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1.
Emotion ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420834

RESUMO

This study examined whether sadness, but not anger, could facilitate adaptive goal disengagement capacity in the context of older adult's stress-related experiences. To this end, we investigated whether the within-person effects of sadness and anger on older adults' goal disengagement capacity were moderated by stress perceptions and diurnal cortisol levels. In addition, we tested whether an association between sadness and goal disengagement capacity could protect emotional well-being when older adults experience higher than normal perceived stress or cortisol. The study used data from a 6-wave 10-year longitudinal study of 184 community-dwelling older adults (Mage = 72.08, SDage = 5.70). Participants' sadness, anger, goal disengagement capacity, perceived stress, diurnal cortisol levels, emotional well-being (i.e., positive and negative affect), and sociodemographic variables were assessed at each wave. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that within-person increases in sadness, but not anger, predicted increased goal disengagement capacity among older adults who generally secreted high levels of cortisol. Moreover, older adults' who disengaged more easily when they felt sad were protected from declines in positive affect during assessments in which they secreted high, but not low, levels of cortisol. The study's findings suggest that generally enhanced cortisol output may facilitate an association between sadness and older adults' goal disengagement capacity and that this process may protect against declines in emotional well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Emotion ; 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191718

RESUMO

Prominent life span theories have suggested that the ability to downregulate negative emotions remains stable or even increases well into old age. However, past evidence for continued growth during old age is mixed. In this laboratory study, 130 young old individuals (Mage = 66.72 years, SD = 1.03, range = 65 to 69 years, 48% female) and 59 very old individuals (Mage = 86.03 years, SD = 1.44, range = 83 to 89 years, 58% female) watched negative emotion evoking film clips under different emotion regulation instructions. Subjective feelings, cardiovascular reactions, and facial behavioral expressions were assessed in response to each film. Emotion regulation competence was operationalized as difference in the intensity of negative emotions during a trial with no regulation instruction versus three trials with regulation instruction, asking participants to engage in detached reappraisal, behavioral suppression, or positive reappraisal. In comparison to young old individuals, very old individuals were less able to regulate their self-reported negative feelings. These age-related deficits were partly associated with age differences in fluid cognitive abilities. Notably, however, emotion regulation deficits in very old individuals observed in self-reports of emotions were not evident at the levels of cardiovascular arousal and facial expressivity. Together this evidence speaks against one-sided views on emotional aging as uniform process of either growth or decline, even in old and very old age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Behav Res Methods ; 54(1): 75-93, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100203

RESUMO

A growing body of research suggests that empathy predicts important work outcomes, yet limitations in existing measures to assess empathy have been noted. Extending past work on the assessment of empathy, this study introduces a newly developed set of emotion-eliciting film clips that can be used to assess both cognitive (emotion perception) and affective (emotional congruence and sympathy) facets of empathy in vivo. Using the relived emotions paradigm, film protagonists were instructed to think aloud about an autobiographical, emotional event from working life and relive their emotions while being videotaped. Subsequently, protagonists were asked to provide self-reports of the intensity of their emotions during retelling their event. In a first study with 128 employees, who watched the film clips and rated their own as well as the protagonists' emotions, we found that the film clips are effective in eliciting moderate levels of emotions as well as sympathy in the test taker and can be used to calculate reliable convergence scores of emotion perception and emotional congruence. Using a selected subset of six film clips, a second two-wave study with 99 employees revealed that all facet-specific measures of empathy had moderate-to-high internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities, and correlated in expected ways with other self-report and test-based empathy tests, cognition, and demographic variables. With these films, we expand the choice of testing materials for empathy in organizational research to cover a larger array of research questions.


