Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494793

RESUMO

Inferring a person's smoking habit and history from blood is relevant for complementing or replacing self-reports in epidemiological and public health research, and for forensic applications. However, a finite DNA methylation marker set and a validated statistical model based on a large dataset are not yet available. Employing 14 epigenome-wide association studies for marker discovery, and using data from six population-based cohorts (N = 3764) for model building, we identified 13 CpGs most suitable for inferring smoking versus non-smoking status from blood with a cumulative Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.901. Internal fivefold cross-validation yielded an average AUC of 0.897 ± 0.137, while external model validation in an independent population-based cohort (N = 1608) achieved an AUC of 0.911. These 13 CpGs also provided accurate inference of current (average AUCcrossvalidation 0.925 ± 0.021, AUCexternalvalidation0.914), former (0.766 ± 0.023, 0.699) and never smoking (0.830 ± 0.019, 0.781) status, allowed inferring pack-years in current smokers (10 pack-years 0.800 ± 0.068, 0.796; 15 pack-years 0.767 ± 0.102, 0.752) and inferring smoking cessation time in former smokers (5 years 0.774 ± 0.024, 0.760; 10 years 0.766 ± 0.033, 0.764; 15 years 0.767 ± 0.020, 0.754). Model application to children revealed highly accurate inference of the true non-smoking status (6 years of age: accuracy 0.994, N = 355; 10 years: 0.994, N = 309), suggesting prenatal and passive smoking exposure having no impact on model applications in adults. The finite set of DNA methylation markers allow accurate inference of smoking habit, with comparable accuracy as plasma cotinine use, and smoking history from blood, which we envision becoming useful in epidemiology and public health research, and in medical and forensic applications.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11370-11379, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113877

RESUMO

Aging and psychosocial stress are associated with increased inflammation and disease risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because both aging and stress are also associated with lasting epigenetic changes, a plausible hypothesis is that stress along the lifespan could confer disease risk through epigenetic effects on molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Here, by combining large-scale analyses in human cohorts with experiments in cells, we report that FKBP5, a protein implicated in stress physiology, contributes to these relations. Across independent human cohorts (total n > 3,000), aging synergized with stress-related phenotypes, measured with childhood trauma and major depression questionnaires, to epigenetically up-regulate FKBP5 expression. These age/stress-related epigenetic effects were recapitulated in a cellular model of replicative senescence, whereby we exposed replicating human fibroblasts to stress (glucocorticoid) hormones. Unbiased genome-wide analyses in human blood linked higher FKBP5 mRNA with a proinflammatory profile and altered NF-κB-related gene networks. Accordingly, experiments in immune cells showed that higher FKBP5 promotes inflammation by strengthening the interactions of NF-κB regulatory kinases, whereas opposing FKBP5 either by genetic deletion (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated) or selective pharmacological inhibition prevented the effects on NF-κB. Further, the age/stress-related epigenetic signature enhanced FKBP5 response to NF-κB through a positive feedback loop and was present in individuals with a history of acute myocardial infarction, a disease state linked to peripheral inflammation. These findings suggest that aging/stress-driven FKBP5-NF-κB signaling mediates inflammation, potentially contributing to cardiovascular risk, and may thus point to novel biomarker and treatment possibilities.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(7): 2045-2070, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009935

RESUMO

Differences in health status by socioeconomic position (SEP) tend to be more evident at older ages, suggesting the involvement of a biological mechanism responsive to the accumulation of deleterious exposures across the lifespan. DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a biomarker of biological aging that conserves memory of endogenous and exogenous stress during life.We examined the association of education level, as an indicator of SEP, and lifestyle-related variables with four biomarkers of age-dependent DNAm dysregulation: the total number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs) and three epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum and Levine), in 18 cohorts spanning 12 countries.The four biological aging biomarkers were associated with education and different sets of risk factors independently, and the magnitude of the effects differed depending on the biomarker and the predictor. On average, the effect of low education on epigenetic aging was comparable with those of other lifestyle-related risk factors (obesity, alcohol intake), with the exception of smoking, which had a significantly stronger effect.Our study shows that low education is an independent predictor of accelerated biological (epigenetic) aging and that epigenetic clocks appear to be good candidates for disentangling the biological pathways underlying social inequalities in healthy aging and longevity.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4919, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464216

