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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 562: 63-70, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837620

RESUMO

In this study, two-dimensional ZnO nanoflower photoelectrodes were prepared using a chemical solution method and applied to dye-sensitised solar cells. By growing ZnO nanoflowers with different lengths on the photoelectrodes, the effects of the ZnO nanoflowers on the omnidirectional light-harvesting and broadband of dye-sensitised solar cells were investigated. According to the field emission scanning electron microscope and UV-Vis-NIR measurements of the prepared ZnO nanoflowers at different lengths, it can be determined that the amount of dye adsorption and degree of light scattering are affected by the lengths of the nanoflowers. A finite difference time-domain simulation was used to verify whether the degree of light scattering was affected by the lengths of the ZnO nanoflowers. In addition, the prepared ZnO nanoflower photoelectrodes of different lengths were applied to dye-sensitised solar cells. The photoelectric element efficiency, carrier life cycle, and element characteristics under wide-angle measurements were investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the monochromic incident photon-to-electronic conversion efficiency, and a solar simulator. At high angles, the difference in efficiency of multi-directional incident light was reduced from 46% to 12%, which effectively improved the capturing characteristics of the multi-directional incident light during light scattering.

2.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14927, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097732

RESUMO

This paper presents the use of nanorods of different sizes, deposited from a chemical solution, as an antireflection layer in copper-zinc-tin selenide (CZTSe) solar cells. With the aid of the nanorods, the surface reflection of the CZTSe solar cells was reduced from 7.76% to 2.97%, and a cell efficiency of 14% was obtained as a result. Omni-directional anti-reflection was verified by the angle-dependent reflection measurements. The nanorod arrays also provided the CZTSe solar cells with a hydrophobic surface, allowing it to exhibit high resistance against humidity during weatherability tests. This shows that the surface passivation brought by the nanorod layer at the surface could effectively extend the lifetime of the CZTSe solar cells. The rate of efficiency decay of the CZTSe solar cells was reduced by 46.85% from that of the device without a nanorod array at the surface, indicating that this surface layer not only provided effective resistance against reflection at the device surface, but also served as a passivation layer and humidity-resistant surface-protection layer.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(46): 40224-40234, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072439

RESUMO

In this study, we proposed a new method for the synthesis of the target material used in a two stage process for preparation of a high quality CZTSe thin film. The target material consisting of a mixture of CuxSe and ZnxSn1-x alloy was synthesized, providing a quality CZTSe precursor layer for highly efficient CZTSe thin film solar cells. The CZTSe thin film can be obtained by annealing the precursor layers through a 30 min selenization process under a selenium atmosphere at 550 °C. The CZTSe thin films prepared by using the new precursor thin film were investigated and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that diffusion of Sn occurred and formed the CTSe phase and CuxSe phase in the resultant CZTSe thin film. By selective area electron diffraction transmission electron microscopy images, the crystallinity of the CZTSe thin film was verified to be single crystal. By secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, it was confirmed that a double-gradient band gap profile across the CZTSe absorber layer was successfully achieved. The CZTSe solar cell with the CZTSe absorber layer consisting of the precursor stack exhibited a high efficiency of 5.46%, high short circuit current (JSC) of 37.47 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.31 V, and fill factor (F.F.) of 47%, at a device area of 0.28 cm2. No crossover of the light and dark current-voltage (I-V) curves of the CZTSe solar cell was observed, and also, no red kink was observed under red light illumination, indicating a low defect concentration in the CZTSe absorber layer. Shunt leakage current with a characteristic metal/CZTSe/metal leakage current model was observed by temperature-dependent I-V curves, which led to the discovery of metal incursion through the CdS buffer layer on the CZTSe absorber layer. This leakage current, also known as space charge-limited current, grew larger as the measurement temperature increased and completely overwhelmed the diode current at a measurement temperature of 200 °C. This is due to interlayer diffusion of metal that increases the shunt leakage current and decreases the efficiency of the CZTSe thin film solar cells.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 7(4)2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383488

RESUMO

Most thin-film techniques require a multiple vacuum process, and cannot produce high-coverage continuous thin films with the thickness of a few nanometers on rough surfaces. We present a new "paradigm shift" non-vacuum process to deposit high-quality, ultra-thin, single-crystal layers of coalesced sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) with controllable thickness down to a few nanometers, based on thermal decomposition. This provides high-coverage, homogeneous thickness, and large-area deposition over a rough surface, with little material loss or liquid chemical waste, and deposition rates of 10 nm/min. This technique can potentially replace conventional thin-film deposition methods, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) as used by the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cell industry for decades. We demonstrate 32% improvement of CIGS thin-film solar cell efficiency in comparison to reference devices prepared by conventional CBD deposition method by depositing the ZnS NPs buffer layer using the new process. The new ZnS NPs layer allows reduction of an intrinsic ZnO layer, which can lead to severe shunt leakage in case of a CBD buffer layer. This leads to a 65% relative efficiency increase.