Assuntos
Emoções , Empatia , Cognição , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos
4.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(2): 284-294, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cumulative burden of vascular risk factors (VRFs) has been linked to an increased risk of depressed mood. However, the role of age in this association is still unclear. Here, we investigated whether VRF burden is associated with levels and changes in depressed mood and whether these associations become stronger or weaker from mid- to later life. METHOD: We used longitudinal data from 5,689 participants (52-89 years) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. A composite score incorporated the presence of 5 VRFs: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. Second-order latent growth models were used to test whether levels and changes of depressed mood differed as a function of baseline VRF burden, and whether these associations were moderated by age. RESULTS: Baseline VRF burden showed a small association with higher levels of depressed mood (estimate = 0.081; 95% CI: 0.024, 0.138, p = .005). This association varied with age, such that it was stronger in midlife compared to later life (estimate = -0.007; 95% CI: -0.013, -0.002, p = .017). There was no evidence that VRF burden was associated with changes in depressed mood. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that VRF burden in midlife, but less so in later life, predicts individual differences in depressed mood. These findings are consistent with reports on the importance of midlife VRFs and support the idea that promotion of vascular health in this age group or earlier in life may be critical to maintain mental health across adulthood.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Depressão , Hipertensão , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
Sleep ; 45(1)2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922403

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep duration affects various aspects of cognitive performance, such as working-memory and learning, among children and adults. However, it remains open, whether similar or even stronger associations exist in old and very old age when changes in sleep and cognitive decrements are common. METHODS: Using repeated daily-life assessments from a sample of 121 young-old (66-69 years old) and 39 old-old adults (84-90 years old), we assessed links between sleep duration and different aspects of working-memory (initial level, practice-related learning, and residualized variability) between and within persons. Participants reported their sleep durations every morning and performed a numerical working-memory updating task six times a day for seven consecutive days. RESULTS: Both people who slept longer and those who slept shorter than the sample average showed lower initial performance levels, but a stronger increase of WM over time (i.e. larger learning effects), relative to people with average sleep. Sleep duration did not predict performance variability. Within-person associations were found for people sleeping relatively little on average: For them, working-memory performance was lower on days with shorter than average sleep, yet higher on days with longer than average sleep. Except for lower initial levels of working-memory in old-old adults, no differences between young-old and old-old adults were observed. CONCLUSION: We conclude that sufficient sleep remains important for working-memory performance in older adults and that it is relevant to include different aspects of working-memory performance, because effects differed for initial performance and learning.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Sono , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Aprendizagem
6.
Psychol Aging ; 37(2): 163-174, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941357

RESUMO

Sadness is a negative emotion typically elicited by loss experiences. Given that losses increase with age, sadness should be relatively salient in this life phase. Such sadness experiences may serve an adaptive function in old age, if they facilitate detachment from unattainable goals. Thus, we predicted increased and less variable levels of sadness to occur among older, as compared with younger, adults in response to film clips involving loss-related themes. To test this prediction, a sample of 52 younger (Mage = 23.75 years, SD = 4.52) and 52 older adults (Mage = 71.21 years, SD = 6.11) watched four films and reported their sadness on multiple occasions during each film. In partial support of the hypotheses, the results showed that older, as compared with younger, adults reported greater sadness in response to one out of four film clips. However, there was no conclusive evidence for age differences in sadness variability within or across the films. Additional analyses revealed that age differences were not significant for another emotion, anxiety, in neither reactivity nor variability. Finally, although there were no age differences in mean levels of interest in the films, interest showed less variability among older, as compared with younger, adults. These findings are discussed from the perspective of a discrete emotions theory proposing distinct functions and associated differential age-related changes for different negative emotions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Tristeza , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Tristeza/psicologia
7.
Psychol Aging ; 37(2): 149-162, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968103

