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1.
Differentiation ; 123: 1-8, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844057

RESUMO

Mutations in optineurin (OPTN) have been identified in a small proportion of sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. Recent evidences suggest that OPTN would be involved in not only the pathophysiological mechanisms of motor neuron death of ALS but also myofiber degeneration of sporadic inclusion body myositis. However, the detailed role of OPTN in muscle remains unclear. Initially, we showed that OPTN expression levels were significantly increased in the denervated muscles of mice, suggesting that OPTN may be involved in muscle homeostasis. To reveal the molecular role of OPTN in muscle atrophy, we used cultured C2C12 myotubes treated with tumor necrosis factor-like inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) as an in vitro model of muscle atrophy. Our data showed that OPTN had no effect on the process of muscle atrophy in this model. On the other hand, we found that myogenic differentiation was affected by OPTN. Immunoblotting analysis showed that OPTN protein levels gradually decreased during C2C12 differentiation. Furthermore, OPTN knockdown inhibited C2C12 differentiation, accompanied by reduction of mRNA and protein expression levels of myogenin and MyoD. These findings suggested that OPTN may have a novel function in muscle homeostasis and play a role in the pathogenesis of neuromuscular diseases.

2.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 396, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and late-onset neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) show CGG/GGC trinucleotide repeat expansions. Differentiating these diseases are difficult because of the similarity in their clinical and radiological features. It is unclear that skin biopsy can distinguish NIID from FXTAS. We performed a skin biopsy in an FXTAS case with cognitive dysfunction and peripheral neuropathy without tremor, which was initially suspected to be NIID. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient underwent neurological assessment and examinations, including laboratory tests, electrophysiologic test, imaging, skin biopsy, and genetic test. A brain MRI showed hyperintensity lesions along the corticomedullary junction on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in addition to middle cerebellar peduncle sign (MCP sign). We suspected NIID from the clinical picture and the radiological findings, and performed a skin biopsy. The skin biopsy specimen showed ubiquitin- and p62-positive intranuclear inclusions, suggesting NIID. However, a genetic analysis for NIID using repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction (RP-PCR) revealed no expansion detected in the Notch 2 N-terminal like C (NOTCH2NLC) gene. We then performed genetic analysis for FXTAS using RP-PCR, which revealed a repeat CGG/GGC expansion in the FMRP translational regulator 1 (FMR1) gene. The number of repeats was 83. We finally diagnosed the patient with FXTAS rather than NIID. CONCLUSIONS: For the differential diagnosis of FXTAS and NIID, a skin biopsy alone is insufficient; instead, genetic analysis, is essential. Further investigations in additional cases based on genetic analysis are needed to elucidate the clinical and pathological differences between FXTAS and NIID.


Assuntos
Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear , Tremor , Ataxia , Biópsia , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas
3.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596824

RESUMO

Cancer-associated ischemic stroke (CAS) refers to a hypercoagulation disorder related to malignant tumors, especially adenocarcinoma. Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 125 is a mucinous serum marker that might reflect hypercoagulation status, but the association between CA 125 and CAS is unclear across various types of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations among tumor markers, coagulation markers, and clinical factors in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with active cancer. Consecutive AIS patients with active cancer (a diagnosis or ongoing active therapy for cancer within 6 months) were prospectively enrolled at four hospitals. D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA19-9, and CA 125 levels were measured. Of 120 AIS patients with active cancer, 47 were diagnosed with CAS. CA 125 had the strongest correlations with D-dimer and CRP (ρ = 0.543, p < 0.001 and ρ = 0.452, p < 0.001, respectively). The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves for the diagnosis of CAS were 0.812 (95% CI 0.718-0.878) for CA 125, 0.714 (95% CI 0.602-0.801) for CEA, and 0.663 (95% CI 0.552-0.759) for CA 19-9. Multivariable analysis revealed that CA 125 levels in the highest quartile (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.68-5.53), multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories observed on diffusion-weighted imaging, the absence of dyslipidemia, and the absence of atrial fibrillation were independently associated with CAS. Increased CA 125 levels, which indicate hypercoagulability, were useful for diagnosing CAS in AIS patients with active cancer.

