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1.
Public Health Nurs ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender women of color (TWC) are an underserved population who often experience high rates of HIV and barriers to care including stigma, violence, and trauma. Few health information technology interventions are tailored to serve TWC. The purpose of this study was to inform the development of a TWC-specific telehealth intervention to increase access to care. METHODS: Formative qualitative semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted to develop a customized telehealth intervention for TWC. Participants were TWC ≥ 18 years living in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, with at least one structural barrier to care and clinicians ≥18 years who provide care to TWC. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic coding and content analysis; barriers for TWC were categorized into Individual, Organizational, and Environmental levels. Several day-long meetings with TWC and stakeholders were convened to develop the intervention. RESULTS: Saturation of theme on barriers to care was reached with 22 interviews. Identified barriers to service receipt included survival, instability, temporal discounting, and prioritizing hormone therapy over care, incongruence between providers and patients, pessimism, and lack of cultural competency. Each was intentionally addressed with the telehealth intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Data informed the development of an innovative and customized telehealth intervention for TWC. Through the integration of technology and peer consultant outreach, we developed a novel approach that can address population-specific challenges to care. Further development of this model may be able to improve health outcomes among TWC.

2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(2): e16220, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously incarcerated individuals have suboptimal linkage and engagement in community HIV care. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to be effective in addressing these gaps. In Washington, District of Columbia (DC), we conducted a randomized trial of an SMS text messaging-based mHealth intervention (CARE+ Corrections) to increase linkage to community HIV care and antiretroviral treatment adherence among HIV-infected persons involved in the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the SMS text messaging-based intervention, participant use of the intervention, and barriers and facilitators of implementation. METHODS: From August 2013 to April 2015, HIV-positive incarcerated individuals were recruited within the DC Department of Corrections, and persons released in the past 6 months were recruited within the community via street-based recruitment, community partnerships, and referrals. Participants were followed for 6 months and received weekly or daily SMS text messages. Formative research resulted in the development of the content of the messages in 4 categories: HIV Appointment Reminders, Medication Adherence, Prevention Reminders, and Barriers to Care following release from jail. Participants could customize the timing, frequency, and message content throughout the study period. RESULTS: Of the 112 participants enrolled, 57 (50.9%) were randomized to the intervention group and 55 (49.1%) to the control group; 2 control participants did not complete the baseline visit, and were dropped from the study, leaving a total of 110 participants who contributed to the analyses. Study retention was similar across both study arms. Median age was 42 years (IQR 30-50), 86% (49/57) were black or African American, 58% (33/57) were male, 25% (14/57) were female, and 18% (10/57) were transgender. Median length of last incarceration was 4 months (IQR 1.7-9.0), and median lifetime number of times incarcerated was 6.5 (IQR 3.5-14.0). Most participants (32/54, 59%) had a baseline viral load of <200 copies/mL. Nearly all participants (52/57, 91%) chose to use a cell phone provided by the study. The most preferred Appointment Reminder message was Hey how you feeling? Don't forget to give a call and make your appointment (19/57, 33%). The most preferred Medication Adherence message was Don't forget your skittles! (31/57, 54%), and 63% (36/57) of participants chose to receive daily (vs weekly) messages from this category at baseline. The most preferred Prevention Reminder message was Stay strong. Stay clean (18/57, 32%). The most preferred Barriers to Care message was Holla at your case manager, they're here to help (12/57, 22%). Minor message preference differences were observed among participants enrolled in the jail versus those from the community. CONCLUSIONS: Participants' ability to customize their SMS text message plan proved helpful. Further large-scale research on mHealth platforms is needed to assess its efficacy among HIV-infected persons with a history of incarceration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01721226; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01721226.

