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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662218

RESUMO

Narrow HOMO-LUMO gaps and high charge-carrier mobilities make larger acenes potentially high-efficient materials for organic electronic applications. The performance of such molecules was shown to significantly increase with increasing number of fused benzene rings. Bulk quantities, however, can only be obtained reliably for acenes up to heptacene. Theoretically, (oligo)acenes and (poly)acenes are predicted to have open-shell singlet biradical and polyradical ground states, respectively, for which experimental evidence is still scarce. We have now been able to dramatically lower the HOMO-LUMO gap of acenes without the necessity of unfavorable elongation of their conjugated π system, by incorporating two boron atoms into the anthracene skeleton. Stabilizing the boron centers with cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes gives neutral 9,10-diboraanthracenes, which are shown to feature disjointed, open-shell singlet biradical ground states.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701182

RESUMO

Theoretical studies predicted the planar cyclopenten-4-yl cation to be a classical carbocation, and the highest-energy isomer of C5 H7 + . Hence, its existence has not been verified experimentally so far. We were now able to isolate two stable derivatives of the cyclopenten-4-yl cation by reaction of bulky alanes CpR AlBr2 with AlBr3 . Elucidation of their (electronic) structures by X-ray diffraction and quantum chemistry studies revealed planar geometries and strong hyperconjugation interactions primarily from the C-Al σ bonds to the empty p orbital of the cationic sp2 carbon center. A close inspection of the molecular orbitals (MOs) and of the anisotropy of current (induced) density (ACID), as well as the evaluation of various aromaticity descriptors indicated distinct aromaticity for these cyclopenten-4-yl derivatives, which strongly contrasts the classical description of this system. Here, strong delocalization of π electrons spanning the whole carbocycle has been verified, thus providing rare examples of π aromaticity involving saturated sp3 carbon atoms.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329111

RESUMO

The π coordination of arene and anionic heteroarene ligands is a ubiquitous bonding motif in the organometallic chemistry of d-block and f-block elements. By contrast, related π interactions of neutral heteroarenes including neutral bora-π-aromatics are less prevalent particularly for the f-block, due to less effective metal-to-ligand backbonding. In fact, π complexes with neutral heteroarene ligands are essentially unknown for the actinides. We have now overcome these limitations by exploiting the exceptionally strong π donor capabilities of a neutral 1,4-diborabenzene. A series of remarkably robust, π-coordinated thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) half-sandwich complexes were synthesized by simply combining the bora-π-aromatic with ThCl4 (dme)2 or UCl4 , representing the first examples of actinide complexes with a neutral boracycle as sandwich-type ligand. Experimental and computational studies showed that the strong actinide-heteroarene interactions are predominately electrostatic in nature with distinct ligand-to-metal π donation and without significant π/δ backbonding contributions.

4.
Chemistry ; 26(13): 2967-2972, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944442

RESUMO

Several bis(dimethylamino)-substituted 1,4-diaza-2,3-diborinines (DADBs) were synthesized with variable substituents at the backbone nitrogen atoms. By reaction with HCl or BX3 (X=Br, I), these species were successfully converted into their synthetically more useful halide congeners. The high versatility of the generated B-X bonds in further functionalization reactions at the boron centers was demonstrated by means of salt elimination (MeLi) and commutation (NMe2 DADBs) reactions, thus making the DADB system a general structural motif in diborane(4) chemistry. A total of 18 DADB derivatives were characterized in the solid state by X-ray diffraction, revealing a strong dependence of the heterocyclic bonding parameters from the exocyclic substitution pattern at boron. According to our experiments towards the realization of a Dipp-substituted, sterically encumbered DADB, the mechanism of DADB formation proceeds via a transient four-membered azadiboretidine intermediate that subsequently undergoes ring expansion to afford the six-membered DADB heterocycle.

5.
Nature ; 571(7766): 528-531, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341301

RESUMO

General relativity1 predicts that short-orbital-period binaries emit considerable amounts of gravitational radiation. The upcoming Laser Interferometer Space Antenna2 (LISA) is expected to detect tens of thousands of such systems3 but few have been identified4, of which only one5 is eclipsing-the double-white-dwarf binary SDSS J065133.338+284423.37, which has an orbital period of 12.75 minutes. Here we report the discovery of an eclipsing double-white-dwarf binary system, ZTF J153932.16+502738.8, with an orbital period of 6.91 minutes. This system has an orbit so compact that the entire binary could fit within the diameter of the planet Saturn. The system exhibits a deep eclipse, and a double-lined spectroscopic nature. We see rapid orbital decay, consistent with that expected from general relativity. ZTF J153932.16+502738.8 is a strong source of gravitational radiation close to the peak of LISA's sensitivity, and we expect it to be detected within the first week of LISA observations, once LISA launches in approximately 2034.