5.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 61(11): 743-749, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657921

RESUMO

A 68-year-old man with a 2-month history of progressive weakness and spontaneous pain in proximal limb muscles presented to our hospital with a dropped head. He started experiencing progressive dysphagia several days before admission. On admission, he had muscle weakness of the limbs and neck extensors with edema and induration in distal extremities. Laboratory tests showed elevation of muscle enzymes. FDG-PET/CT demonstrated multiple hypermetabolic lymph nodes, but the primary site was not identified; thus, metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary origin was considered. The patient was diagnosed with anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 antibody-positive paraneoplastic myopathy based on serum tests. Histological findings of the left biceps brachii muscle biopsy revealed severe variation in fiber size and perifascicular myofiber atrophy. Myofibers exhibited myxovirus resistance protein A expression predominantly in the perifascicular region. Following intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's muscle strength improved with normalization of muscle enzyme levels. The dropped head was considered to have resulted from the preferential involvement of neck extensors based on the observed FDG-PET/CT uptake in neck extensors.

7.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(6): 554-562, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456255

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to describe clinical and pathological features, prognosis and treatment in patients with anti-HMGCR antibody positive immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (HMGCR-IMNM) based on recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Using advances in diagnostic modalities that can confirm the presence of anti-HMGCR antibody, the clinical and pathological manifestations of HMGCR-IMNM were found to be broader than previously reported. Although only a small percentage of HMGCR-IMNM patients present with atypical manifestations, some of these patients show slow disease progression and clinical symptoms, which are similar to those of limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. Other atypical HMGCR-IMNM patients have skin conditions similar to dermatomyositis-like skin rush or dermatological presentations of Jessner-Kanoff disease or cutaneous lymphoma, whose pathological changes including CD8-positive and bcl-2-positive lymphocytic accumulations, similar to Jessner-Kanoff lymphocytic infiltration of skin or low-grade cutaneous lymphoma, which are observed in muscle and skin. SUMMARY: Anti-HMGCR autoantibodies define unique populations of IMNM patients. Recent studies have revealed that clinicopathological manifestations of HMGCR-IMNM, especially extramuscular symptoms and pathological manifestations, are more common than previously recognized.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Doenças Musculares , Miosite , Autoanticorpos , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Músculo Esquelético , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Miosite/diagnóstico , Necrose , Prognóstico
9.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(7): 853-863, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047774

RESUMO

Importance: Repeat expansion of CGG in LRP12 has been identified as the causative variation of oculopharyngodistal myopathy (OPDM). However, to our knowledge, the clinicopathologic features of OPDM with CGG repeat expansion in LRP12 (hereafter referred to as OPDM_LRP12) remain unknown. Objective: To identify and characterize the clinicopathologic features of patients with OPDM_LRP12. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 208 patients with a clinical or clinicopathologic diagnosis of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPDM) from January 1, 1978, to December 31, 2020. Patients with GCN repeat expansions in PABPN1 were excluded from the study. Repeat expansions of CGG in LRP12 were screened by repeat primed polymerase chain reaction and/or Southern blot. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical information, muscle imaging data obtained by either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and muscle pathologic characteristics. Results: Sixty-five Japanese patients with OPDM (40 men [62%]; mean [SD] age at onset, 41.0 [10.1] years) from 59 families with CGG repeat expansions in LRP12 were identified. This represents the most common OPDM subtype among all patients in Japan with genetically diagnosed OPDM. The expansions ranged from 85 to 289 repeats. A negative correlation was observed between the repeat size and the age at onset (r2 = 0.188, P = .001). The most common initial symptoms were ptosis and muscle weakness, present in 24 patients (37%). Limb muscle weakness was predominantly distal in 53 of 64 patients (83%), but 2 of 64 patients (3%) had predominantly proximal muscle weakness. Ptosis was observed in 62 of 64 patients (97%), and dysphagia or dysarthria was observed in 63 of 64 patients (98%). A total of 21 of 64 patients (33%) had asymmetric muscle weakness. Aspiration pneumonia was seen in 11 of 64 patients (17%), and 5 of 64 patients (8%) required mechanical ventilation. Seven of 64 patients (11%) developed cardiac abnormalities, and 5 of 64 patients (8%) developed neurologic abnormalities. Asymmetric muscle involvement was detected on computed tomography scans in 6 of 27 patients (22%) and on magnetic resonance imaging scans in 4 of 15 patients (27%), with the soleus and the medial head of the gastrocnemius being the worst affected. All 42 muscle biopsy samples showed rimmed vacuoles. Intranuclear tubulofilamentous inclusions were observed in only 1 of 5 patients. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that OPDM_LRP12 is the most frequent OPDM subtype in Japan and is characterized by oculopharyngeal weakness, distal myopathy that especially affects the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, and rimmed vacuoles in muscle biopsy.

