation of Co(III)-O• species and stabilization of a cobalt(III)-oxyl/propane transition state as the Lewis acidity of the promoter ions decreases. The results point to an increasing ability to fine-tune the structure-dependent activity of MOF-supported heterogeneous catalysts. Coupled with mechanistic studies-computational or experimental-this ability may translate into informed prediction of improved catalysts for propane ODH and other chemical reactions.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(44): 30351-30361, 2016 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27726326

RESUMO

Herein, three kinds of viologens-based electrochromic devices (ECDs) (heptyl viologen (HV(BF4)2), octyl viologen (OV(BF4)2), and nonyl viologen (NV(BF4)2)) were fabricated utilizing ferrocene (Fc) as a redox mediator. Among them, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD exhibits the highest coloration efficiency (36.2 cm2/C) owing to the lowest driving energy. Besides, switching between 0 and 1.2 V, the NV(BF4)2-based ECD shows a desirable initial transmittance change (ΔT = 56.7% at 605 nm), and long-term stability (ΔT = 45.4% after 4000 cycles). Furthermore, a UV-cured polymer electrolyte containing polymeric ionic liquid (PIL, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and ethoxylated trimethylolpropane triacrylate (ETPTA) was introduced to the NV(BF4)2-based ECD. By controlling the weight percentage of the PIL, different curing degrees of the polymer electrolytes were obtained and led to an improved stability of the NV(BF4)2-based ECD because of the immobilization of NV(BF4)2. This observation was explained by calculating the apparent diffusivity (Dapp) of the redox species in the NV(BF4)2-based ECD under various curing degrees. In addition, increasing the amount of PIL leads to a lower driven energy needed for the NV(BF4)2-based ECD, following the same trend as the value of Dapp. Among all NV(BF4)2-based ECDs, 20 wt % of PIL addition (20-PIL ECD) exhibits large transmittance change (ΔT = 55.2% at 605 nm), short switching times (2.13 s in coloring and 2.10 s in bleaching), high coloration efficiency (60.4 and 273.5 cm2/C at 605 nm, after excluding the current density at the steady state), and exceptional cycling stability (ΔT = 53.8% after 10,000 cycles, or retained 97.5% of its initial ΔT).

16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34319, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27698464

RESUMO

In this study, hybrid perovskite solar cells are fabricated using poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) as dopant-free hole-transporting materials (HTMs), and two solution processes (one- and two-step methods, respectively) for preparing methylammonium lead iodide perovskite. By optimizing the concentrations and solvents of MEH-PPV solutions, a power conversion efficiency of 9.65% with hysteresis-less performance is achieved, while the device with 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) doped with lithium salts and tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibits an efficiency of 13.38%. This result shows that non-doped MEH-PPV is a suitable, low-cost HTM for efficient polymer-based perovskite solar cells. The effect of different morphologies of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite on conversion efficiency is also investigated by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(35): 23015-21, 2016 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27540749

RESUMO

Herein, a room temperature chemical process to synthesize functional, hollow nanostructures from zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) and poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) is reported. Syntheses are initiated by physically blending the components-a process that is accompanied first by encapsulation of ZIF-8 crystallites by PVPA and then by fragmentation of the crystallites. The fragmentation process is driven by partial displacement of the methyl-imidazolate ligands of Zn(II) in ZIF-8 by phosphonate groups on PVPA. Differences in rates of diffusion for the components of the reactive mixture yield a Kirkendall-like effect that is expressed as a hollow-particle morphology. The obtained hollow nanostructures feature hybrid shells containing PVPA, ZIF-8, and their cross-reacted products. The hybrid structures display substantial proton conductivities that increase with increasing temperature, even under the anhydrous conditions prevailing at temperatures above the boiling point of water. For example, at T = 413 K the proton conductivity of ZIF-8@PVPA reaches 3.2 (±0.12) × 10(-3) S cm(-1), a value comparatively higher than that for PVPA (or ZIF-8) in isolation. The high value may reflect the availability in the hybrid structures of free (and partially free), amphoteric imidazole species, and their hydrogen-bonding interactions with phosphonate and/or phosphonic acid units. The persistence of ample conductivity at high temperature reflects the elimination of phosphonic acid group dehydration and dimerization-an effect that strikingly degrades the conductivity of pure PVPA under anhydrous conditions.

18.
Langmuir ; 32(24): 6123-9, 2016 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27239890

RESUMO

We demonstrate a high-resolution method as an efficient tool to in situ characterize partially reversible assembly and aggregation of metal-organic framework (MOF) colloids. Based on the gas-phase electrophoresis, the primary size and the degree of aggregation of the MOF-525 crystals are tunable by pH adjustment and mobility selection. These findings allow for the further size control of MOF colloids and prove the capability of semiquantitative analysis for the MOF-based platforms in a variety of aqueous formulations (e.g., biomedical applications).

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(6): 4175-84, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807824

RESUMO

Vinyl benzyl viologen (VBV) was synthesized and utilized to obtain all-in-one thermally cured electrochromic devices (ECDs). The vinyl moiety of VBV monomer could react with methyl methacrylate (MMA) to yield bulky VBV/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains and even cross-linked network without the assistance of additional cross-linker. Both the bulky VBV/PMMA chains and the resulting polymer network can hinder the aggregation of the viologens and reduce the possibility of dimerization, rendering enhanced cycling stability. Large transmittance changes (ΔT) over 60% at both 570 and 615 nm were achieved when the VBV-based ECD was switched from 0 V to a low potential bias of 0.5 V. Ultimately, the dual functional of VBV molecules, serving simultaneously as a promising electrochromic material and a cross-linker, is fully utilized in the proposed electrochromic system, making its fabrication process much easier. Negligible decays in ΔT at both wavelengths were observed for the cured ECD after being subjected to 1000 repetitive cycles, while 17.1% and 22.0% decays were noticed at 570 and 615 nm, respectively, for the noncured ECD. In addition, the low voltage-driven feature of the VBV-based ECD enables it to be incorporated with phenyl viologen (PV), further expanding the absorption range of the ECD. Panchromatic characteristic of the proposed PV/VBV-based ECD was demonstrated while exhibiting ΔT over 60% at both wavelengths. Only 5.3% and 6.9% decays, corresponding at 570 and 615 nm, respectively, were observed in the PV/VBV-based ECD after 10 000 continuous cycles at bleaching/coloring voltages of 0/0.5 V with an interval of 10 s for both bleaching and coloring processes.

20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(51): 28223-30, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26636174

RESUMO

Thin films of the metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 were grown on conducting glass substrates. The films uniformly cover the conducting glass substrates and are composed of free-standing sub-micrometer rods. Subsequently, atomic layer deposition (ALD) was utilized to deposit Co(2+) ions throughout the entire MOF film via self-limiting surface-mediated reaction chemistry. The Co ions bind at aqua and hydroxo sites lining the channels of NU-1000, resulting in three-dimensional arrays of separated Co ions in the MOF thin film. The Co-modified MOF thin films demonstrate promising electrocatalytic activity for water oxidation.

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