6.
Chem Sci ; 10(11): 3421-3428, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996931

RESUMO

With the isolation of Cp3tAl (1), the first monomeric Cp-based Al(i) species could be realized in a pure form via a three-step reaction sequence (salt elimination/adduct formation/adduct cleavage) starting from readily available AlBr3. Due to its monomeric structure, reactions involving 1 were found to proceed more selectively, faster, and under milder conditions than for tetrameric (Cp*Al)4. Thus, 1 readily formed simple Lewis acid-base adducts with tBuAlCl2 (6) and AlBr3 (7), reactions that before have always been interfered with by the presence of aluminum halide bonds. In addition, the 2 : 1 reaction of 1 with AlBr3 enabled the realization of the very rare trialuminum adduct species 8. 1 also reacted rapidly with N2O and PhN3 at room temperature to afford Al3O3 and Al2N2 heterocycles 9 and 10, respectively. With the structural characterization of products 4 and 5, the reaction of monovalent 1 with Cp3tAlBr2 (2) provided the first experimental evidence for the concept of valence isomerism between dialanes and their Al(i)/Al(iii) Lewis adducts.

7.
Chemistry ; 25(36): 8612-8622, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974025

RESUMO

A series of 22 new bis(phosphine), bis(carbene), and bis(isonitrile) tetrahalodiborane adducts has been synthesized, either by direct adduct formation with highly sensitive B2 X4 precursors (X=Cl, Br, I) or by ligand exchange at stable B2 X4 (SMe2 )2 precursors (X=Cl, Br) with labile dimethylsulfide ligands. The isolated compounds have been fully characterized using NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and, for 20 of these compounds, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing an unexpected variation in the bonding motifs. In addition to the classical B2 X4 L2 diborane(4) bis-adducts, certain more sterically demanding carbene ligands induce a halide displacement which led to the first halide-bridged monocationic diboron species, [B2 X3 L2 ]A (A=BCl4 , Br, I). Furthermore, low-temperature 1:1 reactions of B2 Cl4 with sterically demanding N-heterocyclic carbenes led to the formation of kinetically unstable mono-adducts, one of which was structurally characterized. A comparison of the NMR spectra and structural data of new and literature-known bis-adducts shows several trends pertaining to the nature of the halides and the stereoelectronic properties of the Lewis bases employed.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(38): 12275-12279, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075060

RESUMO

The first spontaneous, metal-free, room-temperature hydrogen transfer from ammonia borane to an iminoborane is reported. Mechanistic studies of the reaction indicate a concerted transfer of H+ and H- from donor to acceptor with an activation energy far below those of comparable concerted transfer hydrogenations. This reaction was employed in the syntheses and isolation of new B,N-disubstituted aminoboranes, a comparatively rare subset within the aminoborane family. This successful transfer hydrogenation to a highly dehydrogenated BN system may serve as a starting point for the design of new systems capable of reversible dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation.

9.
Chem Sci ; 9(8): 2252-2260, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29719698

RESUMO

The self-stabilizing, tetrameric cyanoborylene [(cAAC)B(CN)]4 (I, cAAC = 1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-3,3,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-2-ylidene) and its diborene relative, [(cAAC)(CN)B 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 B(CN)(cAAC)] (II), both react with disulfides and diselenides to yield the corresponding cAAC-supported cyanoboron bis(chalcogenides). Furthermore, reactions of I or II with elemental sulfur and selenium in various stoichiometries provided access to a variety of cAAC-stabilized cyanoboron-chalcogen heterocycles, including a unique dithiaborirane, a diboraselenirane, 1,3-dichalcogena-2,4-diboretanes, 1,3,4-trichalcogena-2,5-diborolanes and a rare six-membered 1,2,4,5-tetrathia-3,6-diborinane. Stepwise addition reactions and solution stability studies provided insights into the mechanism of these reactions and the subtle differences in reactivity observed between I and II.

10.
Chemistry ; 24(1): 266-273, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068503

RESUMO

A series of NHC-supported 1,2-dithienyldiborenes was synthesized from the corresponding (dihalo)thienylborane NHC precursors. NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopic data, as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses, were used to assess the electronic and steric influences on the B=B double bond of various NHCs and electron-donating substituents on the thienyl ligands. Crystallographic data showed that the degree of coplanarity of the diborene core and thienyl groups is highly dependent on the sterics of the substituents. Furthermore, any increase in the electron-donating ability of the substituents resulted in the destabilization of the HOMO and greater instability of the resulting diborenes.

