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1.
JAMA Surg ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725208

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 3% to 5% of patients with kidney stones have primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), a treatable cause of recurrent stones. However, the rate of screening for PHPT in patients with kidney stones remains unknown. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of parathyroid hormone (PTH) testing in veterans with kidney stones and hypercalcemia and to identify the demographic, geographic, and clinical characteristics of veterans who were more or less likely to receive PTH testing. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health records from the Corporate Data Warehouse for veterans who received care in 1 of the 130 VHA facilities across the United States from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013. Historical encounters, medical codes, and laboratory data were assessed. Included patients had diagnostic or procedural codes for kidney or ureteral stones, and excluded patients were those with a previous serum PTH level measurement. Data were collected from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014. Data analysis was conducted from June 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020. Exposures: Elevated serum calcium concentration measurement between 6 months before and 6 months after kidney stone diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of patients with a serum PTH level measurement and proportion of patients with biochemical evidence of PHPT who underwent parathyroidectomy. Results: The final cohort comprised 7561 patients with kidney stones and hypercalcemia and a mean (SD) age of 64.3 (12.3) years. Of these patients, 7139 were men (94.4%) and 5673 were white individuals (75.0%). The proportion of patients who completed a serum PTH level measurement was 24.8% (1873 of 7561). Across the 130 VHA facilities included in the study, testing rates ranged from 4% to 57%. The factors associated with PTH testing included the magnitude of calcium concentration elevation (odds ratio [OR], 1.07 per 0.1 mg/dL >10.5 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.05-1.08) and the number of elevated serum calcium concentration measurements (OR, 1.08 per measurement >10.5 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.06-1.10) as well as visits to both a nephrologist and a urologist (OR, 6.57; 95% CI, 5.33-8.10) or an endocrinologist (OR, 4.93; 95% CI, 4.11-5.93). Of the 717 patients with biochemical evidence of PHPT, 189 (26.4%) underwent parathyroidectomy within 2 years of a stone diagnosis. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that only 1 in 4 patients with kidney stones and hypercalcemia were tested for PHPT in VHA facilities and that testing rates varied widely across these facilities. These findings suggest that raising clinician awareness to PHPT screening indications may improve evaluation for parathyroidectomy, increase the rates of detection and treatment of PHPT, and decrease recurrent kidney stone disease.

2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensively treating hypertension may benefit cardiovascular disease and cognitive function, but at the short-term expense of reduced kidney function. METHODS: We investigated markers of kidney function and the effect of intensive hypertension treatment on incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 9361 participants in the randomized Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial, which compared intensive versus standard systolic BP lowering (targeting <120 mm Hg versus <140 mm Hg, respectively). We categorized participants according to baseline and longitudinal changes in eGFR and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Primary outcomes were occurrence of adjudicated probable dementia and MCI. RESULTS: Among 8563 participants who completed at least one cognitive assessment during follow-up (median 5.1 years), probable dementia occurred in 325 (3.8%) and MCI in 640 (7.6%) participants. In multivariable adjusted analyses, there was no significant association between baseline eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and risk for dementia or MCI. In time-varying analyses, eGFR decline ≥30% was associated with a higher risk for probable dementia. Incident eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was associated with a higher risk for MCI and a composite of dementia or MCI. Although these kidney events occurred more frequently in the intensive treatment group, there was no evidence that they modified or attenuated the effect of intensive treatment on dementia and MCI incidence. Baseline and incident urinary ACR ≥30 mg/g were not associated with probable dementia or MCI, nor did the urinary ACR modify the effect of intensive treatment on cognitive outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Among hypertensive adults, declining kidney function measured by eGFR is associated with increased risk for probable dementia and MCI, independent of the intensity of hypertension treatment.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(3): 625-636, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to increase arteriovenous fistula and graft use, 80% of patients in the United States start hemodialysis on a central venous catheter (CVC). METHODS: To better understand in incident hemodialysis patients how sex and race/ethnicity are associated with time on a central venous catheter and transition to an arteriovenous fistula and graft, our observational cohort study analyzed US Renal Data System data for patients with incident ESKD aged ≥66 years who started hemodialysis on a CVC in July 2010 through 2013. RESULTS: At 1 year, 32.7% of 74,194 patients transitioned to an arteriovenous fistula, 10.8% transitioned to an arteriovenous graft, 32.1% stayed on a CVC, and 24.5% died. Women spent a significantly longer time on a CVC than men. Compared with white patients, patients who were black, Hispanic, or of another racial/ethnicity minority spent significantly more days on a CVC. In competing risk regression, women were significantly less likely than men to transition to a fistula and more likely to transition to a graft. Compared with white patients, blacks were significantly less likely to transition to a fistula but more likely to transition to a graft, Hispanics were significantly more likely to transition to a fistula, and other races/ethnicities were significantly more likely to transition to either a fistula or a graft. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients spend a longer time on a CVC and are less likely to transition to permanent access. Compared with white patients, minorities also spend longer time on a CVC, but are more likely to eventually transition to permanent access. Strategies to speed transition to permanent access should target groups that currently lag in this area.