RESUMO

Testing for association between a set of genetic markers and a phenotype is a fundamental task in genetic studies. Standard approaches for heritability and set testing strongly rely on parametric models that make specific assumptions regarding phenotypic variability. Here, we show that resulting p-values may be inflated by up to 15 orders of magnitude, in a heritability study of methylation measurements, and in a heritability and expression quantitative trait loci analysis of gene expression profiles. We propose FEATHER, a method for fast permutation-based testing of marker sets and of heritability, which properly controls for false-positive results. FEATHER eliminated 47% of methylation sites found to be heritable by the parametric test, suggesting a substantial inflation of false-positive findings by alternative methods. Our approach can rapidly identify heritable phenotypes out of millions of phenotypes acquired via high-throughput technologies, does not suffer from model misspecification and is highly efficient.

6.
Epigenetics ; : 1-17, 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343628

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an epigenetic regulator of gene transcription, which has been found to be both metastable and variable within human cohort studies. Currently, few studies have been done to identify metastable DNA methylation biomarkers associated with longitudinal lung function decline in humans. The identification of such biomarkers is important for screening vulnerable populations. We hypothesized that quantifiable blood-based DNA methylation alterations would serve as metastable biomarkers of lung function decline and aging, which may help to discover new pathways and/or mechanisms related to pulmonary pathogenesis. Using linear mixed models, we performed an Epigenome Wide Association Study (EWAS) between DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides and longitudinal lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75%) decline and aging with initial discovery in the Normative Aging Study, and replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg cohort. We identified two metastable epigenetic loci associated with either poor lung function and aging, cg05575921 (AHRR gene), or lung function independently of aging, cg06126421 (IER3 gene). These loci may inform basic mechanisms associated with pulmonary function, pathogenesis, and aging. Human epigenomic variation, may help explain features of lung function decline and related pathophysiology not attributable to DNA sequence alone, such as accelerated pulmonary decline in smokers, former smokers, and perhaps non-smokers. Our EWAS across two cohorts, therefore, will likely have implications for the human population, not just the elderly.

7.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127295

RESUMO

Smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has been implicated in the regulation of the G protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) by affecting CpG methylation. The G protein-coupled receptor 15 is involved in angiogenesis and inflammation. An effect on GPR15 gene regulation has been shown for the CpG site CpG3.98251294. We aimed to analyze the effect of smoking on GPR15 expression and methylation sites spanning the GPR15 locus. DNA methylation of nine GPR15 CpG sites was measured in leukocytes from 1291 population-based individuals using the EpiTYPER. Monocytic GPR15 expression was measured by qPCR at baseline and five-years follow up. GPR15 gene expression was upregulated in smokers (beta (ß) = -2.699, p-value (p) = 1.02 × 10-77) and strongly correlated with smoking exposure (ß = -0.063, p = 2.95 × 10-34). Smoking cessation within five years reduced GPR15 expression about 19% (p = 9.65 × 10-5) with decreasing GPR15 expression over time (ß = 0.031, p = 3.81 × 10-6). Additionally, three novel CpG sites within GPR15 affected by smoking were identified. For CpG3.98251047, DNA methylation increased steadily after smoking cessation (ß = 0.123, p = 1.67 × 10-3) and strongly correlated with changes in GPR15 expression (ß = 0.036, p = 4.86 × 10-5). Three novel GPR15 CpG sites were identified in relation to smoking and GPR15 expression. Our results provide novel insights in the regulation of GPR15, which possibly linked smoking to inflammation and disease progression.