10.
Neuropathology ; 41(4): 266-272, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942396

RESUMO

Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) commonly involve the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine glands, skin, and liver, and rarely the nervous system. The pathomechanism of irAEs in the nervous system is unclear, and so characterizing these severe toxic effects is a priority, even if irAEs are uncommon in the nervous system. Our patient presented subacute muscle weakness and dysesthesia with colitis as irAEs caused by pembrolizumab, one of the anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibodies. Electromyography revealed abundant fibrillations and fasciculations of upper and lower extremities and severe reduction in motor unit potentials; however, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, rheumatoid factor, autoantibodies against Hu and Yo, and anti-ganglioside antibodies, such as GQ1b, were undetectable in the serum. Although he was treated with high-dose glucocorticoids, antibiotics, and a monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibody, he developed colonic perforation. The total colorectal resection was performed, and the resected colon showed mucosal defect and perforation. He died of lung aspergillosis. Postmortem examination revealed CD8-positive lymphocyte infiltration around neurons of dorsal root ganglia. The sciatic nerve displayed the widening of myelin laminae and thinning of myelinated fibers but not a decrease in the density of myelinated nerve fibers. In the sural nerve, the density of myelinated fibers slightly decreased, and some fibers showed less densely myelinated laminae. Drug safety information, including previous randomized trials of anti-PD-1 and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibodies, showed that patients treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies appeared to have more frequent and severe peripheral neuropathies compared to those in patients who received anti-CTLA-4 antibodies (1.59% vs. 0.69%; Fisher exact test, P < 0.001; three severe events vs. zero severe events). The present results and drug safety information suggest that the pathomechanism of irAEs caused by anti-PD-1 antibodies is different from that by anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. The neurological irAEs might be clues to solving the pathomechanism of irAEs.

11.
J Hum Genet ; 66(10): 957-964, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742109

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Notably, genetic risk factors vary according to ethnicity and geographical regions, and few studies have analyzed the frequency of PD causative genes in Japanese patients. Therefore, we performed genetic analyses of Japanese patients with PD. We recruited 221 participants, including 26 patients with familial PD. Genetic risk factors were evaluated by target sequencing and gene dosage analysis. We detected the genetic risk factors in 58 cases (26.2%) and classified patients into three groups to clarify the differences in genetic risk factors by age at onset (AAO). The early-onset group (AAO < 50 years) included 18 cases (44.7%), who tended to have a larger number of genetic risk factors than the later-onset groups. Regarding the AAO for each causative gene, patients with PRKN variants were significantly younger at onset than those bearing LRRK2 variants. LRRK2 variants showed similar frequency in each AAO group. Of note, we identified two novel variants. Patients with early-onset PD have more genetic risk factors than patients with late-onset PD. In Japanese patients with PD, PRKN, and LRRK2 were the major PD-related genes. Particularly, LRRK2 was a common genetic factor in all age groups because of the presence of the Asian-specific variant such as LRRK2 p.G2385R. Accumulation of genetic and clinical data can contribute to the development of treatments for PD.

12.
CEN Case Rep ; 10(2): 220-225, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125665

RESUMO

Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) is a mitochondrial genetic disorder with variable clinical presentations, which can delay its diagnosis. Herein, we report the case of a 57-year-old Japanese man with MIDD who developed chronic kidney disease. He developed proteinuria long before his diabetes and deafness; at the age of 36 years, a renal biopsy showed minor glomerular abnormality and electron microscopy showed mild mitochondrial degeneration in the distal tubular epithelial cells. Twenty years later, a second renal biopsy showed nephrosclerosis with interstitial fibrosis and arteriolar hyaline thickening, despite the absence of hypertension and relatively good glycemic control. Granular swollen epithelial cells were found in the medullary collecting duct epithelium. Electron microscopy showed accumulating mitochondria in podocytes and tubular cells, leading to the diagnosis of MIDD. A muscle biopsy also showed ragged-red fibers, despite the absence of muscle weakness. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed an m.3243A > G mutation, and taurine supplementation was initiated. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly associated with progressive renal damage.