3.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897832

RESUMO

Sexual and gender identity have frequently been assessed in public health research as static states. However, a substantial and growing body of evidence indicates that both identities may have greater potential for change over time than once supposed. Despite this evidence, research into adult identity change remains relatively limited. Using longitudinal data from 1553 Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) aged 18-68 years and recruited from study locations in six major cities across the country, we examined changes in sexual and gender identities over a period of 12 months. The results showed that sexual and gender identity did indeed change among adult BMSM. Additionally, we explored internalized homophobia (IH) as a potential driver of identity change and found that IH significantly impacts the degree and direction of change, with individuals who reported higher baseline IH more likely to demonstrate a shift toward a heterosexual/straight identity at 6 and 12 months. The results are discussed in light of what is known and unknown regarding identity change, and potential avenues for future research are explored.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 24(1): 274-283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352633

RESUMO

Accurate HIV risk assessment among men who have sex with men (MSM) is important to help providers assess risk, and target HIV prevention interventions. We sought to develop an evidence-based HIV risk assessment tool for US MSM that is inclusive of Black MSM. Data from four large longitudinal cohorts of MSM were used to develop (EXPLORE), and validate (VAX004, HPTN061, and HVTN505). These data included visits in which participants self-reported HIV risk behavior and underwent HIV testing. We developed a pooled logistic model for incident HIV infection based on self-reported risk behaviors during the 6 months before each study visit. A total of 4069 MSM were used for the development cohort, and 8047 MSM in the three validation cohorts through 2013. The final model includes age (< 35, ≥ 35); Black race and Latino ethnicity; numbers of HIV-negative anal sex partners; number of insertive or receptive anal intercourse episodes; having 1 HIV-negative partner only; self-reported substance use; and bacterial sexually transmitted infection diagnosis. The model showed good discrimination in internal validation (C-statistic = 79.5). The external validation cohorts also showed good discrimination, with C-statistics of 73.1, 71.0, 71.9 in VAX004, HPTN061, and HVTN505 respectively, and acceptable calibration. We developed and validated an HIV risk assessment tool for MSM, which showed good predictive ability, including among the largest cohort of HIV-uninfected Black MSM in the US. This tool is available online (mysexpro.org) and can be used by providers to support targeting of HIV prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis for MSM.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788493

RESUMO

The higher prevalence rates of depression in visually-impaired individuals than the general population indicates that the condition per se increases the risk of depression. A person that is aware of the progressive loss of visual acuteness may have feelings of insecurity, anxiety, loss of independence and changes in social functioning, leading to depression. Several studies assessing the association between depressive symptoms and severity of vision loss have yielded inconsistent results. Some do not show any association, whereas others reported that depression severity is higher in those with substantial vision loss. The general aim of this manuscript was to determine the prevalence of depression in patients diagnosed with legal blindness in the Eye Care Service at the Hospital Córdoba between June 2016 and June 2017. The study sample consisted of 41 patients. The level of depression was assessed using the Zung scale and the degree of dependence in daily life activities was defined using the Barthel index. Data was anonymized for inclusion in a computer database and statistical confidentiality was protected. Data was analyzed using InfoStat statistical software. The results revealed a relation between legal blindness, degrees of dependency and depressive symptoms in patients of the Eye Care Service of the Hospital Córdoba. It is very important for health professionals to be trained to detect early signs and symptoms of depression and have the necessary tools for such an approach.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 913, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence measures that are associated with plasma viral load (VL) are valuable to clinicians and researchers, but are rarely examined among groups vulnerable to dropping out of care. One-seventh of all those living with HIV pass through incarceration annually and criminal-justice (CJ) involved people living with HIV (PLH) are vulnerable to falling out of care. We examined the association of self-reported ART adherence with VL in a criminal-justice sample compared to a routine-care sample. METHODS: Samples: We examined data from a multisite collaboration of studies addressing the continuum of HIV care among CjJ involved persons in the Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain cohort. Data pooled from seven CJ- studies (n = 414) were examined and compared with the routine-care sample from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems' seven sites (n = 11,698). MEASURES: In both samples, data on self-reported percent ART doses taken were collected via the visual analogue scale adherence measure. Viral load data were obtained by blood-draw. ANALYSIS: We examined the associations of adherence with VL in both cohorts using mixed effects linear regression of log-VL, and mixed effects logistic regression of binary VL (≥ 200 copies/mL) outcomes. Interactions by CD4 count and self-reported health status were also tested. RESULTS: Among the CJ sample, the coefficient for log-VL was - 0.31 (95% CI = - 0.43, - 0.18; P < 0.01) and that in the routine-care sample was - 0.42 (95% CI = - 0.45, - 0.38; P < 0.01). For the logistic regression of binary detectable VL on 10% increments of adherence we found the coefficient was - 0.26 (95% CI = - 0.37, - 0.14; P < 0.01) and in the routine-care sample it was - 0.38 (95% CI = - 0.41, - 0.35; P < 0.01). There was no significant interaction by CD4 count level in the CJ sample, but there was in the routine-care sample. Conversely, there was a significant interaction by self-reported health status level in the criminal-justice sample, but not in the routine-care sample. CONCLUSIONS: The visual analogue scale is valid and useful to measure ART adherence, supporting treatment for CJ- involved PLH vulnerable to falling out of care. Research should examine adherence and VL in additional populations.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Criminosos , Adesão à Medicação , Autorrelato , Carga Viral , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Direito Penal , Feminino , HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(11): 1569-1575, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268398