8.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(9): 949-959, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998287

RESUMO

Importance: Depressive disorders arise from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Epigenetic disruption provides a plausible mechanism through which gene-environment interactions lead to depression. Large-scale, epigenome-wide studies on depression are missing, hampering the identification of potentially modifiable biomarkers. Objective: To identify epigenetic mechanisms underlying depression in middle-aged and elderly persons, using DNA methylation in blood. Design, Setting, and Participants: To date, the first cross-ethnic meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the framework of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium was conducted. The discovery EWAS included 7948 individuals of European origin from 9 population-based cohorts. Participants who were assessed for both depressive symptoms and whole-blood DNA methylation were included in the study. Results of EWAS were pooled using sample-size weighted meta-analysis. Replication of the top epigenetic sites was performed in 3308 individuals of African American and European origin from 2 population-based cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Whole-blood DNA methylation levels were assayed with Illumina-Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip and depressive symptoms were assessed by questionnaire. Results: The discovery cohorts consisted of 7948 individuals (4104 [51.6%] women) with a mean (SD) age of 65.4 (5.8) years. The replication cohort consisted of 3308 individuals (2456 [74.2%] women) with a mean (SD) age of 60.3 (6.4) years. The EWAS identified methylation of 3 CpG sites to be significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms: cg04987734 (P = 1.57 × 10-08; n = 11 256; CDC42BPB gene), cg12325605 (P = 5.24 × 10-09; n = 11 256; ARHGEF3 gene), and an intergenic CpG site cg14023999 (P = 5.99 × 10-08; n = 11 256; chromosome = 15q26.1). The predicted expression of the CDC42BPB gene in the brain (basal ganglia) (effect, 0.14; P = 2.7 × 10-03) and of ARHGEF3 in fibroblasts (effect, -0.48; P = 9.8 × 10-04) was associated with major depression. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identifies 3 methylated sites associated with depressive symptoms. All 3 findings point toward axon guidance as the common disrupted pathway in depression. The findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathophysiology of depression. Further research is warranted to determine the utility of these findings as biomarkers of depression and evaluate any potential role in the pathophysiology of depression and their downstream clinical effects.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(6): 463-472, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617535

RESUMO

Importance: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine with manifold consequences for mammalian pathophysiology, including cardiovascular disease. A deeper understanding of TNF-α biology may enhance treatment precision. Objective: To conduct an epigenome-wide analysis of blood-derived DNA methylation and TNF-α levels and to assess the clinical relevance of findings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis assessed epigenome-wide associations in circulating TNF-α concentrations from 5 cohort studies and 1 interventional trial, with replication in 3 additional cohort studies. Follow-up analyses investigated associations of identified methylation loci with gene expression and incident coronary heart disease; this meta-analysis included 11 461 participants who experienced 1895 coronary events. Exposures: Circulating TNF-α concentration. Main Outcomes and Measures: DNA methylation at approximately 450 000 loci, neighboring DNA sequence variation, gene expression, and incident coronary heart disease. Results: The discovery cohort included 4794 participants, and the replication study included 816 participants (overall mean [SD] age, 60.7 [8.5] years). In the discovery stage, circulating TNF-α levels were associated with methylation of 7 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, 3 of which were located in or near DTX3L-PARP9 at cg00959259 (ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.003]; P = 7.36 × 10-8), cg08122652 (ß [SE] = -0.008 [0.002]; P = 2.24 × 10-7), and cg22930808(ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.002]; P = 6.92 × 10-8); NLRC5 at cg16411857 (ß [SE] = -0.01 [0.002]; P = 2.14 × 10-13) and cg07839457 (ß [SE] = -0.02 [0.003]; P = 6.31 × 10-10); or ABO, at cg13683939 (ß [SE] = 0.04 [0.008]; P = 1.42 × 10-7) and cg24267699 (ß [SE] = -0.009 [0.002]; P = 1.67 × 10-7), after accounting for multiple testing. Of these, negative associations between TNF-α concentration and methylation of 2 loci in NLRC5 and 1 in DTX3L-14 PARP9 were replicated. Replicated TNF-α-linked CpG sites were associated with 9% to 19% decreased risk of incident coronary heart disease per 10% higher methylation per CpG site (cg16411857: hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-1.95; P = .003; cg07839457: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.94; P = 3.1 × 10-5; cg00959259: HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97; P = .002; cg08122652: HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.74-0.89; P = 2.0 × 10-5). Conclusions and Relevance: We identified and replicated novel epigenetic correlates of circulating TNF-α concentration in blood samples and linked these loci to coronary heart disease risk, opening opportunities for validation and therapeutic applications.