5.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 12(1): 208, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28330186

RESUMO

In this work, aiming at developing a rapid and environmental-friendly process for fabricating CuIn1-x Ga x Se2 (CIGS) solar cells, we demonstrated the one-step selenization process by using selenium vapor as the atmospheric gas instead of the commonly used H2Se gas. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics indicate that there exists an optimal location with superior crystalline quality in the CIGS thin films obtained by one-step selenization. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the Ga lateral distribution in the one-step selenized CIGS thin film is intimately correlated to the blue-shifted PL spectra. The surface morphologies examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) further suggested that voids and binary phase commonly existing in CIGS films could be successfully eliminated by the present one-step selenization process. The agglomeration phenomenon attributable to the formation of MoSe2 layer was also observed. Due to the significant microstructural improvement, the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the devices made of the present CIGS films have exhibited the remarkable carrier transportation characteristics and photon utilization at the optimal location, resulting in a high conversion efficiency of 11.28%. Correlations between the defect states and device performance of the one-step selenized CIGS thin film were convincingly delineated by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

6.
Nanoscale ; 8(10): 5478-87, 2016 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26899775

RESUMO

To improve the omnidirectional light-harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), here we present a dandelion-like structure composed of ZnO hemispherical shells and nanorods. Uniformly distributed hemispherical shells effectively suppress the reflection over the broadband region at incident angles up to 60°, greatly improving the optical absorption of the DSSCs. In addition, modulating the length of the ZnO nanorods controls the omnidirectional characteristics of DSSCs. This phenomenon is attributed to the degree of periodicity of the ZnO dandelion-like structures. Cells with shorter rods exhibit a high degree of periodicity, thus the conversion efficiencies of the cells show specific angle-independent features. On the other hand, the cells with longer lengths reveal angle-dependent photovoltaic performance. Along with the simulation, the cells with dandelion-like ZnO structures can couple incident photons efficiently to achieve excellent broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting performances experimentally, and the DSSCs enhanced the conversion efficiency by 48% at large incident angles. All these findings not only provide further insight into the light-trapping mechanism in these complex three-dimensional nanostructures but also offer efficient omnidirectional and broadband nanostructured photovoltaics for advanced applications.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 8(12): 8860-8867, 2015 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793751

RESUMO

In this study, aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with various lengths (1.5-5 µm) were deposited on ZnO:Al (AZO)-coated glass substrates by using a solution phase deposition method; these NRs were prepared for application as working electrodes to increase the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. The results were observed in detail by using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectrophotometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency, and solar simulation. The results indicated that when the lengths of the ZnO NRs increased, the adsorption of D-719 dyes through the ZnO NRs increased along with enhancing the short-circuit photocurrent and open-circuit voltage of the cell. An optimal power conversion efficiency of 0.64% was obtained in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) containing the ZnO NR with a length of 5 µm. The objective of this study was to facilitate the development of a ZnO-based DSSC.

8.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 578, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25426003

RESUMO

The atomic structure of a SiGe/Si epitaxial interface grown via molecular beam epitaxy on a single crystal silicon substrate was investigated using an aberration-corrected scanning transmittance electron microscope equipped with a high-angle annular dark-field detector and an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The accuracy required for compensation of the various residual aberration coefficients to achieve sub-angstrom resolution with the electron optics system was also evaluated. It was found that the interfacial layer was composed of a silicon single crystal, connected coherently to epitaxial SiGe nanolaminates. In addition, the distance between the dumbbell structures of the Si and Ge atoms was approximately 0.136 nm at the SiGe/Si interface in the [110] orientation. The corresponding fast Fourier transform exhibited a sub-angstrom scale point resolution of 0.78 Å. Furthermore, the relative positions of the atoms in the chemical composition line scan signals could be directly interpreted from the corresponding incoherent high-angle annular dark-field image.

9.
Nanoscale ; 6(13): 7553-9, 2014 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24890020

RESUMO

In the article, a study of sub-wavelength grating (SWG) nanostructures for broadband and omni-directional anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) solar cells using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method is presented. Various SWG nanostructures of different shapes and periodic geometry on CZTS solar cells are discussed in detail. The optimized reflectance decreased to 1.67%, and efficiency increased to 13.74%, accordingly. The omni-directional and broadband antireflections of the SWG nanostructures are also investigated. Under a simulated 1-sun condition and with the light incident angle increased to 80°, cells with SWG nanostructures enhanced the short-circuit current density by 16.5%. This considerable enhancement in light harvesting is attributed to the linearly graded effective refractive index profile from the air to the device surface.

10.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 206, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24872799

RESUMO

This study investigated the influence of ZnO nanostructures on dye adsorption to increase the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. ZnO nanostructures were grown in both tree-like and nanorod (NR) arrays on an AZO/FTO film structure by using a hydrothermal method. The results were observed in detail using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and solar simulation. The selective growth of tree-like ZnO was found to exhibit higher dye adsorption loading and conversion efficiency than ZnO NRs. The multiple 'branches' of 'tree-like nanostructures' increases the surface area for higher light harvesting and dye loading while reducing charge recombination. These improvements result in a 15% enhancement in power conversion. The objective of this study is to facilitate the development of a ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cell.

11.
Opt Express ; 22(3): 2860-7, 2014 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24663578

RESUMO

Because of the Sun's movement across the sky, broadband and omnidirectional light harvesting is a major development in photovoltaic technology. This study reports the fabrication and characterization of flexible-textured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells, which is one of the simplest and cheapest peel-off processes for fabricating a three-dimensional structure. A cell containing a textured PDMS film enhanced the short-circuit current density from 22.12 to 23.93 mA/cm2 in a simulated one-sun scenario. The omnidirectional antireflection of CIGS solar cells containing various PDMS films is also investigated. This study uses an angle-resolved reflectance spectroscope to investigate the omnidirectional and broadband optical properties of the proposed PDMS film. This improvement in light harvesting is attributable to the scattering of the PDMS film and the gradual refractive index profile between the PDMS microstructures and air. The flexible-textured PDMS film is suitable for creating an antireflective coating for a diverse range of photovoltaic devices.

12.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 70, 2014 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24517113

RESUMO

Vertically aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays have been synthesized on silicon substrates by chemical vapor deposition. The growth of ZnO NWs may be dominated by vapor-solid nucleation mechanism. Morphological, structural, optical, and field emission characteristics can be modified by varying the growth time. For growth time that reaches 120 min, the length and diameter of ZnO NWs are 1.5 µm and 350 nm, respectively, and they also show preferential growth orientation along the c-axis. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra exhibit a sharp UV emission and broad green emission, and the enhanced UV-to-green emission ratio with increasing growth time might originate from the reduced concentration of surface defects. Furthermore, strong alignment and uniform distribution of ZnO NWs can also effectively enhance the antireflection to reach the average reflectance of 5.7% in the visible region. The field emission measurement indicated that the growth time plays an important role in density- and morphology-controlled ZnO NWs, and thus, ZnO NWs are expected to be used in versatile optoelectronic devices.

13.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 75, 2014 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24521308

RESUMO

Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) ZnO nanowire arrays with hexagonal pattern have been successfully synthesized via the vapor transport process without any metal catalyst. By utilizing polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer, sol-gel-derived ZnO thin films were used as the periodic nucleation sites for the growth of ZnO nanowires. High-quality quasi-1D ZnO nanowires were grown from nucleation sites, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. According to the experimental results, the vapor transport solid condensation mechanism was proposed, in which the sol-gel-derived ZnO film acting as a seed layer for nucleation. This simple method provides a favorable way to form quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures applicable to diverse fields such as two-dimensional photonic crystal, nanolaser, sensor arrays, and other optoelectronic devices.

14.
ACS Nano ; 7(8): 7318-29, 2013 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23906340

RESUMO

We present systematic works in characterization of CIGS nanotip arrays (CIGS NTRs). CIGS NTRs are obtained by a one-step ion-milling process by a direct-sputtering process of CIGS thin films (CIGS TF) without a postselenization process. At the surface of CIGS NTRs, a region extending to 100 nm in depth with a lower copper concentration compared to that of CIGS TF has been discovered. After KCN washing, removal of secondary phases can be achieved and a layer with abundant copper vacancy (V(Cu)) was left. Such compositional changes can be a benefit for a CIGS solar cell by promoting formation of Cd-occupied Cu sites (Cd(Cu)) at the CdS/CIGS interface and creates a type-inversion layer to enhance interface passivation and carrier extraction. The raised V(Cu) concentration and enhanced Cd diffusion in CIGS NTRs have been verified by energy dispersive spectrometry. Strengthened adhesion of Al:ZnO (AZO) thin film on CIGS NTRs capped with CdS has also been observed in SEM images and can explain the suppressed series resistance of the device with CIGS NTRs. Those improvements in electrical characteristics are the main factors for efficiency enhancement rather than antireflection.

15.
Nanoscale ; 5(10): 4270-6, 2013 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23549292

RESUMO

Broadband and omnidirectional light harvesting is important in photovoltaic technology because of its wide spectral range of radiation and the sun's movement. This study reports the fabrication and characterization of zinc oxide (ZnO) dandelions on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. The fabrication of dandelions involves the combination of self-assembled polystyrene (PS) nanospheres and the hydrothermal method, which is one of the simplest and cheapest methods of fabricating a three-dimensional, closely packed periodic structure. This study also investigates the optimization on dimension of the PS nanospheres using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method. This study uses an angle-resolved reflectance spectroscope and a homemade rotatable photo I-V measurement to investigate the omnidirectional and broadband antireflections of the proposed dandelion structure. Under a simulated one-sun condition and a light incident angle of up to 60°, cells with ZnO dandelions arrays enhanced the short-circuit current density by 31.87%. Consequently, ZnO dandelions are suitable for creating an omnidirectionally antireflective coating for photovoltaic devices.

16.
Nanoscale ; 5(9): 3841-6, 2013 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23525200

RESUMO

An effective approach is demonstrated for enhancing photoelectric conversion of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells with three-dimensional ZnO nanotree arrays. Under a simulated one-sun condition, cells with ZnO nanotree arrays enhance the short-circuit current density by 10.62%. The omnidirectional anti-reflection of CIGS solar cells with various ZnO nanostructures is also investigated. The solar-spectrum weighted reflectance is approximately less than 5% for incident angles of up to 60° and for the wavelengths primarily from 400 nm to 1000 nm. This enhancement in light harvesting is attributable to the gradual refractive index profile between the ZnO nanostructures and air.

17.
Opt Express ; 20 Suppl 6: A836-42, 2012 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23187660

RESUMO

In this paper, we examine photoluminescence spectra of Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) (CIGS) via temperature-dependent and power-dependent photoluminescence (PL). Donor-acceptor pair (DAP) transition, near-band-edge transition were identified by their activation energies. S-shaped displacement of peak position was observed and was attributed to carrier confinement caused by potential fluctuation. This coincides well with the obtained activation energy at low temperature. We also present a model for transition from V(Se) to V(In) and to V(Cu) which illustrates competing mechanisms between DAPs recombinations.

18.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 7(1): 468, 2012 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22908859

RESUMO

This paper reports on high-quality InN materials prepared on a GaN template using radio-frequency metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy. We also discuss the structural and electro-optical properties of InN nanorods/films. The X-ray diffraction peaks of InN(0002) and InN(0004) were identified from their spectra, indicating that the (0001)-oriented hexagonal InN was epitaxially grown on the GaN template. Scanning electron microscopic images of the surface morphology revealed a two-dimensional growth at a rate of approximately 0.85 µm/h. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images identified a sharp InN/GaN interface and a clear epitaxial orientation relationship of [0001]InN // [0001]GaN and ( 2¯110)InN // ( 2¯110)GaN. The optical properties of wurtzite InN nanorods were determined according to the photoluminescence, revealing a band gap of 0.77 eV.

19.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 12(2): 1620-3, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22630014

RESUMO

Heteroepitaxial growth of metal-catalyst-free indium nitride (InN) nanorods on GaN/sapphire substrates by radio-frequency metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MOMBE) system was investigated. We found that different N/In flow ratios together with the growth temperatures greatly influenced the surface morphology of InN nanorods and their structural properties. The InN nanorods have been characterized in detail using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Optical property was evaluated by photoluminescence (PL) measurements. At lower growth temperatures, InN nanorods were successfully grown. A pronounced two-dimensional growth mode was observed at higher growth temperature of 500 degrees C, and these films showed preferred orientation along the c-axis. XRD patterns and SEM images reveal that InN nanorods has high quality wurtzite structure with FWHM approaching 900 arcsec, and they have uniform diameters of about 150 nm and length of about 800 nm. Meanwhile, no metallic droplet was observed at the end of the nanostructured InN, and this is strong evidence that the nanorods are grown via the self-catalyst process. The PL peak at 0.8 eV is attributed to the quantum confinement and Moss-Burstein effects. These observations provide some valuable insights into the physical-chemical process for manufacturing InN nanorods devices.

20.
Opt Express ; 20(23): A836-42, 2012 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23326831

RESUMO

In this paper, we examine photoluminescence spectra of Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) (CIGS) via temperature-dependent and power-dependent photoluminescence (PL). Donor-acceptor pair (DAP) transition, near-band-edge transition were identified by their activation energies. S-shaped displacement of peak position was observed and was attributed to carrier confinement caused by potential fluctuation. This coincides well with the obtained activation energy at low temperature. We also present a model for transition from V(Se) to V(In) and to V(Cu) which illustrates competing mechanisms between DAPs recombinations.

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