RESUMO

Background: Women in academic medicine are not attaining parity with men in several domains. This issue is not only one of fairness; some funding agencies are requesting data on gender benchmarking. However, most published reports on gender disparities have not included examination of trends or actionable recommendations to address them. Materials and Methods: The Dean of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine charged the Committee on the Status of Women (CSW) with conducting a comprehensive review of gender equity. In 2014, the CSW identified key domains important for academic success and created a sustainable framework to monitor trends by gender. Utilizing data from multiple key sources, the CSW measured differences in the domains of academic promotion, leadership, and satisfaction. Results: Gender differences were present in each domain. Data were not centralized and not readily available for most domains. The CSW recommended strategies to address gender disparities and created a set of measurable recommendations to monitor progress. The recommendations include requiring detailed descriptions of departmental organizational leadership charts; diverse compositions of both search committees and applicant pools; increased proportion of female faculty in top-tier leadership positions; and transparent departmental promotions criteria and processes. Conclusions: To maintain progress, we recommend that data be readily and easily accessible from a central institutional registry rather than come from multiple sources, that data be analyzed on a regular basis, and that results be shared across the institution to ensure transparency and accountability.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and a barrier to achieving viral suppression. OBJECTIVE: Among PLWH who report illicit drug use, we evaluated associations between HIV viral load (VL) and reduced use of illicit opioids, methamphetamine/crystal, cocaine/crack, and marijuana, regardless of whether or not abstinence was achieved. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort studySetting/participantsPLWH in clinical care at 8 HIV clinics or 5 clinical studies. MEASUREMENTS: We used joint longitudinal and survival models to examine the impact of decreasing drug use and of abstinence for each drug on viral suppression. We repeated analyses using linear mixed models to examine associations between change in frequency of drug use and VL. RESULTS: The number of PLWH who were using each drug at baseline ranged from n=568 (illicit opioids) to n=4272 (marijuana). Abstinence was associated with higher odds of viral suppression (OR 1.4-2.2) and lower relative VL (ranging from 21-42% by drug) for all four drug categories. Reducing frequency of illicit opioid or methamphetamine/crystal use without abstinence was associated with VL suppression (OR 2.2, 1.6 respectively). Reducing frequency of illicit opioid or methamphetamine/crystal use without abstinence was associated with lower relative VL (47%, 38% respectively). LIMITATIONS: Observational data have limitations with causal inference. CONCLUSIONS: Abstinence was associated with viral suppression. In addition, reducing use of illicit opioids or methamphetamine/crystal, even without abstinence, was also associated with viral suppression. Findings highlight the impact of reducing substance use even when abstinence is not achieved and the potential benefits of medications, behavioral interventions, and harm-reduction interventions.