4.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 75(5): 744-752, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679746

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Elicitation and documentation of patient preferences is at the core of shared decision making and is particularly important among patients with high anticipated mortality. The extent to which older patients with incident kidney failure undertake such discussions with their providers is unknown and its characterization was the focus of this study. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of veterans 67 years and older with incident kidney failure receiving care from the US Veterans Health Administration between 2005 and 2010. EXPOSURES: Demographic and facility characteristics, as well as predicted 6-month mortality risk after dialysis initiation and documentation of resuscitation preferences. OUTCOMES: Documented discussions of dialysis treatment and supportive care. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We reviewed medical records over the 2 years before incident kidney failure and up to 1 year afterward to ascertain the frequency and timing of documented discussions about dialysis treatment, supportive care, and resuscitation. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with these documented discussions. RESULTS: The cohort of 821 veterans had a mean age of 80.9±7.2 years, and 37.2% had a predicted 6-month mortality risk>20% with dialysis. Documented discussions addressing dialysis treatment and resuscitation were present in 55.6% and 77.1% of patients, respectively. Those addressing supportive care were present in 32.4%. The frequency of documentation varied by mortality risk and whether the patient ultimately started dialysis. In adjusted analyses, the frequency and pattern of documentation were more strongly associated with geographic location and receipt of outpatient nephrology care than with patient demographic or clinical characteristics. LIMITATIONS: Documentation may not fully reflect the quality and content of discussions, and generalizability to nonveteran patients is limited. CONCLUSIONS: Among older veterans with incident kidney failure, discussions of dialysis treatment are decoupled from other aspects of advance care planning and are suboptimally documented, even among patients at high risk for mortality.

