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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methods used to categorize functional status to predict health outcomes across post-acute care settings vary significantly. OBJECTIVES: We compared three methods that categorize functional status to predict 30-day and 90-day hospital readmission across inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRF), skilled nursing facilities (SNF) and home health agencies (HHA). RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 2013-2014 Medicare claims data (N = 740,530). Data were randomly split into two subsets using a 1:1 ratio. We used half of the cohort (development subset) to develop functional status categories for three methods, and then used the rest (testing subset) to compare outcome prediction. Three methods to generate functional categories were labeled as: Method I, percentile based on proportional distribution; Method II, percentile based on change score distribution; and Method III, functional staging categories based on Rasch person strata. We used six differentiation and classification statistics to determine the optimal method of generating functional categories. SETTING: IRF, SNF and HHA. SUBJECTS: We included 130,670 (17.7%) Medicare beneficiaries with stroke, 498,576 (67.3%) with lower extremity joint replacement and 111,284 (15.0%) with hip and femur fracture. MEASURES: Unplanned 30-day and 90-day hospital readmission. RESULTS: For all impairment conditions, Method III best predicted 30-day and 90-day hospital readmission. However, we observed overlapping confidence intervals among some comparisons of three methods. The bootstrapping of 30-day and 90-day hospital readmission predictive models showed the area under curve for Method III was statistically significantly higher than both Method I and Method II (all paired-comparisons, p<.001), using the testing sample. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, functional staging was the optimal method to generate functional status categories to predict 30-day and 90-day hospital readmission. To facilitate clinical and scientific use, we suggest the most appropriate method to categorize functional status should be based on the strengths and weaknesses of each method.

2.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the incidence of Alzheimer's Disease and related dementia diagnosis following treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and impact on survival outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 4814 patients diagnosed with clinical stage T2-T4a, N0, M0 bladder cancer between January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2011 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database were identified. Alzheimer's disease and related dementia diagnosis was identified using International Statistical Classification of Disease-Ninth Edition outpatient and inpatient codes. Incidence of dementia following treatment were calculated and reported as dementia cases per 10,000 person-years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the impact of dementia on survival outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 4814 patients, 2403 (49.9%) underwent radical cystectomy (RC) and 2411 (50.1%) underwent radiotherapy (RTX) and/or chemotherapy (CTX). Overall, 837 (17.4%) patients developed Alzheimer's disease and related dementia following bladder cancer treatment. There was no significant difference in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease and related dementia following either treatment. Patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and related dementia had worse overall (Hazard Ratio (HR), 2.64; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 2.41-2.89) and cancer-specific (HR, 2.45; 95% CI, 2.18-2.76) survival than those without a dementia diagnosis following treatment. CONCLUSION: While we observed no difference in new-onset Alzheimer's disease and related dementia diagnosis following RC or RTX and/or CTX, patients with a Alzheimer's and related dementia diagnosis was associated with worse overall and cancer-specific survival. These findings have important implications for screening and the development of targeted interventions for improving outcomes in older adults following complex cancer treatments, as observed in this bladder cancer population.

3.
Oncologist ; 25(4): 281-289, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given concerns about suboptimal pain management for actively treated cancer patients following the 2014 federal reclassification of hydrocodone, we examined changes in patterns of opioid prescribing among surgical breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from a large nationally representative commercial health insurance program from 2009 to 2017 were used to identify women aged 18 years and older who were diagnosed with carcinoma in-situ or malignant breast cancer and received breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy from 2010 to 2016. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for receipt of ≥1-day, >30-day, or ≥ 90-day supply of opioids in the 12 months following surgery adjusting for demographics, cancer treatment-related characteristics, and preoperative opioid use. RESULTS: A total of 60,080 patients were included in the study. Surgically treated breast cancer patients in 2015 (aOR = 0.90, 0.84-0.97) and 2016 (aOR = 0.80, 0.74-0.86) were less likely to receive ≥1-day supply of opioid prescriptions when compared with patients in 2013. Patients who had surgery in 2015 (aOR = 0.89, 0.81-0.98) and 2016 (aOR = 0.80, 0.73-0.87) were also less likely to receive >30-day supply of prescription opioids in the 12 months following surgery. However, only surgical breast cancer patients in 2016 were less likely to receive ≥90-day supply (aOR = 0.86, 0.76-0.98). CONCLUSION: Surgically treated breast cancer patients are less likely to receive short- and long-term opioid prescriptions following the implementation of hydrocodone rescheduling. Further studies on the potential impact of federal policy on cancer patient pain management are needed. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Clinicians and researchers with diverse perspectives should be included as stakeholders during policy development for restricting opioid prescriptions. Stakeholders can identify potential unintended consequences early and help identify methods to mitigate concerns, specifically as it relates to policy that influences how providers manage pain for actively treated cancer patients. This work shows how federal policy may have led to declines in opioid prescribing for breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery.

4.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients with cirrhosis has high short-term mortality. Data comparing ACLF admissions to academic centers (AC) and non-academic centers (NAC) are scanty. METHODS: National Inpatient Sample (2006-2014) was queried for admissions with cirrhosis and ACLF using the ICD-09 codes, and was stratified to AC or NAC. RESULTS: Of 1,928,764 admissions with cirrhosis (2006-2014), 112,174 (5. 9%) had ACLF. 6.7% of 1,018,568 cirrhosis admissions to AC had ACLF versus 5% of 910,196 admissions to NAC, P < 0.0001. Proportion of ACLF admissions to AC increased from 49% during 2006-2008 to 59% during 2012-2014. In a cohort of 73,630 ACLF admissions (36,615 each to AC and NAC) matched for patient demographics, cirrhosis etiology, number of comorbidities, elective versus emergent admission, ACLF grade, and type of organ failure. In-hospital mortality declined by 7% over the study period, but remained higher in AC (46% vs. 42%, P < 0.001), with 11% increased odds for in-hospital mortality compared to admission to NAC. Further admissions to AC versus NAC had higher median (IQR) length of stay at 13 (6-25) versus 11 (5-20) days, with higher median (IQR) hospital charges: 138,239 (66,772-275,603) versus 116,209 (55,767-232,699) USD, P < 0.001 for both. CONCLUSION: Patients with ACLF have high in-hospital mortality. Further, this is higher among admissions to AC. Although the in-hospital mortality is improving, strategies are needed on early identification of patients with futility of care for early discussion on goals of care, and optimal utilization of hospital resources among admissions with ACLF.

5.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid overprescribing is a focal point for legislators, but little is known about opioid prescribing patterns of primary care nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs). OBJECTIVE: To identify prescription opioid overprescribers by comparing prescribing patterns of primary care physicians (MDs), nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of Medicare Part D enrollee prescription data. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty percent national sample of 2015 Medicare Part D enrollees. MAIN MEASURES: We identified potential opioid overprescribing as providers who met at least one of the following: (1) prescribed any opioid to > 50% of patients, (2) prescribed ≥ 100 morphine milligram equivalents (MME)/day to > 10% of patients, or (3) prescribed an opioid > 90 days to > 20% of patients. KEY RESULTS: Among 222,689 primary care providers, 3.8% of MDs, 8.0% of NPs, and 9.8% of PAs met at least one definition of overprescribing. 1.3% of MDs, 6.3% of NPs, and 8.8% of PAs prescribed an opioid to at least 50% of patients. NPs/PAs practicing in states with independent prescription authority were > 20 times more likely to overprescribe opioids than NPs/PAs in prescription-restricted states. CONCLUSIONS: Most NPs/PAs prescribed opioids in a pattern similar to MDs, but NPs/PAs had more outliers who prescribed high-frequency, high-dose opioids than did MDs. Efforts to reduce opioid overprescribing should include targeted provider education, risk stratification, and state legislation.

6.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; : 1-5, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312139

RESUMO

We compared wound dressing removal at 24 hours versus 48 hours following low-risk caesarean deliveries. This multicentre, randomised, controlled study included patients 18-44 years of age with low-risk term, singleton pregnancies. The randomisation was done weekly. Scheduled caesarean deliveries without labour were included. For comparison, the Additional treatment, Serous discharge, Erythema, Purulent exudate, Separation of deep tissues, Isolation of bacteria, Stay in hospital > 14 days (ASEPSIS) score for wound healing assessment was modified. The absolute scores were obtained based on a one-day reading rather than the five-day reading used in ASEPSIS. Zero ("0") was assigned as a complete healing. Higher scores were associated with more severe disruption of healing. The patients were enrolled between March 2015 and February 2017. The demographics were not statistically different. The wound scoring was similar in the groups at discharge and first-week evaluation. At the six weeks post-surgery, the wound scoring was significantly less in the 48-hour (3.9%) versus the 24-hour group (9%; p = .002). Dressing removal at 48 hours had a lower scoring in the low-risk population with scheduled caesarean deliveries.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Surgical dressings are used to provide suitable conditions to heal caesarean incisions. There has been a limited number of studies on the evaluation of ideal timing on wound dressing removal after a caesarean delivery. These studies concluded there are no increased wound complications with removal at six hours versus 24 hours or within or beyond 48 hours after surgery.What do the results of this study add? The postoperative removal of the wound dressing at 48 hours had a lower wound score at six weeks than the removal at 24 hours for women with uncomplicated scheduled caesarean deliveries.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Early discharge after caesarean delivery is becoming more common. Dressing removal at 24 hours versus 48 hours becomes more crucial and needs to be clarified. Besides, high-risk populations, different skin closure techniques, and patients in labour should be addressed separately.

7.
Cancer ; 126(8): 1656-1667, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality, and this underscores the need to increase HPV vaccination to reduce the burden of the disease. The objective of this study was to examine the association between the number of HPV vaccine doses and the risk of histologically confirmed preinvasive cervical disease and high-grade cytology. METHODS: This retrospective matched cohort study used administrative data from Optum's Clinformatics DataMart Database to identify females aged 9 to 26 years who received 1 or more quadrivalent HPV vaccine doses between January 2006 and June 2015. Cases and controls were matched on region, age, sexually transmitted disease history, and pregnancy. All had a Papanicolaou test ≥1 year after the date of the matched case's final dose. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between the number of HPV vaccine doses and the incidence of preinvasive cervical disease and high-grade cytology. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the cumulative incidence rate at the 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: The study included 133,082 females (66,541 vaccinated and 66,541 unvaccinated) stratified by the number of HPV vaccine doses and the vaccine initiation age. Among those aged 15 to 19 years, the hazard ratio (HR) for high-grade cytology for the 3-dose group was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73-0.97), whereas the HRs for histologically confirmed preinvasive cervical disease for 1, 2, and 3 doses were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.47-0.88), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.95), and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55-0.80), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The receipt of 1, 2, or 3 doses of an HPV vaccine by females aged 15 to 19 years was associated with a lower incidence of preinvasive cervical disease in comparison with unvaccinated females, and this supports the use of any HPV vaccination in reducing the burden of the disease.

8.
J Rural Health ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045057

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on rural disparities in oral health services utilization based on disability status. METHODS: Comparing the 2011-2013 with the 2014-2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the study estimated the impacts of ACA on the likelihood of having preventive checkup and utilization of dental treatments in adults older than 18. FINDINGS: The sample consists of 216,184 noninstitutionalized adults with 14.5% living in rural areas. There was a slight improvement in the receipt of oral health services after ACA, but the improvement was not statistically significant. Disability remains a barrier to receiving preventive oral health checkups, and living in rural areas is a barrier for both utilization of preventive checkups and dental treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Unmet needs for preventive checkups may result in unnecessary, costly dental treatments. More strategies are needed to reduce the disparities in oral health services.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017642

RESUMO

Background: Medical management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes nebulized therapy as an option for inhalational drug delivery. A broad variety of short- and long-acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids in the nebulized form are available. Despite this, limited information exists on the pattern and predictors of nebulized prescription. We examined the trend and factors associated with prescription of nebulized therapy among Medicare beneficiaries with COPD. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 5% Medicare beneficiaries with COPD (n = 66,032) who were enrolled in parts A, B, and D and received nebulized prescription from 2008 to 2015 was conducted. This sample has shown to be representative of the entire fee-for-service Medicare population. The primary outcome was a prescription of nebulized medications. Reliever nebulized medications included short-acting beta agonist (SABA), short-acting muscarinic agents (SAMAs), and a combination of SABA and SAMA, while maintenance nebulized medications included long-acting beta agonists, long-acting muscarinic agents, and corticosteroid solutions as well as combinations of these agents. The secondary outcome was prescription of other inhaler respiratory medications not administered with a nebulizer. Results: Overall, 38.9% patients were prescribed nebulized medication and their prescription significantly declined from 42.4% in 2008 to 35.1% in 2015, majority of which was related to decreased prescriptions of nebulized relievers. Factors associated with the prescription of nebulized medications include female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.09), dual eligibility or low-income subsidy beneficiaries (OR = 1.49; CI = 1.44-1.53), hospitalization for COPD in the previous year (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.25-1.34), home oxygen therapy (OR = 2.29; CI = 2.23-2.36), pulmonary specialist visit (OR = 1.24; CI = 1.20-1.27), and moderate (OR = 1.61; CI = 1.57-1.65) or high (OR = 1.52; CI = 1.46-1.59) severity of COPD. Conclusion: Between 2008 and 2015, prescriptions for nebulized therapy for COPD declined among Medicare beneficiaries, probably related to increase in use of maintenance non-nebulized medications.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated opioid utilization by geriatric patients after spinal surgery, a population in whom degenerative spine disease (DSD) is highly prevalent. We aimed to quantify rates of chronic, continuous opioid utilization by geriatric patients following spine surgery for DSD-related diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Utilizing a national 5% Medicare sample database, we investigated individuals aged above 66 years who underwent spinal surgery for a DSD-related diagnosis between the years of 2008 and 2014. The outcomes of interest were the rate of and risk factors for continuous opioid utilization at 1-year following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, posterior cervical fusion, 360-degree cervical fusion, lumbar microdiscectomy, lumbar laminectomy, posterior lumbar fusion, anterior lumbar fusion, or 360-degree lumbar fusion for a DSD-related diagnosis. RESULTS: Of the 14,583 Medicare enrollees who met study criteria, 6.0% continuously utilized opioids 1-year after spinal surgery. When stratified by preoperative opioid utilization (with the prior year divided into 4 quarters), the rates of continuous utilization at 1-year postsurgery were 0.3% of opioid-naive patients and 23.6% of patients with opioid use in all 4 quarters before surgery. Anxiety, benzodiazepine use within the year before surgery, and Medicaid dual-eligibility were associated with prolonged opioid utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Of opioid-naive geriatric patients who underwent surgery for DSD, 0.3% developed chronic, continuous opioid use. Preoperative opioid use was the strongest predictor of prolonged utilization, which may represent suboptimal use of nonopioid alternatives, pre-existing opioid use disorders, delayed referral for surgical evaluation, or over-prescription of opioids for noncancer pain.

11.
Pain Med ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine opioid prescribing frequency and trends to Medicare Part D enrollees from 2013 to 2017 by medical specialty and provider type. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional, specialty- and provider-level analysis of Medicare Part D prescriber data for opioid claims from 2013 to 2017. We analyzed opioid claims and prescribing trends for specialties accounting for ≥1% of all opioid claims. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2017, pain management providers increased Medicare Part D opioid claims by 27.3% to 1,140 mean claims per provider in 2017; physical medicine and rehabilitation providers increased opioid claims 16.9% to 511 mean claims per provider in 2017. Every other medical specialty decreased opioid claims over this period, with emergency medicine (-19.9%) and orthopedic surgery (-16.0%) dropping opioid claims more than any specialty. Physicians overall decreased opioid claims per provider by -5.2%. Meanwhile, opioid claims among both dentists (+5.6%) and nonphysician providers (+10.2%) increased during this period. CONCLUSIONS: From 2013 to 2017, pain management and PMR increased opioid claims to Medicare Part D enrollees, whereas physicians in every other specialty decreased opioid prescribing. Dentists and nonphysician providers also increased opioid prescribing. Overall, opioid claims to Medicare Part D enrollees decreased and continue to drop at faster rates.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) are high-risk to experience hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) admissions. Mexican-Americans have a high prevalence of ADRD, but there is limited information on the healthcare use of older Mexican-Americans with ADRD. We used data from a cohort of older Mexican-Americans that has been linked with Medicare files to investigate differences in hospitalizations, ER admissions, and physician visits according to ADRD diagnosis. We also identify sociodemographic, health, and functional characteristics that may contribute to differences in healthcare utilization between Mexican-American Medicare beneficiaries with and without an ADRD diagnosis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data came from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly that has been linked with Medicare Master Beneficiary Summary Files, Medicare Provider Analysis and Review files, Outpatient Standard Analytic files, and Carrier files. The final analytic sample included 1048 participants. Participants were followed for two years (eight quarters) after their survey interview. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the probability for one or more hospitalizations, ER admissions, and physician visits at each quarter. ADRD was associated with higher odds for hospitalizations (OR = 1.65, 95%CI = 1.29-2.11) and ER admissions (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.23-1.94) but not physician visits (OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 0.91-1.67). The odds for hospitalizations (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 0.97-1.60) and ER admissions (OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.01-1.59) were reduced after controlling for limitations in activities of daily living and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Mexican-American Medicare beneficiaries with ADRD had significantly higher odds for one or more hospitalizations and ER admissions but similar physician visits compared to beneficiaries without ADRD. Functional limitations and comorbidities contributed to the higher hospitalizations and ER admissions for older Mexican-Americans with ADRD.


Assuntos
Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estados Unidos
13.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(2): 326-332, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the patterns of end-of-life health care for older Mexican Americans with or without a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). Our objective was to investigate the frequency of acute hospital admissions, intensive care unit use, and ventilator use during the last 30 days of life for deceased older Mexican American Medicare beneficiaries with and without an ADRD diagnosis. METHODS: We used Medicare claims data linked with survey information from 1,090 participants (mean age of death 85.1 years) of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds for hospitalization, intensive care unit use, and ventilator use in the last 30 days of life for decedents with ADRD than those without ADRD. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the risk ratio (RR) for length of stay in hospital. RESULTS: Within the last 30 days of life, 64.5% decedents had an acute hospitalization (59.1% ADRD, 68.3% no ADRD), 33.9% had an intensive care unit stay (31.3% ADRD, 35.8% no ADRD), and 17.2% used a ventilator (14.9% ADRD, 18.8% no ADRD). ADRD was associated with significantly lower hospitalizations (odds ratio [OR] = 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50-0.89) and shorter length of stay in hospital (RR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.90). CONCLUSION: Hospitalization, intensive care unit stay, and ventilator use are common at the end of life for older Mexican Americans. The lower hospitalization and shorter length of stay in hospital of decedents with ADRD indicate a modest reduction in acute care use. Future research should investigate the impact of end-of-life planning on acute-care use and quality of life in terminally ill Mexican American older adults.

14.
Cancer ; 126(2): 337-343, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of the BRCA gene in the 1990s created an opportunity for individualized cancer prevention. BRCA testing in young women before cancer onset enables early detection of those with an increased cancer risk and creates an opportunity to offer lifesaving prophylactic procedures and medications. This study assessed trends in BRCA testing in women younger than 40 years without diagnosed breast or ovarian cancer (unaffected young women [UYW]) for cancer prevention between 2006 and 2017 in the United States. METHODS: This study included 93,278 adult women 18 to 65 years old with insurance claims for BRCA testing between 2006 and 2017 from the de-identified Optum Clinformatics Data Mart database. The data contained medical claims and administrative information from privately insured individuals in the United States. The proportion of BRCA testing in UYW younger than 40 years among adult women aged 18 to 65 years who received BRCA testing was assessed. RESULTS: In 2006, only 10.5% of the tests were performed in UYW. The proportion of BRCA tests performed in UYW increased significantly to 25.5% in 2017 (annual percentage change for the 2006-2017 period, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 6.4-7.3; P < .001). The increased trend in the proportion of BRCA tests in UYW significantly differed by region of residence and family history of breast or ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past decade, there was increased use of BRCA testing for cancer prevention. Additional efforts are needed to maximize the early detection of women with BRCA pathogenic variants so that these cancers may be prevented.

15.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(1): 98-101, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: With the availability of direct acting antivirals (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has evolved as the leading indication for listing and receipt of liver transplantation (LT) followed by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and HCV infection. However, data are limited on etiology specific trends on listings and need for LT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We analyzed UNOS database to examine etiology specific listings and receipt of LT for patients with and without HCC. Listings and receipt of LT in the pre-DAA (2007-2012) era were compared to the DAA (2013-2018) era. RESULTS: The analysis shows that among patients without HCV, there is a decreasing trend on the proportion of patients listed and transplanted for HCV, with simultaneous increase on listings and LT for NASH and ALD. Specifically for listings and transplants for HCC, the leading etiology remains HCV infection followed by NASH and ALD. The analysis also showed that LT for AH contributes to about 20% of increase in listings and receipt of LT for ALD.

16.
Chest ; 157(2): 427-434, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have demonstrated a mortality benefit from lung cancer screening by low-dose CT (LDCT) in current or past tobacco smokers who meet criteria. Potential harms of screening mostly relate to downstream evaluation of abnormal screens. Few data exist on the rates outside of clinical trials of imaging and diagnostic procedures following screening LDCT. We describe rates in the community setting of follow-up imaging and diagnostic procedures after screening LDCT. METHODS: We used Clinformatics Data Mart national database to identify enrollees age 55 to 80 year who underwent screening LDCT from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. We assessed rates of follow-up imaging (diagnostic chest CT scan, MRI, and PET) and follow-up procedures (bronchoscopy, percutaneous biopsy, thoracotomy, mediastinoscopy, and thoracoscopy) in the 12 months following LDCT for lung cancer screening. We also assessed these rates in an age-, sex-, and number of comorbidities-matched population that did not undergo LDCT to estimate rates unrelated to the screening LDCT. We then reported the adjusted rate of follow-up testing as the observed rate in the screening LDCT population minus the rate in the non-LDCT population. RESULTS: Among 11,520 enrollees aged 55 to 80 years who underwent LDCT in 2016, the adjusted rates of follow up 12 months after LDCT examinations were low (17.7% for imaging and 3.1% for procedures). Among procedures, the adjusted rates were 2.0% for bronchoscopy, 1.3% for percutaneous biopsy, 0.9% for thoracoscopy, 0.2% for mediastinoscopy, and 0.4% for thoracotomy. Adjusted rates of follow-up procedures were higher in enrollees undergoing an initial screening LDCT (3.3%) than in those after a second screening examination (2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: In general, imaging and rates of procedures after screening LDCT was low in this commercially insured population.

17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(2): 313-320, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We assessed the characteristics of older Mexican American enrollees in traditional fee-for-service (FFS) and Medicare Advantage (MA) plans and the factors associated with disenrollment from FFS and enrollment in MA plans. DESIGN: Longitudinal study linked with Medicare claims data. SETTING: The Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling Mexican American older adults (N = 1455). MEASUREMENTS: We examined insurance status using the Medicare Beneficiary Summary File and estimated the association of sociodemographic and clinical factors with insurance plan switching. RESULTS: Among Mexican American older adults, FFS enrollees were more likely to be born in Mexico, speak Spanish, have lower levels of education, and have more disability than MA enrollees. Older adults with a larger number of limitations of instrumental activities of daily living (odds ratio [OR] = .50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .26-.98) and more social support (OR = .70; 95% CI = .45-.98) were less likely to switch from FFS to MA compared with older adults with no limitations and less social support. Additionally, older adults living in counties with a greater number of MA plans were more likely to switch from FFS to MA (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.45-3.16), compared with counties with a lower number of MA plans. In counties with a higher number of MA plans, older adults with more social support had lower odds of switching from FFS to MA (OR = .48; 95% CI = .28-.82) compared with older adults with less social support. CONCLUSION: Compared with those enrolled in MA, older Mexican American adults enrolled in Medicare FFS are more socioeconomically disadvantaged and more likely to demonstrate poor health status. Stronger social support and increased physical limitations were strongly associated with less frequent switching from FFS to MA plans. Additionally, increased availability of MA plans at the county level is a significant driver of enrollment in MA plans. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:313-320, 2020.

20.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(1): 88-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Alcohol-associated liver disease is increasing, especially hospitalizations with acute on chronic liver failure and need for liver transplant. We examined trends in prevalence, inhospital mortality, and resource utilization associated with AALD and ACLF in the young. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (2006-2014) was queried for hospitalizations with a discharge diagnosis of cirrhosis using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, codes. ACLF hospitalization was defined as ≥2 organ failures and stratified by age: young (≤35 years) and older (>35 years). RESULTS: Of 447,090 AALD admissions (16,126 in young) between 2006 and 2014, ACLF occurred in 29,599 (6.6%), of which 1,143 (7.1%) were in young. Compared with older, admissions in young had more women (35% vs 29%), were obese (11% vs 7.6%), were Hispanics (29% vs 18%), have alcoholic hepatitis (AH) (41% vs 17%), and have ACLF grades 2 or 3 (34% vs 25%), P < 0.001 for all. Between 2006 and 2014, ACLF in AALD among young increased from 2.8% to 5.2%, with an AH proportion from 24% to 42%, P < 0.0001 for both. Young had more complications requiring ventilation (79% vs 76%) and dialysis (32% vs 28%), P < 0.001 for both. Compared with older, ACLF admission in young had longer hospitalization (12 vs 10 days) with higher hospital charges ($127,915 vs $97,511), P < 0.0001 for both, with 20% reduced inhospital mortality (54%-45%), P < 0.001. DISCUSSION: AALD-related hospitalizations are increasing in young in the United States, mainly because of the increasing frequency of AH. Furthermore, this disease burden in young is increasing with a higher frequency of admissions with more severe ACLF and consumption of hospital resources. Studies are needed to develop preventive strategies to reduce burden related to AALD and ACLF in young.

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