11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(2): e25223, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768776

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, limited research has examined initiation and adherence to PrEP among Black MSM (BMSM) in the United States (US) who are disproportionately represented among newly HIV infected and late to care individuals. This research reports on the HIV Prevention Trials Network 073 (HPTN 073) study aimed to examine PrEP initiation, utilization and adherence among Black MSM utilizing the theoretically principled, culturally informed and client-centered care coordination (C4) model. METHODS: The HPTN 073 study enrolled and followed 226 HIV-uninfected Black MSM in three US cities (Los Angeles, CA; Washington DC; and Chapel Hill, NC) from February 2013 through September 2015. Study participants were offered once daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF) PrEP combined with C4 and followed up for 52 weeks. Participants received HIV testing, risk reduction education and clinical monitoring. RESULTS: Of the 226 men enrolled, 178 participants initiated PrEP (79%), and of these 64% demonstrated PrEP utilization at week 26 (mid-point of the study) based on pharmacokinetic testing. Condomless anal sex with an HIV-infected or unknown status casual male partner was statistically significantly associated with a greater likelihood of PrEP initiation (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7, 11.7). Greater age (≥25 vs. <25, OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.37 -6.37), perception of having enough money (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.7) and knowledge of male partner taking PrEP before sex (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.79) were statistically significantly associated with increased likelihood of PrEP adherence at week 26. Annualized HIV incidence was 2.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 7.9) among those who initiated PrEP, compared to 7.7 (95% CI 2.5 to 24.1) among those who did not initiate PrEP (p = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a high level of PrEP initiation among at-risk Black MSM, a group historically characterized as hard to reach. The data support the importance of addressing contextual factors that affect PrEP initiation and adherence, and of additional research on the ultimate benefit of PrEP in HIV prevention among Black MSM.

12.
AIDS Behav ; 23(4): 1016-1031, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627850

RESUMO

We examined the preliminary effectiveness of a computerized counseling session plus post-incarceration text messaging intervention (CARE + Corrections) to support ART adherence and linkage/engagement in community care among recently incarcerated persons with HIV in Washington, D.C. Recently incarcerated persons with HIV ≥ 18 years old were recruited from the D.C. jail or community outreach and randomized to CARE + Corrections or control arm. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 3-months and 6-months. Multivariable random effects modeling identified predictors of suppressed viral load (≤ 200 copies/mL) and engagement in HIV care at 6 months. Participants (N = 110) were aged 42 (IQR 30-49); 58% male, 24% female, 18% transgender, 85% Black, and lifetime incarceration was a median of 7 years (IQR 2-15). More controls had a regular healthcare provider at baseline. Although not statistically significant, intervention participants had increased odds of viral suppression versus controls at 6 months (AOR 2.04; 95% CI 0.62, 6.70). Those reporting high ART adherence at baseline had higher odds of viral suppression at follow-up (AOR 10.77; 95% CI 1.83, 63.31). HIV care engagement was similar between the two groups, although both groups reported increased engagement at 6 months versus baseline. We observed a positive but non-significant association of viral suppression in the CARE + Corrections group, and care engagement increased in both groups after 6 months. Further attention to increasing viral suppression among CJ-involved persons with HIV upon community reentry is warranted.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criminosos , Assistência à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Adesão à Medicação , Prisões , Telemedicina , Adulto , Aconselhamento , District of Columbia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Retenção nos Cuidados , Mensagem de Texto , Carga Viral
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 194: 59-68, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increasing data archives comprised of studies with similar measurement, optimal methods for data harmonization and measurement scoring are a pressing need. We compare three methods for harmonizing and scoring the AUDIT as administered with minimal variation across 11 samples from eight study sites within the STTR (Seek-Test-Treat-Retain) Research Harmonization Initiative. Descriptive statistics and predictive validity results for cut-scores, sum scores, and Moderated Nonlinear Factor Analysis scores (MNLFA; a psychometric harmonization method) are presented. METHODS: Across the eight study sites, sample sizes ranged from 50 to 2405 and target populations varied based on sampling frame, location, and inclusion/exclusion criteria. The pooled sample included 4667 participants (82% male, 52% Black, 24% White, 13% Hispanic, and 8% Asian/ Pacific Islander; mean age of 38.9 years). Participants completed the AUDIT at baseline in all studies. RESULTS: After logical harmonization of items, we scored the AUDIT using three methods: published cut-scores, sum scores, and MNLFA. We found greater variation, fewer floor effects, and the ability to directly address missing data in MNLFA scores as compared to cut-scores and sum scores. MNLFA scores showed stronger associations with binge drinking and clearer study differences than did other scores. CONCLUSIONS: MNLFA scores are a promising tool for data harmonization and scoring in pooled data analysis. Model complexity with large multi-study applications, however, may require new statistical advances to fully realize the benefits of this approach.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Direito Penal/tendências , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica não Linear , Vigilância da População/métodos
14.
AIDS Behav ; 23(1): 105-115, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171452

RESUMO

Daily emtricitabine/tenofovor is effective at preventing HIV acquisition and is approved for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Blacks in the United States have a disproportionately high rate of HIV, and uptake of PrEP has been very low in this population. We conducted a pilot study in a high-prevalence city to test whether a culturally-tailored counseling center for young Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) positively impacted their access and uptake of PrEP. 50 young BMSM were randomized to either a PrEP counseling center group or a control group, and were then encouraged to obtain PrEP from a PrEP provider. At the end of 3 month study, six participants in the intervention group compared with none in the control group had initiated PrEP (p = 0.02). This pilot study demonstrates that a culturally-tailored counseling center might be an effective at increasing the uptake of PrEP in young BMSM.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento/métodos , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , District of Columbia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Sexual , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 29(3): 964-974, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122676

RESUMO

Community-based hepatitis C virus screening can identify individuals who are unaware of their infection and not regularly engaged in care. We report on a pilot study exploring the utility of using HIV surveillance data to identify targeted, geographical areas with high HIV prevalence and poor care indicators for screening baby boomers at risk for HCV. Between August-September 2014, we conducted community-based HCV rapid testing in high-risk census tracts. Eligible participants were born from 1945-1965 and not currently engaged in HCV care. Overall, 30% were HCV-antibody positive, 34% had a medical visit in the past year and among those with a medical visit, 75% had never been HCV-tested before. Using HIV surveillance data for targeted, community-based HCV testing yielded a high prevalence of untreated HCV cases. A large proportion had never been HCV-tested, suggesting this testing paradigm may be effective in reaching individuals at risk for HCV in a community-based setting.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Vigilância da População , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(3): 283-287, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30036277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Substance use is linked with poor outcomes among people living with HIV (PLWH) and is associated with mental health disorders. This analysis examines the impact of decreasing substance use, even without abstinence, on depressive symptoms among PLWH. METHODS: Data are from PLWH enrolled in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Sites cohort. Participants completed longitudinal assessments of substance use (modified ASSIST) and depressive symptoms (PHQ-9). Changes in substance use frequency were categorized as abstinence, reduced use, and nondecreasing use. Adjusted linear mixed models with time-updated change in substance use frequency and depressive symptom scores were used to examine associations between changes in the use of individual substances and depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using joint longitudinal survival models to examine associations with a high (PHQ-9 ≥10) score. RESULTS: Among 9905 PLWH, 728 used cocaine/crack, 1016 used amphetamine-type substances (ATS), 290 used illicit opiates, and 3277 used marijuana at baseline. Changes in ATS use were associated with the greatest improvements in depressive symptoms: stopping ATS led to a mean decrease of PHQ-9 by 2.2 points (95% CI: 1.8 to 2.7) and a 61% lower odds of PHQ-9 score ≥10 (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.52), and decreasing ATS use led to a mean decrease of 1.7 points (95% CI: 1.2 to 2.3) and a 62% lower odds of PHQ-9 score ≥10 (95% CI: 0.25 to 0.56). Stopping and reducing marijuana and stopping cocaine/crack use were also associated with improvement in depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that both substance use reduction and abstinence are associated with improvements in depressive symptoms over time.


Assuntos
Depressão/patologia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , /efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 39(9): 1080-1085, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the 5-year findings after a policy to screen for, diagnose, and isolate medical center employees with adenoviral conjunctivitis was implemented. DESIGN: Observational report with a retrospective evaluation of a current quality improvement initiative. SETTING: Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.ParticipantsJohns Hopkins Medicine employees. METHODS: Data were retrieved from records maintained for this initiative, in which employees with suspected adenoviral conjunctivitis were evaluated in the Occupational Health Clinic and swabbed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for adenoviral conjunctivitis. Signs, symptoms, work area, diagnoses, and disposition of employees with eye complaints as well as PCR result and adenoviral type were recorded. Five-year data were reviewed. RESULTS: From 2011 to 2016, of 10,000 full-time equivalent employees, 1,059 employees visited the Occupational Health Clinic with suspicion of adenoviral conjunctivitis. Of these, 104 (10%) were PCR positive for adenovirus. Of these PCR-positive employees, 26 (25%) had the worst clinical presentation, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC). The Outpatient Pharmacy had the highest number of adenoviral conjunctivitis cases (n=9). The proportion of red-eye employees having PCR-positive adenoviral conjunctivitis increased over 5 years (P<.005, Cochrane-Armitage test for trend) as did the proportion of employees with EKC (P<.05). The proportion of employees with EKC caused by type 37 also increased (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Adenoviral conjunctivitis represents 10% of employee cases clinically suspected of this infection. Employees in patient-care areas should be screened even if they have no direct patient contact. Despite increases in the proportions of adenoviral conjunctivitis and of EKC over 5 years, no outbreaks occurred. This policy helps identify incipient EKC outbreaks and guides infection control efforts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenovirus Humanos/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Viral/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite/epidemiologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Viral/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Ceratoconjuntivite/virologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/tendências , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 27(11): 1317-1326, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 064, a multisite, observational cohort study conducted to estimate HIV incidence rates among women living in areas of high poverty and HIV prevalence in the United States, we examined the use of HIV risk characteristics to predict emotional abuse, physical violence, and forced sex. METHODS: Participants included 2099 women, 18-44 years of age, who reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a male partner and an additional personal or perceived male partner HIV risk characteristic in the past 6 months. Adjusting for time-varying covariates, generalized estimating equations were used to assess the ability of HIV risk characteristics to predict violence 6 months later. RESULTS: Reported analyses were limited to the 1980 study participants who reported having a male sex partner at that assessment. Exchanging sex, perceived partner concurrency, and perceived partner incarceration were significantly predictive of emotional abuse 6 months later (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.60; 1.59; 1.34, respectively). Prior sexually transmitted infection diagnosis, exchanging sex, and binge drinking were significantly predictive of physical violence 6 months later (AOR: 1.62; 1.71; 1.47, respectively). None of the variables measured was significantly predictive of forced sex. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies that address reducing violence against women should be studied further in the context of HIV prevention programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
20.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197730, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender persons are highly victimized, marginalized, disproportionately experience incarceration, and have alarmingly increased rates of HIV infection compared to cis-gender persons. Few studies have examined the HIV care continuum outcomes among transgender women (TW), particularly TW who are involved with the criminal justice (CJ) system. METHODS: To improve our understanding of HIV care continuum outcomes and risk behaviors among HIV-infected TW who are involved with the CJ system, we analyzed data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse-supported Seek, Test, Treat, Retain (STTR) Data Harmonization Initiative. Baseline data were pooled and analyzed from three U.S. STTR studies to examine HIV risk and care continuum indicators among CJ-involved HIV-infected TW compared to cisgender men (CM), matched on age (within 5 years) and study at a ratio of 1:5. RESULTS: Eighty-eight TW and 440 CM were included in the study. Among matched participants, TW were more likely to report crack and cocaine use compared to CM (40%,16% respectively, p<0.001); both TW and CM reported high rates of condomless sex (58%, 64%, respectively); TW were more likely than CM to have more than one sexual partner (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.6, 5.2; p<0.001) and have engaged in exchange sex (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.3, 6.6; p<0.001). There were no significant differences between TW and CM in the percentage currently taking ART (52%, 49%, respectively), the mean percent adherence to ART (77% for both groups), and the proportion who achieved viral suppression (61%, 58%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected CJ-involved TW and CM had similar use of ART and viral suppression but TW were more likely than matched CM to engage in exchange sex, have multiple sexual partners, and use crack/cocaine. TW and CM had similarly high rates of condomless sex and use of other drugs. TW require tailored risk reduction interventions, however both CJ-involved TW and CM require focused attention to reduce HIV risk and improve HIV continuum of care outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Prisioneiros , Assunção de Riscos , Transexualismo , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Direito Penal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Estados Unidos
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