5.
JAMA ; 322(6): 524-534, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408137

RESUMO

Importance: The effect of intensive blood pressure lowering on brain health remains uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the association of intensive blood pressure treatment with cerebral white matter lesion and brain volumes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A substudy of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of hypertensive adults 50 years or older without a history of diabetes or stroke at 27 sites in the United States. Randomization began on November 8, 2010. The overall trial was stopped early because of benefit for its primary outcome (a composite of cardiovascular events) and all-cause mortality on August 20, 2015. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a subset of participants at baseline (n = 670) and at 4 years of follow-up (n = 449); final follow-up date was July 1, 2016. Interventions: Participants were randomized to a systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal of either less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment, n = 355) or less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment, n = 315). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in total white matter lesion volume from baseline. Change in total brain volume was a secondary outcome. Results: Among 670 recruited patients who had baseline MRI (mean age, 67.3 [SD, 8.2] years; 40.4% women), 449 (67.0%) completed the follow-up MRI at a median of 3.97 years after randomization, after a median intervention period of 3.40 years. In the intensive treatment group, based on a robust linear mixed model, mean white matter lesion volume increased from 4.57 to 5.49 cm3 (difference, 0.92 cm3 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.14]) vs an increase from 4.40 to 5.85 cm3 (difference, 1.45 cm3 [95% CI, 1.21 to 1.70]) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference in change, -0.54 cm3 [95% CI, -0.87 to -0.20]). Mean total brain volume decreased from 1134.5 to 1104.0 cm3 (difference, -30.6 cm3 [95% CI, -32.3 to -28.8]) in the intensive treatment group vs a decrease from 1134.0 to 1107.1 cm3 (difference, -26.9 cm3 [95% CI, 24.8 to 28.8]) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference in change, -3.7 cm3 [95% CI, -6.3 to -1.1]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among hypertensive adults, targeting an SBP of less than 120 mm Hg, compared with less than 140 mm Hg, was significantly associated with a smaller increase in cerebral white matter lesion volume and a greater decrease in total brain volume, although the differences were small. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Substância Branca/patologia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Fatores de Risco
6.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220768, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The American Urological Association guidelines recommend 24-hour urine testing in patients with urinary stone disease to decrease the risk of stone recurrence; however, national practice patterns for 24-hour urine testing are not well characterized. Our objective is to determine the prevalence of 24-hour urine testing in patients with urinary stone disease in the Veterans Health Administration and examine patient-specific and facility-level factors associated with 24-hour urine testing. Identifying variations in clinical practice can inform future quality improvement efforts in the management of urinary stone disease in integrated healthcare systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We accessed national Veterans Health Administration data through the Corporate Data Warehouse (CDW), hosted by the Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure (VINCI), to identify patients with urinary stone disease. We defined stone formers as Veterans with one inpatient ICD-9 code for kidney or ureteral stones, two or more outpatient ICD-9 codes for kidney or ureteral stones, or one or more CPT codes for kidney or ureteral stone procedures from 2007 through 2013. We defined a 24-hour urine test as a 24-hour collection for calcium, oxalate, citrate or sulfate. We used multivariable regression to assess demographic, geographic, and selected clinical factors associated with 24-hour urine testing. RESULTS: We identified 130,489 Veterans with urinary stone disease; 19,288 (14.8%) underwent 24-hour urine testing. Patients who completed 24-hour urine testing were younger, had fewer comorbidities, and were more likely to be White. Utilization of 24-hour urine testing varied widely by geography and facility, the latter ranging from 1 to 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than one in six patients with urinary stone disease complete 24-hour urine testing in the Veterans Health Administration. In addition, utilization of 24-hour urine testing varies widely by facility identifying a target area for improvement in the care of patients with urinary stone disease. Future efforts to increase utilization of 24-hour urine testing and improve clinician awareness of targeted approaches to stone prevention may be warranted to reduce the morbidity and cost of urinary stone disease.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Urinálise/métodos , Cálculos Urinários/diagnóstico , Veteranos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Prevalência , Fatores Raciais , Fatores Sexuais , Cálculos Urinários/prevenção & controle , Cálculos Urinários/urina , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares/normas
7.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282920

RESUMO

Importance: Prognostic understanding can shape patients' treatment goals and preferences. Patients undergoing dialysis in the United States have limited life expectancy and may receive end-of-life care directed at life extension. Little is known about their prognostic expectations. Objective: To understand the prognostic expectations of patients undergoing dialysis and how these relate to care planning, goals, and preferences. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional survey study of 996 eligible patients treated with regular dialysis at 31 nonprofit dialysis facilities in 2 metropolitan areas (Seattle, Washington, and Nashville, Tennessee) between April 2015 and October 2018. After a pilot phase, 1434 eligible patients were invited to participate (response rate, 69.5%). To provide a context for interpreting survey participants' prognostic estimates, United States Renal Data System standard analysis files were used to construct a comparison cohort of 307 602 patients undergoing in-center hemodialysis on January 1, 2006, and followed for death through July 31, 2017. Final analyses for this study were conducted between November 2018 and March 2019. Exposures: Responses to the question "How long would you guess people your age with similar health conditions usually live?" (<5 years, 5-10 years, >10 years, or not sure). Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported (1) documentation of a surrogate decision-maker, (2) documentation of treatment preferences, (3) values around life prolongation, (4) preferences for receipt of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mechanical ventilation, and (5) desired place of death. Results: Of the 996 survey respondents, the mean (SD) age was 62.7 (13.9) years, and 438 (44.0%) were women. Overall, 112 (11.2%) survey respondents selected a prognosis of fewer than 5 years, 150 (15.1%) respondents selected 5 to 10 years, 330 (33.1%) respondents selected more than 10 years, and 404 (40.6%) were not sure. By comparison, 185 427 (60.3%) prevalent US in-center patients undergoing hemodialysis died within 5 years, 58 437 (19.0%) died within 5 to 10 years, and 63 738 (20.7%) lived more than 10 years. In analyses adjusted for participant characteristics, survey respondents with a prognostic expectation of more than 10 years (vs <5 years) were less likely to report documentation of a surrogate decision-maker (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and treatment preferences (aOR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6) and to value comfort over life extension (aOR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.04-0.3), and were more likely to want cardiopulmonary resuscitation (aOR, 5.3; 95% CI, 3.2-8.7) and mechanical ventilation (aOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.7). The respondents who reported that they were not sure about prognosis had similar associations. Conclusions and Relevance: Uncertain and overly optimistic prognostic expectations may limit the benefit of advance care planning and contribute to high-intensity end-of-life care in patients undergoing dialysis.