13.
Neuropathology ; 41(1): 29-36, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225515

RESUMO

UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) is necessary for sialic acid biosynthesis. GNE myopathy is caused by a defect in GNE, and hyposialylation is a key factor in the pathomechanism of GNE myopathy. Although candidates for evaluating hyposialylation have been reported, it is difficult to measure them in routine clinical practice. Sialylation is necessary for synthesis of various glycoproteins, including Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6)/mucin 1 (MUC1). Here we report that KL-6/MUC1 is decreased in GNE myopathy. We observed that KL-6 levels were decreased in the serum of patients with GNE myopathy, and that KL-6 and MUC1-C were also decreased in muscle biopsy specimens from these patients. An immunofluorescent study revealed that KL-6 and MUC1-C were not present in the sarcolemma but were, instead, localized in rimmed vacuoles in specimens from patients with GNE myopathy. KL-6 is already used to detect lung diseases in clinical practice, and this glycoprotein may be a novel candidate for evaluating hyposialylation in GNE myopathy.

14.
Neurobiol Dis ; 148: 105215, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296728

RESUMO

We previously showed that optineurin (OPTN) mutations lead to the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The association between OPTN mutations and the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis, we generated Optn knockout mice. We evaluated histopathological observations of these mice and compared with those of OPTN- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases to investigate the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis caused by OPTN mutations. The Optn (-/-) mice presented neuronal autophagic vacuoles immunopositive for charged multivesicular body protein 2b, one of the hallmarks of granulovacuolar degenerations, in the cytoplasm of spinal cord motor neurons at the age of 8 months and the OPTN- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis case with homozygous Q398X mutation. In addition, Optn (-/-) mice showed TAR-DNA binding protein 43/sequestosome1/p62 -positive cytoplasmic inclusions and the clearance of nuclear TAR-DNA binding protein 43. The axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerves was observed in Optn (-/-) mice. However, we could not observe significant differences in survival time, body weight, and motor functions, at 24 months. Our findings suggest that homozygous OPTN deletion or mutations might result in autophagic dysfunction and TAR-DNA binding protein 43 mislocalization, thereby leading to neurodegeneration of motor neurons. These findings indicate that the Optn (-/-) mice recapitulate both common and specific pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with autophagic abnormalities. Optn (-/-) mice could serve as a mouse model for the development of therapeutic strategies.

15.
J Hum Genet ; 65(10): 917-920, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451491

RESUMO

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a hereditary neurological disorder characterized by idiopathic calcification of the bilateral basal ganglia and other areas of the brain. MYORG has been identified as the first causative gene of autosomal recessive PFBC in Chinese families. There have been several reports of PFBC associated with MYORG (MYORG-PFBC) in individuals of Middle Eastern, European, and Latin American ancestry but to date, there have been no reported Japanese cases. We report the first Japanese case of MYORG-PFBC. The patient was a 43-year-old Japanese woman who experienced mild headaches and cerebellar ataxia including dysarthria. Computed tomography showed calcification in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brainstem. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous variant in the MYORG gene (NM_020702.4: c.794C>T,p.Thr265Met). Our patient presented dysarthria and extensive calcification affecting the pons, which are specific features of MYORG-PFBC. We report clinical symptoms and imaging findings of a case with p.Thr265Met variant.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Calcinose/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Mutação Puntual , Adulto , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/patologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Consanguinidade , Disartria/genética , Feminino , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Cefaleia/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Japão , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 68, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TWNK gene encodes the twinkle protein, which is a mitochondrial helicase for DNA replication. The dominant TWNK variants cause progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 3, while the recessive variants cause mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 7 and Perrault syndrome 5. Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss in both males and females and gonadal dysfunction in females. Patients with Perrault syndrome may present early-onset cerebellar ataxia, whereas middle-age-onset cerebellar ataxia caused by TWNK variants is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A Japanese female born to consanguineous parents presented hearing loss at age 48, a staggering gait at age 53, and numbness in her distal extremities at age 57. Neurological examination revealed sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellar ataxia, decreased deep tendon reflexes, and sensory disturbance in the distal extremities. Laboratory tests showed no abnormal findings other than a moderate elevation of pyruvate concentration levels. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed mild cerebellar atrophy. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous TWNK variant (NM_021830: c.1358G>A, p.R453Q). CONCLUSIONS: TWNK variants could cause middle-age-onset cerebellar ataxia. Screening for TWNK variants should be considered in cases of cerebellar ataxia associated with deafness and/or peripheral neuropathy, even if the onset is not early.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/complicações , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Marcha Atáxica/complicações , Marcha Atáxica/diagnóstico , Marcha Atáxica/genética , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XX/diagnóstico , Disgenesia Gonadal 46 XX/genética , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Japão , Transtornos de Início Tardio/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Início Tardio/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem
17.
Neurol Genet ; 6(1): e396, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042923