10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1708: 515-535, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224161

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays a profound role in development and health as well as development and progression of disease. High-throughput quantitative DNA methylation analysis is therefore crucial for the study of the normal physiology of the epigenome and its dysregulation in disease. Many target areas are identified by a range of emerging genome-wide cytosine methylation techniques, but these whole genome scans usually only provide methylation data for a few individual CpG sites (CpGs) within a region. The EpiTYPER™ assay is a region-specific method for the detection and quantitative analysis of DNA methylation that allows performing a high-resolution scan of selected regions. It thus enables a more detailed analysis of single CpGs and the surrounding area and can, in addition to candidate gene methylation analysis, be used to validate CpGs detected by genome wide techniques. The EpiTYPER™ assay allows a fast and reproducible targeted quantification of individual CpGs in a high throughput manner and is based on base-specific cleavage of bisulfite-converted genomic DNA and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Up to 85% of the CpGs within a target region can be analyzed and the detection precision allows quantifying methylation differences as low as 5-7%.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Ilhas de CpG , Epigenômica , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Sulfitos
11.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 43(2): 342-353, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28540928

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulation in anxiety is suggested, but evidence from large studies is needed. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on anxiety in a population-based cohort and validated our finding in a clinical cohort as well as a murine model. In the KORA cohort, participants (n=1522, age 32-72 years) were administered the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, whole blood DNA methylation was measured (Illumina 450K BeadChip), and circulating levels of hs-CRP and IL-18 were assessed in the association between anxiety and methylation. DNA methylation was measured using the same instrument in a study of patients with anxiety disorders recruited at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry (MPIP, 131 non-medicated cases and 169 controls). To expand our mechanistic understanding, these findings were reverse translated in a mouse model of acute social defeat stress. In the KORA study, participants were classified according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of anxiety (29.4%/6.0%/1.5%, respectively). Severe anxiety was associated with 48.5% increased methylation at a single CpG site (cg12701571) located in the promoter of the gene encoding Asb1 (ß-coefficient=0.56 standard error (SE)=0.10, p (Bonferroni)=0.005), a protein hypothetically involved in regulation of cytokine signaling. An interaction between IL-18 and severe anxiety with methylation of this CpG cite showed a tendency towards significance in the total population (p=0.083) and a significant interaction among women (p=0.014). Methylation of the same CpG was positively associated with Panic and Agoraphobia scale (PAS) scores (ß=0.005, SE=0.002, p=0.021, n=131) among cases in the MPIP study. In a murine model of acute social defeat stress, Asb1 gene expression was significantly upregulated in a tissue-specific manner (p=0.006), which correlated with upregulation of the neuroimmunomodulating cytokine interleukin 1 beta. Our findings suggest epigenetic regulation of the stress-responsive Asb1 gene in anxiety-related phenotypes. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the causal direction of this association and the potential role of Asb1-mediated immune dysregulation in anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/sangue , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-18/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
12.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 29(1): 34-41, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic and non-allergic childhood asthma has been characterized by distinct immune mechanisms. While interferon regulating factor 1 (IRF-1) polymorphisms (SNPs) influence atopy risk, the effect of SNPs on asthma phenotype-specific immune mechanisms is unclear. We assessed whether IRF-1 SNPs modify distinct immune-regulatory pathways in allergic and non-allergic childhood asthma (AA/NA). METHODS: In the CLARA study, asthma was characterized by doctor's diagnosis and AA vs NA by positive or negative specific IgE. Children were genotyped for four tagging SNPs within IRF-1 (n = 172). mRNA expression was measured with qRT-PCR. Gene expression was analyzed depending on genetic variants within IRF-1 and phenotype including haplotype estimation and an allelic risk score. RESULTS: Carrying the risk alleles of IRF-1 in rs10035166, rs2706384, or rs2070721 was associated with increased risk for AA. Carrying the non-risk allele in rs17622656 was associated with lower risk for AA but not NA. In AA carrying the risk alleles, an increased pro-inflammatory expression of ICAM3, IRF-8, XBP-1, IFN-γ, RGS13, RORC, and TSC2 was observed. NOD2 expression was decreased in AA with risk alleles in rs2706384 and rs10035166 and with risk haplotype. Further, AA with risk haplotype showed increased IL-13 secretion. NA with risk allele in rs2070721 compared to non-risk allele in rs17622656 showed significantly upregulated calcium, innate, mTOR, neutrophil, and inflammatory-associated genes. CONCLUSION: IRF-1 polymorphisms influence the risk for childhood allergic asthma being associated with increased pro-inflammatory gene regulation. Thus, it is critical to implement IRF-1 genetics in immune assessment for childhood asthma phenotypes.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Risco