8.
Kidney Int Rep ; 4(3): 390-398, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899866

RESUMO

Introduction: Many low- and middle-income countries are implementing strategies to increase dialysis availability as growing numbers of people reach end-stage renal disease. Despite efforts to subsidize care, the economic sustainability of chronic dialysis in these settings remains uncertain. We evaluated the association of medical subsidy with household financial hardship related to hemodialysis in Kerala, India, a state with high penetrance of procedure-based subsidies for patients on dialysis. Methods: Patients on maintenance hemodialysis at 15 facilities in Kerala were administered a questionnaire that ascertained demographics, dialysis details, and household finances. We estimated direct and indirect costs of hemodialysis, and described the use of medical subsidy. We evaluated whether presence of subsidy (private, charity, or government-sponsored) was associated with lower catastrophic health expenditure (defined as ≥40% of nonsubsistence expenditure spent on dialysis) or distress financing. Results: Of the 835 patients surveyed, 759 (91%) reported their households experienced catastrophic health expenditure, and 644 (77%) engaged in distress financing. Median dialysis-related expenditure was 80% (25th-75th percentile: 60%-90%) of household nonsubsistence expenditure. Government subsidies were used by 238 (29%) of households, 139 (58%) of which were in the lowest income category. Catastrophic health expenditure was present in 215 (90%) of households receiving government subsidy and 332 (93%) without subsidy. Conclusions: Provision of medical subsidy in Kerala, India was not associated with lower rates of household financial hardship related to long-term hemodialysis therapy. Transparent counseling on impending costs and innovative strategies to mitigate household financial distress are necessary for persons with end-stage renal disease in resource-limited settings.

9.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 13(8): 1180-1187, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Palliative care may improve quality of life and reduce the cost of care for patients with chronic illness, but utilization and cost implications of palliative care in ESKD have not been evaluated. We sought to determine the association of inpatient palliative care with health care utilization and postdischarge outcomes in ESKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In analyses stratified by whether patients died during the index hospitalization, we identified Medicare beneficiaries with ESKD who received inpatient palliative care, ascertained by provider specialty codes, between 2012 and 2013. These patients were matched to hospitalized patients who received usual care using propensity scores. Primary outcomes were length of stay and hospitalization costs. Secondary outcomes were 30-day readmission and hospice enrollment. RESULTS: Inpatient palliative care occurred in <1% of hospitalizations lasting >2 days. Among the decedent cohort (n=1308), inpatient palliative care was associated with a 21% shorter length of stay (-4.2 days; 95% confidence interval, -5.6 to -2.9 days) and 14% lower hospitalization costs (-$10,698; 95% confidence interval, -$17,553 to -$3843) compared with usual care. Among the nondecedent cohort (n=5024), inpatient palliative care was associated with no difference in length of stay (0.4 days; 95% confidence interval, -0.3 to 1.0 days) and 11% higher hospitalization costs ($4275; 95% confidence interval, $1984 to $6567) compared with usual care. In the 30-day postdischarge period, patients who received inpatient palliative care had higher likelihood of hospice enrollment (hazard ratio, 8.3; 95% confidence interval, 6.6 to 10.5) and lower likelihood of rehospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.7 to 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with ESKD who died in the hospital, inpatient palliative care was associated with shorter hospitalizations and lower costs. Among those who survived to discharge, inpatient palliative care was associated with no difference in length of stay and higher hospitalization costs but markedly higher hospice use and fewer readmissions after discharge.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Medicare , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Preços Hospitalares , Custos Hospitalares , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/economia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
JAMA Intern Med ; 178(6): 792-799, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710217

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with end-stage renal disease are less likely to use hospice services than other patients with advanced chronic illness. Little is known about the timing of hospice referral in this population and its association with health care utilization and costs. Objective: To examine the association between hospice length of stay and health care utilization and costs at the end of life among Medicare beneficiaries who had received maintenance hemodialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted via the United States Renal Data System registry. Participants were all 770 191 hemodialysis patients in the registry who were enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare and died between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2014. The dates of analysis were April 2016 to December 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and receipt of an intensive procedure during the last month of life; death in the hospital; and costs to the Medicare program in the last week of life. Results: Among 770 191 patients, the mean (SD) age was 74.8 (11.0) years, and 53.7% were male. Twenty percent of cohort members were receiving hospice services when they died. Of these, 41.5% received hospice for 3 days or fewer. In adjusted analyses, compared with patients who did not receive hospice, those enrolled in hospice for 3 days or fewer were less likely to die in the hospital (13.5% vs 55.1%; P < .001) or to undergo an intensive procedure in the last month of life (17.7% vs 31.6%; P < .001) but had higher rates of hospitalization (83.6% vs 74.4%; P < .001) and ICU admission (54.0% vs 51.0%; P < .001) and similar Medicare costs in the last week of life ($10 756 vs $10 871; P = .08). Longer lengths of stay in hospice beyond 3 days were associated with progressively lower rates of utilization and costs, especially for those referred more than 15 days before death (35.1% hospitalized and 16.7% admitted to an ICU in the last month of life; the mean Medicare costs in the last week of life were $3221). Conclusions and Relevance: Overall, 41.5% of hospice enrollees who had been treated with hemodialysis for their end-stage renal disease entered hospice within 3 days of death. Although less likely to die in the hospital and to receive an intensive procedure, these patients were more likely than those not enrolled in hospice to be hospitalized and admitted to the ICU, and they had similar Medicare costs. Without addressing barriers to more timely referral, greater use of hospice may not translate into meaningful changes in patterns of health care utilization, costs, and quality of care at the end of life in this population.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica , Tempo de Internação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 72(4): 499-508, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced chronic kidney disease is associated with elevated risk for cognitive impairment. However, it is not known whether and how cognitive impairment is associated with planning and preparation for end-stage renal disease. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 630 adults participating in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study who had cognitive assessments in late-stage CKD, defined as estimated glome-rular filtration rate ≤ 20mL/min/1.73m2, and subsequently initiated maintenance dialysis therapy. PREDICTOR: Predialysis cognitive impairment, defined as a score on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination lower than previously derived age-based threshold scores. Covariates included age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, comorbid conditions, and health literacy. OUTCOMES: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) as first dialysis modality, preemptive permanent access placement, venous catheter avoidance at dialysis therapy initiation, and preemptive wait-listing for a kidney transplant. MEASUREMENTS: Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: Predialysis cognitive impairment was present in 117 (19%) participants. PD was the first dialysis modality among 16% of participants (n=100), 75% had preemptive access placed (n=473), 45% avoided using a venous catheter at dialysis therapy initiation (n=279), and 20% were preemptively wait-listed (n=126). Predialysis cognitive impairment was independently associated with 78% lower odds of PD as the first dialysis modality (adjusted OR [aOR], 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.74; P=0.02) and 42% lower odds of venous catheter avoidance at dialysis therapy initiation (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34-0.98; P=0.04). Predialysis cognitive impairment was not independently associated with preemptive permanent access placement or wait-listing. LIMITATIONS: Potential unmeasured confounders; single measure of cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Predialysis cognitive impairment is associated with a lower likelihood of PD as a first dialysis modality and of venous catheter avoidance at dialysis therapy initiation. Future studies may consider addressing cognitive function when testing strategies to improve patient transitions to dialysis therapy.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Cuidado Transicional/organização & administração , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Diálise Renal/métodos , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(8): 2169-2177, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789430

RESUMO

Background Appropriate patient selection and optimal timing of dialysis initiation among older adults with advanced CKD are uncertain. We determined the association between dialysis versus medical management and survival at different ages and levels of kidney function.Methods We assembled a nationally representative 20% sample of United States veterans with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 between 2005 and 2010 (n=73,349), with follow-up through 2012. We used an extended Cox model to determine associations among the time-varying exposures, age (<65, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years), eGFR (<6, 6-<9, 9-<12, 12-<15, and 15-<29 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and provision of dialysis, and survival.Result Over the mean±SEM follow-up of 3.4±2.2 years, 15% of patients started dialysis and 52% died. The eGFR at which dialysis, compared with medical management, associated with lower mortality varied by age (P<0.001). For patients aged <65, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years, dialysis associated with lower mortality for those with eGFR not exceeding 6-<9, <6, 9-<12, and 9-<12 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Dialysis initiation at eGFR<6 ml/min per 1.73 m2 associated with a higher median life expectancy of 26, 25, and 19 months for patients aged 65, 75, and 85 years, respectively. When dialysis was initiated at eGFR 9-<12 ml/min per 1.73 m2, the estimated difference in median life expectancy was <1 year for these patients.Conclusions Provision of dialysis at higher levels of kidney function may extend survival for some older patients.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Sistema de Registros , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Tratamento Conservador , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 178(5): 657-664, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630695

RESUMO

Importance: The benefits of maintenance dialysis for older adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are uncertain. Whether the setting of pre-ESRD nephrology care influences initiation of dialysis and mortality is not known. Objective: To compare initiation of dialysis and mortality among older veterans with incident kidney failure who received pre-ESRD nephrology care in fee-for-service Medicare vs the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of patients from the US Medicare and VA health care systems evaluated 11 215 veterans aged 67 years or older with incident kidney failure between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011. Data analysis was performed March 15, 2016, through September 20, 2017. Exposures: Pre-ESRD nephrology care in Medicare vs VA health care systems. Main Outcome and Measures: Dialysis treatment and death within 2 years. Results: Of the 11 215 patients included in the study, 11 085 (98.8%) were men; mean (SD) age was 79.1 (6.9) years. Within 2 years of incident kidney failure, 7071 (63.0%) of the patients started dialysis and 5280 (47.1%) died. Patients who received pre-ESRD nephrology care in Medicare were more likely to undergo dialysis compared with patients who received pre-ESRD nephrology care in VA (82% vs 53%; adjusted risk difference, 28 percentage points; 95% CI, 26-30 percentage points). Differences in dialysis initiation between Medicare and VA were more pronounced among patients aged 80 years or older and patients with dementia or metastatic cancer, and less pronounced among patients with paralysis (P < .05 for interaction). Two-year mortality was higher for patients who received pre-ESRD care in Medicare compared with VA (53% vs 44%; adjusted risk difference, 5 percentage points; 95% CI, 3-7 percentage points). The findings were similar in a propensity-matched analysis. Conclusions and Relevance: Veterans who receive pre-ESRD nephrology care in Medicare receive dialysis more often yet are also more likely to die within 2 years compared with those in VA. The VA's integrated health care system and financing appear to favor lower-intensity treatment for kidney failure in older patients without a concomitant increase in mortality.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
14.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 71(6): 866-873, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510920

RESUMO

The dominant health delivery model for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States, which focuses on provision of dialysis, is ill-equipped to address many of the needs of seriously ill patients. Although palliative care may address some of these gaps in care, its integration into advanced CKD care has been suboptimal due to several health system barriers. These barriers include uneven access to specialty palliative care services, underdeveloped models of care for seriously ill patients with advanced CKD, and misaligned policy incentives. This article reviews policies that affect the delivery of palliative care for this population, discusses reforms that could address disincentives to palliative care, identifies quality measurement issues for palliative care for individuals with advanced CKD and ESRD, and considers potential pitfalls in the implementation of new models of integrated palliative care. Reforming health care delivery in ways that remove policy disincentives to palliative care for patients with advanced CKD and ESRD will fill a critical gap in care.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/organização & administração , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/organização & administração , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Formulação de Políticas , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
15.
JAMA Intern Med ; 178(2): 204-209, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255896

RESUMO

Importance: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are widely used both as a bridge to heart transplant and as destination therapy in advanced heart failure. Although heart failure is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), little is known about outcomes after LVAD implantation in this population. Objective: To determine the utilization of and outcomes associated with LVADs in nationally representative cohorts of patients with and without ESRD. Design, Setting and Participants: We described LVAD utilization and outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries after ESRD onset (defined as having received maintenance dialysis or a kidney transplant) from 2003 to 2013 based on Medicare claims linked to data from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), a national registry for ESRD. We compared Medicare beneficiaries with ESRD to a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries without ESRD. Exposures: ESRD (vs no ESRD) among patients who underwent LVAD placement. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was survival after LVAD placement. Results: Among the patients with ESRD, the mean age was 58.4 (12.1) years and 62.0% (96) were male. Among those without ESRD, the mean age was 62.2 (12.6) years and 75.1% (196) were male. From 2003 to 2013, 155 Medicare beneficiaries with ESRD (median and interquartile range [IQR] days from ESRD onset to LVAD placement were 1655 days [453-3050 days]) and 261 beneficiaries without ESRD in the Medicare 5% sample received an LVAD. During a median follow-up of 762 days (IQR, 92-3850 days), 127 patients (81.9%) with and 95 (36.4%) without ESRD died. more than half of patients with ESRD (80 [51.6%]) compared with 11 (4%) of those without ESRD died during the index hospitalization. The median time to death was 16 days (IQR 2-447 days) for patients with ESRD compared with 2125 days (IQR, 565-3850 days) for those without ESRD. With adjustment for demographics, comorbidity and time period, patients with ESRD had a markedly increased adjusted risk of death (hazard ratio, 36.3; 95% CI, 15.6-84.5), especially in the first 60 days after LVAD placement. Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with ESRD at the time of LVAD placement had an extremely poor prognosis, with most surviving for less than 3 weeks. This information may be crucial in supporting shared decision-making around treatments for advanced heart failure for patients with ESRD.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Comorbidade/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(12): 3708-3715, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28912373

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that sleep disorders are common in individuals with CKD, but the influence of sleep duration and quality on CKD progression is unknown. We examined the association of habitual sleep duration and quality with CKD progression in 431 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study participants, of whom 48% were women and 50% had diabetes (mean age of 60 years old, mean eGFR =38 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median urine protein-to-creatinine ratio [UPCR] =0.20 g/g). We assessed sleep duration and quality by 5-7 days of wrist actigraphy and self-report. Primary outcomes were incident ESRD, eGFR slope, log-transformed UPCR slope, and all-cause death. Participants slept an average of 6.5 hours per night; mean sleep fragmentation was 21%. Over a median follow-up of 5 years, we observed 70 ESRD events and 48 deaths. In adjusted analyses, greater sleep fragmentation associated with increased ESRD risk (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.07 per 1% increase in fragmentation). In adjusted mixed effects regression models, shorter sleep duration (per hour less) and greater sleep fragmentation (per 1% more) each associated with greater eGFR decline (-1.12 and -0.18 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year, respectively; P=0.02 and P<0.01, respectively) and greater log UPCR slope (0.06/yr and 0.01/yr, respectively; P=0.02 and P<0.001, respectively). Self-reported daytime sleepiness associated with increased risk for all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.20 per one-point increase in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score). These findings suggest that short and poor-quality sleep are unrecognized risk factors for CKD progression.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Sono , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 70(5): 705-714, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28811048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines recommend referral to nephrology when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decreases to <30mL/min/1.73m2; however, evidence for benefits of nephrology care are mixed. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cohort using landmark analysis. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: A national cohort of veterans with advanced chronic kidney disease, defined as an outpatient eGFR≤30mL/min/1.73m2 for January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010, and a prior eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2, using administrative and laboratory data from the Department of Veterans Affairs and the US Renal Data System. PREDICTOR: Receipt and frequency of outpatient nephrology care over 12 months. OUTCOMES: Survival and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD; receipt of dialysis or kidney transplantation) were the primary outcomes. In addition, control of associated clinical parameters over 12 months were intermediate outcomes. RESULTS: Of 39,669 patients included in the cohort, 14,983 (37.8%) received nephrology care. Older age, heart failure, dementia, depression, and rapidly declining kidney function were independently associated with the absence of nephrology care. During a mean follow-up of 2.9 years, 14,719 (37.1%) patients died and 4,310 (10.9%) progressed to ESRD. In models adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, and trajectory of kidney function, nephrology care was associated with lower risk for death (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.85-0.91), but higher risk for ESRD (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.38-1.58). Among patients with clinical parameters outside guideline recommendations at cohort entry, a significantly higher adjusted proportion of patients who received nephrology care had improvement in control of hemoglobin, potassium, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations compared with those who did not receive nephrology care. LIMITATIONS: May not be generalizable to nonveterans. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, nephrology care was associated with lower mortality, but was not associated with lower risk for progression to ESRD.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Nefrologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Veteranos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 70(3): 357-367, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is common and is associated with cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cognitive function, although the nature of this relationship remains uncertain. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort using baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Participants in SPRINT, a randomized clinical trial of blood pressure targets in older community-dwelling adults with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or high cardiovascular disease risk and without diabetes or known stroke, who underwent detailed neurocognitive testing in the cognition substudy, SPRINT-Memory and Cognition in Decreased Hypertension (SPRINT-MIND). PREDICTORS: Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). OUTCOMES: Cognitive function, a priori defined as 5 cognitive domains based on 11 cognitive tests using z scores, and abnormal white matter volume quantified by brain magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Of 9,361 SPRINT participants, 2,800 participated in SPRINT-MIND and 2,707 had complete data; 637 had brain imaging. Mean age was 68 years, 37% were women, 30% were black, and 20% had known cardiovascular disease. Mean eGFR was 70.8±20.9mL/min/1.73m2 and median urine ACR was 9.7 (IQR, 5.7-22.5) mg/g. In adjusted analyses, higher ACR was associated with worse global cognitive function, executive function, memory, and attention, such that each doubling of urine ACR had the same association with cognitive performance as being 7, 10, 6, and 14 months older, respectively. Lower eGFR was independently associated with worse global cognitive function and memory. In adjusted models, higher ACR, but not eGFR, was associated with larger abnormal white matter volume. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional only, no patients with diabetes were included. CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, higher urine ACR and lower eGFR have independent associations with global cognitive performance with different affected domains. Albuminuria concurrently identifies a higher burden of abnormal brain white matter disease, suggesting that vascular disease may mediate these relationships.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Cognição/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estatística como Assunto , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
J Palliat Med ; 20(5): 453-460, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28463635

RESUMO

Older adults with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) often have multiple comorbid conditions, a high symptom burden, and limited life expectancy. There is mounting concern that the intensive patterns of care that many of these patients receive at the end of life are discordant with their values and preferences. The nephrology community has recognized that there are significant unmet palliative care needs in this population. In this article, we identify three broad areas of knowledge deficit where more evidence is needed to support the "best care possible" for this population: (1) what matters most to older adults with advanced CKD and their caregivers near the end of life; (2) how the nephrology community can best support older adults with advanced CKD to navigate complex treatment decisions throughout their illness; and (3) how the healthcare system should be reconfigured to promote patient- and family-centered care for older adults with advanced CKD. Research priorities include identifying opportunities for improving the end-of-life experience of older adults with CKD and their caregivers; developing and testing communication interventions before and during dialysis to ensure that treatment decisions reflect patients' preferences; and assessing the effectiveness of palliative care in improving quality of life for patients and caregivers, satisfaction with care, and aligning treatment decisions with patient goals and preferences.


Assuntos
Diálise/métodos , Enfermagem Geriátrica/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Preferência do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/enfermagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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