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the genetic underpinnings of slowly progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive (SCAR), we performed exome analysis and examined the relationship between clinical severity and functional change induced by the mutation. Methods: Homozygosity fingerprinting and exome sequencing were performed to identify causative mutations in 2 consanguineous families. We assessed the expression of D-bifunctional protein (DBP) and the amount of dimerized DBP in fibroblasts by immunoblot and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The pathogenicity of the mutation was evaluated using the Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion (CADD) scores; these results were compared with the scores of previously reported mutations. Results: We identified a homozygous mutation as causative of middle age-onset SCAR: p.Ala175Thr, which is located in HSD17B4 that encodes peroxisomal DBP. The patients developed cerebellar ataxia, and the subsequent progression was slow. The symptoms presented were milder than those in previously reported cases. The messenger RNA expression levels were normal, but protein levels were diminished. Dimerization of DBP was also reduced. The CADD score of the identified mutation was lower than those of previously reported mutations. Conclusions: This is the report of middle age-onset DBP deficiency. Residual functional DBP caused relatively mild symptoms in the affected patients, i.e., slowly progressive ataxia and hearing loss. This study broadens the scope of DBP deficiency phenotypes and indicates that CADD scores may be used to estimate the severity of DBP deficiencies.

18.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(4): 448-457, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100014

RESUMO

Anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and antisignal recognition particle (SRP) antibodies are frequently associated with immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). However, the difference in clinical manifestations between anti-HMGCR and anti-SRP antibodies is unclear. HMGCR is an essential enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis and is inhibited by statins that regulate apoptosis of Bcl-2-positive and beta chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4)-positive lymphoma cells. In this study, we aimed to clarify Bcl-2 and CCR4 expressions of lymphocytes in anti-HMGCR antibody-positive IMNM and explore the difference between anti-HMGCR antibody-positive myopathy and other inflammatory myopathies. We retrospectively examined Bcl-2- and CCR4-positive lymphocyte infiltrations in muscle and skin biopsy specimens from 19 anti-HMGCR antibody-positive patients and 75 other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) patients. A higher incidence of Bcl-2- and CCR4-positive lymphocytes was detected in the muscle and skin of anti-HMGCR antibody-positive IMNM patients (p < 0.001). In 5 patients with anti-HMGCR antibodies, Bcl-2-positive lymphocytes formed lymphocytic accumulations, which were not observed in other IIMs. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not increased except for patients with Bcl-2-positive lymphocytic accumulations (p = 0.010). Bcl-2 and CCR4 lymphocyte infiltrations could be a pathological characteristic of anti-HMGCR antibody-positive IMNM.


Assuntos
Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Doenças Musculares/imunologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Miosite/imunologia , Miosite/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/imunologia , Receptores CCR4/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/imunologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/complicações , Miosite/complicações , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
19.
J Hum Genet ; 65(4): 363-369, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907387

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia. Many causative genes have been identified to date, the most common etiology being the abnormal expansion of repeat sequences, and the mutation of ion channel genes also play an important role in the development of SCA. Some of them encode calcium and potassium channels. However, due to limited reports about potassium genes in SCA, we screened 192 Japanese individuals with dominantly inherited SCA who had no abnormal repeat expansions of causative genes for potassium channel mutations (KCNC3 for SCA13 and KCND3 for SCA19/SCA22) by target sequencing. As a result, two variants were identified from two patients: c.1973G>A, p.R658Q and c.1018G>A, p.V340M for KCNC3, and no pathogenic variant was identified for KCND3. The newly identified p.V340M exists in the extracellular domain, and p.R658Q exists in the intracellular domain on the C-terminal side, although most of the reported KCNC3 mutations are present at the transmembrane site. Adult-onset and slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia are the main clinical features of SCA13 and SCA19 caused by potassium channel mutations, which was similar in our cases. SCA13 caused by KCNC3 mutations may present with deep sensory loss and cognitive impairment in addition to cerebellar ataxia. In this study, mild deep sensory loss was observed in one case. SCA caused by potassium channel gene mutations is extremely rare, and more cases should be accumulated in the future to elucidate its pathogenesis due to channel dysfunction.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Mutação , Canais de Potássio/genética , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Japão , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem
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