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1862(3): 637-648, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translation modifications with large influences on protein structure and function. The effector function of immunoglobulin G (IgG) alters between pro- and anti-inflammatory, based on its glycosylation. IgG glycan synthesis is highly complex and dynamic. METHODS: With the use of two different analytical methods for assessing IgG glycosylation, we aim to elucidate the link between DNA methylation and glycosylation of IgG by means of epigenome-wide association studies. In total, 3000 individuals from 4 cohorts were analyzed. RESULTS: The overlap of the results from the two glycan measurement panels yielded DNA methylation of 7 CpG-sites on 5 genomic locations to be associated with IgG glycosylation: cg25189904 (chr.1, GNG12); cg05951221, cg21566642 and cg01940273 (chr.2, ALPPL2); cg05575921 (chr.5, AHRR); cg06126421 (6p21.33); and cg03636183 (chr.19, F2RL3). Mediation analyses with respect to smoking revealed that the effect of smoking on IgG glycosylation may be at least partially mediated via DNA methylation levels at these 7 CpG-sites. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the presence of an indirect link between DNA methylation and IgG glycosylation that may in part capture environmental exposures. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: An epigenome-wide analysis conducted in four population-based cohorts revealed an association between DNA methylation and IgG glycosylation patterns. Presumably, DNA methylation mediates the effect of smoking on IgG glycosylation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Imunoglobulina G/química , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigenômica/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Glicosilação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Polissacarídeos/análise , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
14.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0182472, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is affected by the activities of the key enzymes and intermediate metabolites of the one-carbon pathway, one of which involves homocysteine. We investigated the effect of the well-known genetic variant associated with mildly elevated homocysteine: MTHFR 677C>T independently and in combination with other homocysteine-associated variants, on genome-wide leukocyte DNA-methylation. METHODS: Methylation levels were assessed using Illumina 450k arrays on 9,894 individuals of European ancestry from 12 cohort studies. Linear-mixed-models were used to study the association of additive MTHFR 677C>T and genetic-risk score (GRS) based on 18 homocysteine-associated SNPs, with genome-wide methylation. RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 35 CpG sites in cis, and the GRS showed association with 113 CpG sites near the homocysteine-associated variants. Genome-wide analysis revealed that the MTHFR 677C>T variant was associated with 1 trans-CpG (nearest gene ZNF184), while the GRS model showed association with 5 significant trans-CpGs annotated to nearest genes PTF1A, MRPL55, CTDSP2, CRYM and FKBP5. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not show widespread changes in DNA-methylation across the genome, and therefore do not support the hypothesis that mildly elevated homocysteine is associated with widespread methylation changes in leukocytes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6 , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 805, 2017 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large-scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. Here, through the use of the Illumina 450K BeadChip and data collected at two time-points separated by approximately 7 years, we investigate changes in methylation over time associated with quitting smoking or remaining a former smoker, and those associated with continued smoking. RESULTS: Our results indicate that after quitting smoking the most rapid reversion of altered methylation occurs within the first two decades, with reversion rates related to the initial differences in methylation. For 52 CpG sites, the change in methylation from baseline to follow-up is significantly different for former smokers relative to the change for never smokers (lowest p-value 3.61 x 10-39 for cg26703534, gene AHRR). Most of these sites' respective regions have been previously implicated in smoking-associated diseases. Despite the early rapid change, dynamism of methylation appears greater in former smokers vs never smokers even four decades after cessation. Furthermore, our study reveals the heterogeneous effect of continued smoking: the methylation levels of some loci further diverge between smokers and non-smokers, while others re-approach. Though intensity of smoking habit appears more significant than duration, results remain inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: This study improves the understanding of the dynamic link between cigarette smoking and methylation, revealing the continued fluctuation of methylation levels decades after smoking cessation and demonstrating that continuing smoking can have an array of effects. The results can facilitate insights into the molecular mechanisms behind smoking-induced disturbed methylation, improving the possibility for development of biomarkers of past smoking behavior and increasing the understanding of the molecular path from exposure to disease.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fumar/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Genetics ; 207(4): 1275-1283, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025915