RESUMO

Over the past decade, many studies have reported individual differences in negative emotional reactions to daily stressful events. However, whether and how individual and age-related differences in emotional reactivity also depend on the temporal characteristics of stressors has received little attention. In this project, we focused on the temporal characteristics of stressor occurrence and examined the pile-up of stressors within a day-referring to multiple stressors encountered within a relatively narrow time window. To do so, we used data from 123 young-old (66-69 years, 47% women) and 47 very old adults (84-90 years, 60% women). Participants reported their momentary feelings and exposure to stressors six times a day over 7 consecutive days in their everyday life. Emotional reactivity to stressor pile-up over the day followed an exponential decay trajectory, with higher stressor burden in close proximity to the stressor occurrence. The exact shape of the decay trajectory differed among participants. Most importantly, both stressor pile-up and ongoing stress predicted greater emotional reactivity. We also found interaction effects of stressor pile-up and current stressor occurrence in that increases in negative affect under ongoing stress were stronger when stressors had piled-up before. No evidence was found for increased vulnerability to stressor pile-up in very old adults; rather, the impact of preceding stressors attenuated faster for individuals in this age group. The findings highlight the utility of comprehensively studying how stressor characteristics such as their pile-up within short time periods shape emotional reactivity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Estresse Psicológico , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Social mimicry, the imitation of one's conversation partner, is associated with empathy, liking, and affiliation. Because previous research has mainly focused on young adulthood and zero acquaintances, little is known about age differences in mimicry and its role for romantic relationships. METHODS: In this study, 37 younger and 41 older couples talked about an ongoing problem faced by one of the partners while being video-recorded. Three independent observers assessed partners' facial mimicry. After the conversation, couples evaluated the quality of their relationship. RESULTS: Younger couples imitated each other more than older couples. The link between mimicry and relationship quality was mixed. While facial mimicry was not linked to subjective closeness in either younger or older couples, there was a significant positive association between mimicry and relationship satisfaction in young, but not older, couples. DISCUSSION: Overall, the results suggest that facial mimicry is a social process that becomes less prevalent and might differ in their function as individuals age.

9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 133: 105403, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536776

RESUMO

Research on time-fluctuating links between positive affect and cortisol is inconsistent and mostly based on young to middle-aged samples. The current project investigated how moment-to-moment changes in positive and negative affect are associated with moment-to-moment changes in cortisol levels in older adults' daily lives and whether those associations are moderated by differences in health status (as indicated by the number of comorbidities). Affect and cortisol data collected in four separately conducted momentary assessment studies with parallel protocols were pooled to obtain a sample of N=476 individuals aged 56-88 years (Mage=71.9, SD=6.6; 52% female). Participants provided affect reports and collected salivary cortisol 5-7 times a day for a 7-day period and reported the presence of 13 different health conditions. Data were analyzed using multilevel models, with time since waking, daily behaviors associated with cortisol secretion, age, and sex controlled. Feeling more positive affect than usual was associated with lower momentary cortisol. In contrast, feeling more negative affect than usual was associated with higher momentary cortisol. Associations of momentary positive and negative affect with cortisol were weaker among participants in worse as compared to those in better health. Trait positive affectivity was associated with more curvature of waking cortisol profiles and trait negative affectivity was associated with smaller cortisol awakening responses. Findings suggest that HPA axis responses fluctuate with everyday changes in positive and negative affect in older adults, and that higher HPA reactivity may indicate preserved health in this age group.


Assuntos
Afeto , Envelhecimento , Hidrocortisona , Saliva , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Saliva/química
10.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 626-641, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351187

RESUMO

Although the benefits of positive affect in old age have been well established, little is known about the late-life salience or adaptive value of discrete positive emotions that have contrasting motivational functions. In two studies, we examined the prevalence and health consequences of individual differences in positive emotions posited to motivate a present-focused mindset that fosters rest and recovery (calmness) or a future-focused mindset that motivates pursuit of novelty and stimulation (excitement). Study 1 was based on a 1-week daily diary study (n = 146) that assessed the salience of these discrete emotions in older adults (M age = 75, SD = 6.82) relative to younger adults (M age = 23, SD = 3.91). Results from multilevel models showed that older adults experienced higher average levels of calmness and lower levels of excitement in comparison to younger adults. Study 2 was based on a 10-year study (n = 336, M age = 75, SD = 6.64) and examined the longitudinal health consequences of individual differences in calmness and excitement for older adults who perceived varying levels of control over their life circumstances. Results from multilevel growth models showed that calmness, but not excitement, buffered against longitudinal declines in psychological well-being (perceived stress, depressive symptoms) and physical health (physical symptoms, chronic conditions) for older adults experiencing low control circumstances. Findings inform theories of emotional aging in showing that positive emotions with disparate motivational functions become more or less salient with age and have diverging consequences for health in late life. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Nível de Alerta , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Emoções , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Motivação , Prazer , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Emotion ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138583

RESUMO

The ability to choose emotion regulation strategies in accordance to contextual demands, known as emotion regulation flexibility, is key to healthy adaptation. While recent investigations on spontaneous emotion regulation choice tested the effects of emotional intensity and age using standardized negative pictures with no particular emotional quality, we elicited the discrete emotion of anger with personally relevant autobiographical memories in a sample of 52 younger and 41 older adults. In addition, we included habitual reappraisal as a predictor of emotion regulation choice. Our main hypothesis was that, compared with younger adults, older adults prefer less resource-demanding emotion regulation strategies (i.e., distraction) over more resource-demanding strategies (i.e., reappraisal), particularly if older adults' habitual reappraisal is low and the to-be-regulated anger is of high intensity. Surprisingly, our findings suggest that only older adults' emotion regulation choices depend on the emotional intensity of the autobiographical memory and habitual reappraisal. Only older adults with high habitual reappraisal preferred to reappraise their anger in situations of low anger intensity but switched to the less demanding strategy of distraction in high anger memories, indicating emotion regulation flexibility. This study extends previous research by testing emotion regulation choices in natural contexts and considering regulation habits. Although we replicate previous findings of emotion regulation flexibility according to emotional intensity in anger memories for older adults with high habitual reappraisal only, our findings illustrate the relevance of reappraisal habits to emotion regulation choice in age-comparative research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

12.
Psychol Aging ; 36(3): 373-382, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939450

RESUMO

Subjective age, how old people feel compared to their chronological age, is a central indicator of age identity and highly predictive for developmental outcomes. While mostly used as a trait-like concept in previous research, recent studies employing experimental designs and daily assessments suggest that subjective age can vary after experimental manipulations or between days. However, less is known about whether subjective age varies over even shorter time frames such as within moments on a given day, how such short-term variability differs by age and its association with trait subjective age. We examined these questions with data obtained from 123 young-old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old-old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six times a day over 7 consecutive days as they were going about their everyday lives. Participants felt younger on a large majority of occasions, and 25% of the total variability in subjective age could be attributed to within-person variation. Within-person variability in subjective age amounted to an average of about 3 years from one moment to the next and did not differ between age groups. However, those with younger trait subjective ages exhibited larger moment-to-moment variation. Our findings extend the literature on subjective age by showing that how old people feel can vary on a momentary basis and that state and trait components of subjective age are related. Further research should investigate the contextual predictors of variability in subjective age and the links between trait and state concepts and developmental outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 36-48, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705184

RESUMO

Empathy-which typically instigates prosocial behavior-comprises both cognitive and affective facets. Research suggests that the cognitive facet of empathy (empathic accuracy) declines with age, whereas the affective facets of empathy (emotional congruence and sympathy) remain stable or increase with age. Going beyond main effects of age, we tested whether working in occupations with varying emotional job demands (EJDs) moderates the effects of age on empathy. We predicted that emotionally demanding occupations provide opportunities to practice empathy and, as a result, may lessen the negative relationship between age and empathic accuracy and/or strengthen the (positive) relationship between age and the affective facets of empathy. A sample of 128 employees (19-65 years) who differed in self-reported EJDs was recruited. Participants viewed film clips portraying different persons retelling a work event during which they experienced positive or negative emotions. After each clip, participants rated the intensity of the protagonist's and their own emotions. Consistent with prior research, our analyses revealed a negative association between age and empathic accuracy, while there were no age differences in emotional congruence and a positive association between age and sympathy. Only the relationship between age and emotional congruence was moderated by EJDs. Contrary to our prediction, relatively older employees in emotionally demanding jobs experienced lower emotional congruence than younger employees. This may suggest that people learn about the double-edged nature of sharing other's feelings as they progress in their career, and thus, keep a healthy distance. Implications for age-comparative research on prosocial processes across adulthood are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Aging ; 35(7): 937-947, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881548

RESUMO

Subjective social status is defined as the perceived social standing of a person in a social hierarchy and may change across time. Although the link between subjective social status and well-being is widely recognized, the dynamic nature of changes in subjective social status across the life span is not well understood. We predicted that gains and losses in subjective social status will be associated with changes in positive and negative affect over time. This link should be particularly evident in middle adulthood because the desire for social status might be more important in midlife than in later adulthood. Specifically, we argue that social status gains in midlife may facilitate generativity, a developmental task in this period of the life span that arguably contributes not only to the well-being of others but also oneself. Our analyses of a 10-year longitudinal study (N = 2,306, 40-84 years at T1) using latent change score models suggested that individuals, who lose (or gain) social status (i.e., change their perceived position on the social status ladder), experience an increase (decrease) in negative affect and a decrease (increase) in positive affect. As predicted, these associations were stronger, and in fact only significant, for middle-aged (40-64 years), but not older (65-84 years) adults. Finally, in middle-aged adults, the effects of status changes on changes in affective well-being were mediated by generativity. This pattern of findings suggests that changes in subjective social status are more self-relevant in midlife and may become less relevant to affective well-being as people age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Distância Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Psychol Aging ; 34(8): 1090-1108, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804114

RESUMO

Life Span theory posits that sociohistorical contexts shape individual development. In line with this proposition, cohort differences favoring later-born cohorts have been widely documented for cognition and health. However, little is known about historical change in how key resources of psychosocial functioning such as control beliefs develop in old age. We pooled data from 3 independent samples: Berlin Aging Study (6 waves, N = 414); Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development (4 waves, N = 925); and Berlin Aging Study II (4 waves, N = 1,111) to construct overlapping multiyear longitudinal data from ages 61 through 85 years for cohorts born 1905 to 1953 and examine historical changes in within-person trajectories of internal and external control beliefs. Results revealed that earlier-born cohorts exhibit age-related declines in internal control beliefs regarding both desirable and undesirable outcomes, whereas later-born cohorts perceive higher internal control and maintain this advantage into old age. Earlier-born cohorts also experience steep age-related increases in external control beliefs regarding both powerful others and chance, whereas later-born cohorts perceive lower external control and were stable across old age. Education and gender disparities in control beliefs narrowed over historical time. Sociodemographic, physical health, cognitive, and social factors explained some of the differences in control beliefs, and accounted for sizable portions of cohort effects. Our results indicate that current generations of older adults perceive more and better maintained internal control and fewer external constraints. We discuss potential underlying mechanisms and consider conceptual and societal implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Efeito de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 848-861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414856

RESUMO

Although emotional experience and expression are strongly tied to social contexts, most age-comparative studies have used an individualistic approach. The few dyadic laboratory studies that exist have focused on discussions about conflicts and have suggested that older couples experience and express less negative emotion than younger couples. However, recent studies have emphasized the context dependency of age differences in emotional reactivity. More concretely, in situations such as conversations in which the experience and expression of negative emotion might be beneficial for the relationship because it can initiate support and indicate togetherness, older adults should experience and express similar or even higher levels of negative emotion than younger couples. To test this hypothesis, 37 younger (Mage = 24.33) and 41 older couples (Mage = 70.27) were instructed to talk about an ongoing problem experienced by one member of the couple. The main dependent variables were the intensity of negative emotion as manifested in subjective feelings as well as facial and verbal expressions during the conversation. Additionally, we examined age differences in couples' emphasis on togetherness. In contrast to past work but consistent with our prediction, there were not many age differences in both partners' emotional experience and expression. Moreover, in line with previous studies, older couples perceived and expressed more togetherness during the conversation than younger couples. These findings suggest that age differences in negative emotion may be context dependent and less evident if negative emotion does not harm the relationship and serves potentially adaptive functions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Comunicação , Conflito Psicológico , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Health Psychol ; 38(11): 949-959, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our primary goal was to test the idea that the link between negative emotions and chronic physical illness will become stronger as individuals age and their resources become increasingly limited. METHOD: The data came from a 4-wave longitudinal study obtained from a sample of middle-aged (n = 500, mean age = 44.17, SD = .91) and older (n = 502, mean age = 62.87, SD = .89) adults who were observed for, on average, 13.59 years (SD = 7.32). Negative emotions were assessed by a subscale of the Zung depression scale and chronic illness severity was operationalized as a physician-rating. RESULTS: Among older adults the association between changes in negative emotions and changes in physical illness status emerged over time (first retest interval: r = .02; p = .42; second interval: r = .11; p = .01; third interval: r = .22; p < .01), whereas such dynamics were not observed among middle-aged adults (first retest interval: r = .01; p = .77; second interval: r = .06; p = .12; third interval: r = -.01; p = .79). In addition, among older adults, negative emotions were generally higher and illness severity worse than in middle-aged adults. Negative emotions and chronic physical illness increased over time only in the older subsample. CONCLUSION: Research interested in linking negative emotions and poor physical health will benefit from a lifespan developmental perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
18.
Psychol Aging ; 34(3): 330-340, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070399

RESUMO

The discrete emotion theory of affective aging postulates that anger, but not sadness, becomes increasingly maladaptive during older adulthood in predicting health-relevant physiological processes and chronic disease (Kunzmann & Wrosch, 2018). However, it is largely unknown whether different negative emotions have distinct functional consequences in the development of older adults' physical disease. To start examining this possibility, we investigated whether older adults' daily experiences of anger and sadness were differentially associated with two biomarkers of chronic low-grade inflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and C-reactive protein [CRP]) and the number of chronic illnesses (e.g., heart disease, cancer, etc.). In addition, we examined whether such divergent associations would become paramount in advanced, as compared with early, old age. A community-dwelling study of 226 older adults (age 59 to 93; M = 74.99, SD = 7.70) assessed participants' anger and sadness over 1 week, inflammatory processes, number of chronic illnesses, and relevant covariates. Regression analysis showed that anger predicted higher levels of IL-6 and chronic illness in advanced, but not in early, old age. The age effect of anger on chronic illness was mediated by increased IL-6 levels. Sadness exerted a reversed, but nonsignificant, association with IL-6 and chronic illness, independent of age. No emotion or age effects were obtained for CRP. The study's findings inform theories of health, emotion, and life span development by pointing to the age-related importance of discrete negative emotions in predicting a major physiological pathway to physical health across older adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Tristeza/psicologia , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/psicologia , Masculino
19.
Psychol Aging ; 33(8): 1202-1214, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489122

RESUMO

With increasing age, proximity to one's own death increases and topics related to death and dying may become particularly relevant and familiar. Consequently, older, as compared to young, adults should experience stronger negative emotions in response to these topics and show higher empathy for other individuals dealing with them. To address these predictions, in a first study, we presented two types of death-related stimuli to 41 young and 41 older adults (i.e., participants were asked to write about how they think and feel about their own death and they were presented with three newly developed films of adults talking about various death-related aspects). Although age differences in emotional reactions to the writing task were nonsignificant, in comparison to young adults, older adults reacted to the film stimuli with stronger negative emotions, especially with greater anxiety and sadness. At the same time, older adults reported greater sympathy for the film protagonists and were better able to recognize their emotions accurately. In a second study, we provided further evidence for the idea that the age relevance and familiarity of stimuli determine older adults' emotional reactions by varying the age-relevance of two film stimuli. As predicted, and consistent with Study 1, older adults reacted with greater anxiety and sadness to the death-related film, but not to a film about divorce, that was not particularly relevant to older adults. Taken together, our studies provide evidence for the idea that particularly older adults' emotional reactions are influenced by the context of an emotional situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Morte , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Dev Psychol ; 54(12): 2382-2402, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372096

RESUMO

General well-being is known to deteriorate sharply at the end of life. However, it is an open question how rates of terminal change differ across affective and evaluative facets of well-being and if individual difference correlates operate in facet-specific ways. We examined how discrete affective states (happy, angry, fearful, sad) and satisfaction with key life domains (health, leisure, family) change as people approach death and how differences in end-of-life trajectories are related to sociodemographic (age, gender, education), physical health (disability, body mass index, physician visits), and psychosocial characteristics (perceived control, social orientation, living with a partner). We applied growth models to 9-year annual longitudinal data of 864 participants (age at death: M = 75 years, 41% women) from the nationwide German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). Findings revealed commonalities and specificities in terminal change: Six of seven facets became increasingly fragile late in life (6 to 35 times steeper terminal change than age change), but at vastly different rates of change (e.g., steep declines in happiness and satisfaction with health vs. stability in anger) and at different levels at which changes occurred. Commonalities and differences also emerged for the correlates: Those who perceived more control over their lives experienced generally more favorable late-life affect and satisfaction trajectories, whereas other correlates operated in more facet-specific ways. For example, participants living with a partner were happier and more satisfied with family life throughout their last years, but also reported more fear and steeper increases in sadness, a picture of bittersweet emotions at the end of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções , Nível de Saúde , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
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