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1.
Food Chem ; 221: 1041-1056, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27979057

RESUMO

Most of scientific papers concern the qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of aroma-active terpenes in liquid food matrices. Therefore, the procedure based on solid-phase microextraction and two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for determination of monoterpenes in fresh berries was developed. The optimal extraction conditions using divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber were: temperature of 50°C, extraction time of 26min, equilibrium time of 29min. The developed procedure provides a high recovery (70.8-99.2%), good repeatability (CV<10.4%), high linearity (r>0.9915) and offers practical advantages over currently used methods: reliability of compounds identification, simplicity of extraction and at least one order of magnitude lower detection limits (0.10-0.011µg/L). The method was successfully applied to determine monoterpenes in 27 berry samples of different varieties and 4 berry products. Tukey's test revealed that monoterpenes content is a reliable indicator of fruit maturity and origin. It suggests that the method may be of interest to researchers and food industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Monoterpenos/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Polivinil/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microextração em Fase Sólida/normas , Temperatura , Terpenos/análise
2.
J Sep Sci ; 40(2): 532-541, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862955

RESUMO

An analytical procedure based on in-tube extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of 24 of the main volatile components in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) samples. According to their chemical structure, the compounds were organized into different groups: one hydrocarbon, one aldehyde, four alcohols, four esters, and 14 monoterpenes. By single-factor experiments, incubation temperature, incubation time, extraction volume, extraction strokes, extraction speed, desorption temperature, and desorption speed were determined as 60°C, 20 min, 1000 µL, 20, 50:50 µL/s, 280°C, 100 µL/s, respectively. Quantitative analysis using authentic standards and external calibration curves was performed. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the analytical procedure were calculated. Results shown the benzaldehyde, ethyl butanoate, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-butanol, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol were the most abundant volatile compounds in analyzed fruits (68.6-585 µg/kg). The obtained data may contribute to qualify cape gooseberry to the group of superfruits and, therefore, increase its popularity.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Physalis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Limite de Detecção , Temperatura , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
3.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 56(14): 2268-77, 2016 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25830907

RESUMO

3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a heat-induced food contaminant that has been widely investigated for decades. This paper presents an overview of current knowledge about 3-MCPD, including its formation routes, occurrence in various foodstuffs, analytical approach, toxicological aspects, and future research perspectives. So far, 3-MCPD was determined in its free and bound form in thermally treated foods, edible oils and fats, and infant foods including human breast milk. Contaminants in infant foods and human breast milk were highlighted in this paper as a serious problem as they can pose a potential hazard for infants. The analytical approach of 3-MCPD determination has been modified for over a decade. Nowadays, the method based on determining the derivative of this compound by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is widely used. However, there is still a big need for developing new methods that would produce repeatable results. Some of the toxicologic aspects associated with 3-MCPD still remain unknown. A number of studies on the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of 3-MCPD were carried out on rodents; however, no clinical studies on humans have been reported so far. Moreover, both detrimental effect on kidneys and antifertility activity have been widely reported. The knowledge of 3-MCPD absorption into body fluids and tissues and its metabolic pathways is based on sometimes conflicting data derived from different studies. In conclusion, although a lot of research has been carried out on 3-MCPD, there is still a need for further research in this area.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , alfa-Cloridrina/química , Dieta , Análise de Alimentos , Saúde Global , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
4.
Food Chem ; 152: 88-93, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24444910

RESUMO

Terpenes are the main group of secondary metabolites, which play essential role in human. The establishment of the terpenes profile of berries of different blue honeysuckle cultivars was achieved by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC×GC-TOFMS). The berries were found to contain 44 terpenes identified by GC×GC-TOFMS. From these, 10 were previously reported in blueberries. According to their chemical structure, the compounds were organised in different groups: monoterpene hydrocarbons and monoterpene oxygen-containing compounds (oxides, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones). Positive identification of some of the compounds was performed using authentic standards, while tentative identification of the compounds was based on deconvoluted mass spectra and comparison of linear retention indices (LRI) with literature values. The major components of volatile fraction were monoterpenes, such as eucalyptol, linalool and p-cymene. Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that eucalyptol was the most abundant bioactive terpene in analysed berries (12.4-418.2 µg/L).


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Lonicera/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Terpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1307: 1-20, 2013 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23932374

RESUMO

Analysis of organic compounds in samples characterized by different composition of the matrix is very important in many areas. A vast majority of organic compound determinations are performed using gas or liquid chromatographic methods. It is thus very important that these methods have negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques have the potential to be greener at all steps of the analysis, from sample collection and preparation to separation and final determination. The paper summarizes the approaches used to accomplish the goals of green chromatography. While complete elimination of sample preparation would be an ideal approach, it is not always practical. Solventless extraction techniques offer a very good alternative. Where solvents must be used, the focus should be on the minimization of their consumption. The approaches used to make chromatographic separations greener differ depending on the type of chromatography. In gas chromatography it is advisable to move away from using helium as the carrier gas because it is a non-renewable resource. GC separations using low thermal mass technology can be greener because of energy savings offered by this technology. In liquid chromatography the focus should be on the reduction of solvent consumption and replacement of toxic and environmentally hazardous solvents with more benign alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques have the potential to make the analysis greener in both GC and LC. The environmental impact of the method is often determined by the location of the instrument with respect to the sample collection point.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Química Verde/métodos
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