RESUMO

Testing for the existence of variance components in linear mixed models is a fundamental task in many applicative fields. In statistical genetics, the score test has recently become instrumental in the task of testing an association between a set of genetic markers and a phenotype. With few markers, this amounts to set-based variance component tests, which attempt to increase power in association studies by aggregating weak individual effects. When the entire genome is considered, it allows testing for the heritability of a phenotype, defined as the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genetics. In the popular score-based Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT) method, the assumed distribution of the score test statistic is uncalibrated in small samples, with a correction being computationally expensive. This may cause severe inflation or deflation of P-values, even when the null hypothesis is true. Here, we characterize the conditions under which this discrepancy holds, and show it may occur also in large real datasets, such as a dataset from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (n = 13,950) study, and, in particular, when the individuals in the sample are unrelated. In these cases, the SKAT approximation tends to be highly overconservative and therefore underpowered. To address this limitation, we suggest an efficient method to calculate exact P-values for the score test in the case of a single variance component and a continuous response vector, which can speed up the analysis by orders of magnitude. Our results enable fast and accurate application of the score test in heritability and in set-based association tests. Our method is available in http://github.com/cozygene/RL-SKAT.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/estatística & dados numéricos , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genoma/genética , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Software
17.
Nature ; 541(7635): 81-86, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002404