11.
Chem Sci ; 8(10): 7066-7071, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29147534

RESUMO

The reaction of [(cAACMe)BH3] (cAACMe = 1-(2,6-iPr2C6H3)-3,3,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidin-2-ylidene) with a range of organolithium compounds led to the exclusive formation of the corresponding (dihydro)organoborates, Li+[(cAACMeH)BH2R]- (R = sp3-, sp2-, or sp-hybridised organic substituent), by migration of one boron-bound hydrogen atom to the adjacent carbene carbon of the cAAC ligand. A subsequent deprotonation/salt metathesis reaction with Me3SiCl or spontaneous LiH elimination yielded the neutral cAAC-supported mono(organo)boranes, [(cAACMe)BH2R]. Similarly the reaction of [(cAACMe)BH3] with a neutral donor base L resulted in adduct formation by shuttling one boron-bound hydrogen to the cAAC ligand, to generate [(cAACMeH)BH2L], either irreversibly (L = cAACMe) or reversibly (L = pyridine). Variable-temperature NMR data and DFT calculations on [(cAACMeH)BH2(cAACMe)] show that the hydrogen on the former carbene carbon atom exchanges rapidly with the boron-bound hydrides.

12.
Chemistry ; 23(40): 9491-9494, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28608587

RESUMO

Dihalodiboranes(4) react with a N-heterocyclic silylene (NHSi) to generate NHSi adducts of 1-aryl-2-silyl-1,2-diboraindanes, as was confirmed by X-ray crystallography, featuring the functionalization of both B-X (X=halogen) bonds and a sp3 - or sp2 -C-H bond under mild conditions. Coordination of a third NHSi to the proposed 1,1-diaryl-2,2-disilyldiborane(4) intermediates, generated by a twofold B-X insertion, may be crucial for the C-H borylation that leads to the final products. Notably, our results demonstrate the first C-H borylation with a strong B-F bond activated by silylene insertion.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(37): 11263-11267, 2017 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640395

RESUMO

Deprotonation of [(cAAC)BH2 (CN)] provided clean access to the stable boryl anion, [(cAAC)BH(CN)]- . Whereas the addition of soft electrophiles occurred at the nucleophilic boron center, harder silyl electrophiles added to the harder terminal cyano nitrogen. The resulting [(cAAC)BH(CNSiPh3 )] species behaved like a silylium boryl nucleophile as well as a neutral silylisonitrile borylene.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(49): 16140-16147, 2016 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27960339

RESUMO

The combination of Pt0 complexes and indium trihalides leads to compounds that form equilibria in solution between their In-X oxidative addition (OA) products (PtII indyl complexes) and their metal-only Lewis pair (MOLP) isomers (LnPt→InX3). The position of the equilibria can be altered reversibly by changing the solvent, while the equilibria can be reversibly and irreversibly driven toward the MOLP products by addition of further donor ligands. The results mark the first observation of an equilibrium between MOLP and OA isomers, as well as the most polar bond ever observed to undergo reversible oxidative addition to a metal complex. In addition, we present the first structural characterization of MOLP and oxidative addition isomers of the same compound. The relative energies of the MOLP and OA isomers were calculated by DFT methods, and the possibility of solvent-mediated isomerization is discussed.

15.
Chemistry ; 22(46): 16415-16419, 2016 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709713

RESUMO

Reaction of a N-heterocyclic silylene (NHSi) with PhBX2 (X=Cl, Br) readily afforded six-membered silaborinines through an insertion/ring expansion sequence. Increasing the sterics of the borane from phenyl to duryl enabled the selective generation and isolation of the highly colored silylborane intermediates. Theoretical studies on the mechanism and energetics of the silaborinine formation were fully consistent with the experimental observations.

16.
Chemistry ; 22(32): 11441-9, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27385314

RESUMO

The reaction of tert-butylisonitrile (tBuNC) with 1,2-dihalo-1,2-diduryldiborane leads initially to the formation of the mono-base adduct of the symmetrical diborane(4), which then undergoes an intramolecular cyclization resulting in the formation of a 1-boraindane. This result is in contrast to a previously reported cyclization of a mono-isonitrile adduct of an unsymmetrical 1,1-pinacol-2,2-diaryldiborane(4), which results in the formation of a 1-boraindane. This latter result is herein confirmed by the reaction of 1,1-difluoro-2,2-dimesityldiborane(4) with tBuNC, which yielded the 2-boraindane compound. The mechanism of the former reaction has been computationally elucidated, and the differences between this route and the pathway to 1-boraindanes is discussed. These reactions further the understanding of the chemistry of the increasingly popular mono-base adducts of diborane(4), demonstrate the versatility of isonitriles in comparison to standard two-electron donors, and elucidate selective routes to boron-containing polycyclics, such as those being proposed as analogues for conventional organic pharmaceuticals.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(50): 15084-8, 2015 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26530854

RESUMO

Hückel π aromaticity is typically a domain of carbon-rich compounds. Only very few analogues with non-carbon frameworks are currently known, all involving the heavier elements. The isolation of the triboracyclopropenyl dianion is presented, a boron-based analogue of the cyclopropenyl cation, which belongs to the prototypical class of Hückel π aromatics. Reduction of Cl2 BNCy2 by sodium metal produced [B3 (NCy2 )3 ](2-) , which was isolated as its dimeric Na(+) salt (Na4 [B3 (NCy2 )3 ]2 ⋅2 DME; 1) in 45 % yield and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Cyclic voltammetry measurements established an extremely high oxidation potential for 1 (Epc =-2.42 V), which was further confirmed by reactivity studies. The Hückel-type π aromatic character of the [B3 (NCy2 )3 ](2-) dianion was verified by various theoretical methods, which clearly indicated π aromaticity for the B3 core of a similar magnitude to that in [C3 H3 ](+) and benzene.

18.
Chemistry ; 21(42): 14797-803, 2015 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26387512

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of [n]manganoarenophanes (n=1, 2) featuring boron, silicon, germanium, and tin as ansa-bridging elements. Their preparation was achieved by salt-elimination reactions of the dilithiated precursor [Mn(η(5) -C5 H4 Li)(η(6) -C6 H5 Li)]⋅pmdta (pmdta=N,N,N',N',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) with corresponding element dichlorides. Besides characterization by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis, the identity of two single-atom-bridged derivatives, [Mn(η(5) -C5 H4 )(η(6) -C6 H5 )SntBu2 ] and [Mn(η(5) -C5 H4 )(η(6) -C6 H5 )SiPh2 ], could also be determined by X-ray structural analysis. We investigated for the first time the reactivity of these ansa-cyclopentadienyl-benzene manganese compounds. The reaction of the distannyl-bridged complex [Mn(η(5) -C5 H4 )(η(6) -C6 H5 )Sn2 tBu4 ] with elemental sulfur was shown to proceed through the expected oxidative addition of the Sn-Sn bond to give a triatomic ansa-bridge. The investigation of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) capability of [Mn(η(5) -C5 H4 )(η(6) -C6 H5 )SntBu2 ] with [Pt(PEt3 )3 ] showed that an unexpected, unselective insertion into the Cipso -Sn bonds of [Mn(η(5) -C5 H4 )(η(6) -C6 H5 )SntBu2 ] had occurred.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(1): 359-62, 2015 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25389108

RESUMO

Despite the fundamental importance of radical-anion radical-cation pairs in single-electron transfer (SET) reactions, such species are still very rare and transient in nature. Since diborenes have highly electron-rich BB double bonds, which makes them strong neutral reductants, we envisaged a possible realization of a boron-centered radical-anion radical-cation pair by SET from a diborene to a borole species, which are known to form stable radical anions upon one-electron reduction. However, since the reduction potentials of all know diborenes (E1/2 =-1.05/-1.55 V) were not sufficiently negative to reduce MesBC4 Ph4 (E1/2 =-1.69 V), a suitable diborene, IiPr⋅(iPr)BB(iPr)⋅IiPr, was tailor-made to comply with these requirements. With a halfwave potential of E1/2 =-1.95 V, this diborene ranks amongst the most powerful neutral organic reductants known and readily reacted with MesBC4 Ph4 by SET to afford a stable boron-centered radical-anion radical-cation pair.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(22): 5689-93, 2014 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24711294

RESUMO

The realization of a phosphine-stabilized diborene, Et3P⋅(Mes)B=B(Mes)⋅PEt3 (4), by KC8 reduction of Et3P⋅B2Mes2Br2 in benzene enabled the evaluation and comparison of its electronic structure to the previously described NHC-stabilized diborene IMe⋅(Dur)B=B(Dur)⋅IMe (1). Importantly, both species feature unusual electron-rich boron centers. However, cyclic voltammetry, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and DFT calculations revealed a significant influence of the Lewis base on the reduction potential and absorption behavior of the BB double bond system. Thus, the stronger σ-donor strength and larger electronegativity of the NHC ligand results in an energetically higher-lying HOMO, making 1 a stronger neutral reductant as 4 (1: E(1/2)=-1.55 V; 4: -1.05 V), and a smaller HOMO-LUMO gap of 1 accompanied by a noticeable red-shift of its lowest-energy absorption band with respect to 4. Owing to the highly negative reduction potentials, 1 and 4 were easily oxidized to afford rare boron-centered radical cations (5 and 6).

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