RESUMO

Approximately 1.5 billion people worldwide are overweight or affected by obesity, and are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic and inflammatory disturbances. Although the mechanisms linking adiposity to associated clinical conditions are poorly understood, recent studies suggest that adiposity may influence DNA methylation, a key regulator of gene expression and molecular phenotype. Here we use epigenome-wide association to show that body mass index (BMI; a key measure of adiposity) is associated with widespread changes in DNA methylation (187 genetic loci with P < 1 × 10-7, range P = 9.2 × 10-8 to 6.0 × 10-46; n = 10,261 samples). Genetic association analyses demonstrate that the alterations in DNA methylation are predominantly the consequence of adiposity, rather than the cause. We find that methylation loci are enriched for functional genomic features in multiple tissues (P < 0.05), and show that sentinel methylation markers identify gene expression signatures at 38 loci (P < 9.0 × 10-6, range P = 5.5 × 10-6 to 6.1 × 10-35, n = 1,785 samples). The methylation loci identify genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, substrate transport and inflammatory pathways. Finally, we show that the disturbances in DNA methylation predict future development of type 2 diabetes (relative risk per 1 standard deviation increase in methylation risk score: 2.3 (2.07-2.56); P = 1.1 × 10-54). Our results provide new insights into the biologic pathways influenced by adiposity, and may enable development of new strategies for prediction and prevention of type 2 diabetes and other adverse clinical consequences of obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Obesidade/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sangue/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 11(11): e0165548, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27832094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain (CWP) is the cardinal symptom of fibromyalgia and affects about 12% of the general population. Familial aggregation of CWP has been repeatedly demonstrated with estimated heritabilities of around 50%, indicating a genetic susceptibility. The objective of the study was to explore genome-wide disease-differentially methylated positions (DMPs) for chronic widespread pain (CWP) in a sample of unrelated individuals and a subsample of discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: A total of N = 281 twin individuals from the TwinsUK registry, including N = 33 MZ twins discordant for self-reported CWP, were part of the discovery sample. The replication sample included 729 men and 756 women from a subsample of the KORA S4 survey-an independent population-based cohort from Southern Germany. Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was conducted using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation 450 DNA BeadChip in both the discovery and replication sample. Of our 40 main loci that were carried forward for replication, three CPGs reached significant p-values in the replication sample, including malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2; p-value 0.017), tetranectin (CLEC3B; p-value 0.039), and heat shock protein beta-6 (HSPB6; p-value 0.016). The associations between the collagen type I, alpha 2 chain (COL1A2) and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) observed in the discovery sample-both of which have been previously reported to be biological candidates for pain-could not be replicated. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results may serve as a starting point to encourage further investigation in large and independent population-based cohorts of DNA methylation and other epigenetic changes as possible disease mechanisms in CWP. Ultimately, understanding the key mechanisms underlying CWP may lead to new treatments and inform clinical practice.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Dor Musculoesquelética/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Fibromialgia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP20/genética , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Malato Desidrogenase/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 8(9): 1844-1865, 2016 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27690265

RESUMO

Estimates of biological age based on DNA methylation patterns, often referred to as "epigenetic age", "DNAm age", have been shown to be robust biomarkers of age in humans. We previously demonstrated that independent of chronological age, epigenetic age assessed in blood predicted all-cause mortality in four human cohorts. Here, we expanded our original observation to 13 different cohorts for a total sample size of 13,089 individuals, including three racial/ethnic groups. In addition, we examined whether incorporating information on blood cell composition into the epigenetic age metrics improves their predictive power for mortality. All considered measures of epigenetic age acceleration were predictive of mortality (p≤8.2x10-9), independent of chronological age, even after adjusting for additional risk factors (p<5.4x10-4), and within the racial/ethnic groups that we examined (non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African Americans). Epigenetic age estimates that incorporated information on blood cell composition led to the smallest p-values for time to death (p=7.5x10-43). Overall, this study a) strengthens the evidence that epigenetic age predicts all-cause mortality above and beyond chronological age and traditional risk factors, and b) demonstrates that epigenetic age estimates that incorporate information on blood cell counts lead to highly significant associations with all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 9(5): 436-447, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: To comprehensively determine the association between cigarette smoking and DNA methylation, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation assessed using the Illumina BeadChip 450K array on 15 907 blood-derived DNA samples from participants in 16 cohorts (including 2433 current, 6518 former, and 6956 never smokers). Comparing current versus never smokers, 2623 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs), annotated to 1405 genes, were statistically significantly differentially methylated at Bonferroni threshold of P<1×10-7 (18 760 CpGs at false discovery rate <0.05). Genes annotated to these CpGs were enriched for associations with several smoking-related traits in genome-wide studies including pulmonary function, cancers, inflammatory diseases, and heart disease. Comparing former versus never smokers, 185 of the CpGs that differed between current and never smokers were significant P<1×10-7 (2623 CpGs at false discovery rate <0.05), indicating a pattern of persistent altered methylation, with attenuation, after smoking cessation. Transcriptomic integration identified effects on gene expression at many differentially methylated CpGs. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking has a broad impact on genome-wide methylation that, at many loci, persists many years after smoking cessation. Many of the differentially methylated genes were novel genes with respect to biological effects of smoking and might represent therapeutic targets for prevention or treatment of tobacco-related diseases. Methylation at these sites could also serve as sensitive and stable biomarkers of lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Leucócitos/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Fumar/etnologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA