Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 167
Filtrar
1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2002785, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560870

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genetic testing is important for breast and ovarian cancer risk reduction and treatment, yet little is known about its evolving use. METHODS: SEER records of women of age ≥ 20 years diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer from 2013 to 2017 in California or Georgia were linked to the results of clinical germline testing through 2019. We measured testing trends, rates of variants of uncertain significance (VUS), and pathogenic variants (PVs). RESULTS: One quarter (25.2%) of 187,535 patients with breast cancer and one third (34.3%) of 14,689 patients with ovarian cancer were tested; annually, testing increased by 2%, whereas the number of genes tested increased by 28%. The prevalence of test results by gene category for breast cancer cases in 2017 were BRCA1/2, PVs 5.2%, and VUS 0.8%; breast cancer-associated genes or ovarian cancer-associated genes (ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CDH1, CHEK2, EPCAM, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NBN, NF1, PALB2, PMS2, PTEN, RAD51C, RAD51D, STK11, and TP53), PVs 3.7%, and VUS 12.0%; other actionable genes (APC, BMPR1A, MEN1, MUTYH, NF2, RB1, RET, SDHAF2, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SMAD4, TSC1, TSC2, and VHL) PVs 0.6%, and VUS 0.5%; and other genes, PVs 0.3%, and VUS 2.6%. For ovarian cancer cases in 2017, the prevalence of test results were BRCA1/2, PVs 11.0%, and VUS 0.9%; breast or ovarian genes, PVs 4.0%, and VUS 12.6%; other actionable genes, PVs 0.7%, and VUS 0.4%; and other genes, PVs 0.3%, and VUS 0.6%. VUS rates doubled over time (2013 diagnoses: 11.2%; 2017 diagnoses: 26.8%), particularly for racial or ethnic minorities (47.8% Asian and 46.0% Black, v 24.6% non-Hispanic White patients; P < .001). CONCLUSION: A testing gap persists for patients with ovarian cancer (34.3% tested v nearly all recommended), whereas adding more genes widened a racial or ethnic gap in VUS results. Most PVs were in 20 breast cancer-associated genes or ovarian cancer-associated genes; testing other genes yielded mostly VUS. Quality improvement should focus on testing indicated patients rather than adding more genes.

2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(1): 77-102, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406487

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic focus primarily on assessment of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants associated with increased risk of breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer and recommended approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. This manuscript focuses on cancer risk and risk management for BRCA-related breast/ovarian cancer syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Carriers of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant have an excessive risk for both breast and ovarian cancer that warrants consideration of more intensive screening and preventive strategies. There is also evidence that risks of prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer are elevated in these carriers. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer syndrome associated with a high lifetime risk for cancer, including soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, and brain tumors.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509806

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants (PVs) in ATM are relatively common, but the scope and magnitude of risk remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate ATM PV cancer risks independent of family cancer history. This analysis included patients referred for hereditary cancer testing with a multi-gene panel (N=627,742). Cancer risks for ATM PV carriers (N=4,607) were adjusted for family history using multivariable logistic regression and reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sub-analyses of the c.7271T>G missense PV were conducted. Moderate-to-high risks for pancreatic (OR 4.21; 95% CI 3.24-5.47), prostate (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.93-3.44), gastric (OR 2.97; 95% CI 1.66-5.31) and invasive ductal breast (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.89-2.19) cancers were estimated for ATM PV carriers. Notably, c.7271T>G was associated with higher invasive ductal breast cancer risk (OR 3.76, 95% CI 2.76-5.12) than other missense and truncating ATM PVs. Low-to-moderate risks were seen for ductal carcinoma in situ (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.61-2.02), male breast cancer (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.08-2.75), ovarian cancer (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83), colorectal cancer (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.24-1.79) and melanoma (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.18-1.81). ATM PVs are associated with multiple cancer risks and, while professional society guidelines support that carriers are eligible for increased breast and pancreatic cancer screening, increased screening for prostate and gastric cancer may also be warranted. c.7271T>G is associated with high risk for breast cancer, with a three to four-fold risk increase that supports consideration of strategies for prevention and/or early detection.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(2): 351-363, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited studies have investigated racial/ethnic survival disparities for breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status in a multiethnic population. METHODS: Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed associations of race/ethnicity with ER/PR-specific breast cancer mortality in 10,366 California women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1993 to 2009. We evaluated joint associations of race/ethnicity, health care, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors with mortality. RESULTS: Among women with ER/PR+ breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality was similar among Hispanic and Asian American women, but higher among African American women [HR, 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.63] compared with non-Hispanic White (NHW) women. Breast cancer-specific mortality was modified by surgery type, hospital type, education, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), smoking history, and alcohol consumption. Among African American women, breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among those treated at nonaccredited hospitals (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21-2.04) and those from lower SES neighborhoods (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.16-1.88) compared with NHW women without these characteristics. Breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among African American women with at least some college education (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.82) compared with NHW women with similar education. For ER-/PR- disease, breast cancer-specific mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity and associations of race/ethnicity with breast cancer-specific mortality varied only by neighborhood SES among African American women. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic survival disparities are more striking for ER/PR+ than ER-/PR- breast cancer. Social determinants and lifestyle factors may explain some of the survival disparities for ER/PR+ breast cancer. IMPACT: Addressing these factors may help reduce the higher mortality of African American women with ER/PR+ breast cancer.

6.
Cancer Med ; 10(3): 1012-1017, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the prevalence of Lynch syndrome (LS) in women with primary ovarian cancer with mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and eight cases of primary ovarian, fallopian, and peritoneal cancer between January 2012 and December 2019 were evaluated for MMR-D by IHC. The incidence of LS in this cohort was evaluated. RESULTS: MMR-D by IHC was identified in 16 of 308 (5.2%) (95% CI: 3.2%-8.3%) primary ovarian-related cancers. Most cases with MMR-D were endometrioid (n = 11, 68.7%); (95% CI: 44.2%-86.1%). MSH2/MSH6 protein loss was detected in eight cases (50.0%); (95% CI: 28.0%-72.0%) and MLH1/PMS2 protein loss was detected in four cases (25.0%); (95% CI: 9.7%-50.0%). MSH6 protein loss was detected in two cases (12.5%); (95% CI: 2.2%-37.3%) and PMS2 protein loss was detected in two cases (12.5%); (95% CI: 2.2%-37.3%). All four cases with MLH1/PMS2 protein loss had MLH1 promotor hypermethylation. All 12 women with ovarian cancer suggestive of LS underwent germline testing and 8 (66.6%); (95% CI: 38.8%-86.5%) were confirmed to have LS. CONCLUSIONS: Most ovarian cancers with somatic MMR-D were confirmed to have LS in this cohort. Germline testing for LS in addition to BRCA1/2 for all women with an epithelial ovarian cancer would be efficient and would approach 100% sensitivity for identifying Lynch syndrome. Utilization of a multigene panel should also be considered, given the additional non-Lynch germline mutation identified in this cohort.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines often use predicted lifetime risk from birth to define criteria for making decisions regarding breast cancer screening rather than thresholds based on absolute 5-year risk from current age. METHODS: We used the Prospective Family Cohort Study of 14,657 women without breast cancer at baseline in which, during a median follow-up of 10 years, 482 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. We examined the performances of the IBIS and BOADICEA risk models when using alternative thresholds by comparing predictions based on 5-year risk with those based on lifetime risk from birth and remaining lifetime risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Using IBIS, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.63 to 0.68) and 0.56 (95% confidence interval = 0.54 to 0.59) for 5-year and lifetime risks, respectively (Pdiff<0.001). For equivalent sensitivities, the 5-year incidence almost always had higher specificities than lifetime risk from birth. For women aged 20-39 years, 5-year risk performed better than lifetime risk from birth. For women aged 40 years or more, receiver-operating characteristic curves were similar for 5-year and lifetime IBIS risk from birth. Classifications based on remaining lifetime risk were inferior to 5-year risk estimates. Results were similar using BOADICEA. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that risk stratification using clinical models will likely be more accurate when based on predicted 5-year risk compared with risks based on predicted lifetime and remaining lifetime, particularly for women aged 20-39 years.

8.
Cancer ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the psychological outcomes of germline multigene panel testing, particularly among diverse patients and those with moderate-risk pathogenic variants (PVs). METHODS: Study participants (N = 1264) were counseled and tested with a 25- or 28-gene panel and completed a 3-month postresult survey including the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA). RESULTS: The mean age was 52 years, 80% were female, and 70% had cancer; 45% were non-Hispanic White, 37% were Hispanic, 10% were Asian, 3% were Black, and 5% had another race/ethnicity. Approximately 28% had a high school education or less, and 23% were non-English-speaking. The genetic test results were as follows: 7% had a high-risk PV, 6% had a moderate-risk PV, 35% had a variant of uncertain significance (VUS), and 52% were negative. Most participants (92%) had a total MICRA score ≤ 38, which corresponded to a mean response of "never," "rarely," or only "sometimes" reacting negatively to results. A multivariate analysis found that mean total MICRA scores were significantly higher (more uncertainty/distress) among high- and moderate-risk PV carriers (29.7 and 24.8, respectively) than those with a VUS or negative results (17.4 and 16.1, respectively). Having cancer or less education was associated with a significantly higher total MICRA score; race/ethnicity was not associated with the total MICRA score. High- and moderate-risk PV carriers did not differ significantly from one another in the total MICRA score, uncertainty, distress, or positive experiences. CONCLUSIONS: In a diverse population undergoing genetic counseling and multigene panel testing for hereditary cancer risk, the psychological response corresponded to test results and showed low distress and uncertainty. Further studies are needed to assess patient understanding and subsequent cancer screening among patients from diverse backgrounds. LAY SUMMARY: Multigene panel tests for hereditary cancer have become widespread despite concerns about adverse psychological reactions among carriers of moderate-risk pathogenic variants (mutations) and among carriers of variants of uncertain significance. This large study of an ethnically and economically diverse cohort of patients undergoing panel testing found that 92% "never," "rarely," or only "sometimes" reacted negatively to results. Somewhat higher uncertainty and distress were identified among carriers of high- and moderate-risk pathogenic variants, and lower levels were identified among those with a variant of uncertain significance or a negative result. Although the psychological response corresponded to risk, reactions to testing were favorable, regardless of results.

9.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161562

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to characterize the use of social media (SM) among breast and gynecologic cancer survivors, as well as associations between patterns of SM use and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-three breast and gynecologic cancer survivors recruited at the Stanford Women's Cancer Center completed the study. Participants completed questionnaires to measure quality of life (FACT-G), functional social support (Duke-UNC FSSQ), distress (PHQ-4), decision regret (DRS), and SM use. RESULTS: In total, 75.8% of the sample reported using SM. There was no difference in quality of life (QOL), functional social support (FSS), distress, or decision regret between SM users and non-users. SM users indicated using SM for social support (34.3%) and loneliness (24.6%) more than for information-seeking (15.9%), coping (18.8%), or self-disclosure (14%). SM use for coping was associated with lower QOL (p < .001), lower FSS (p < .001), and higher decision regret (p = .029). Use for social support was associated with lower FSS (p = .029). Use for information seeking was associated with lower QOL (p = .012). Use of SM when lonely was associated with lower QOL (p < .001), higher distress (p = .007), lower FSS (p < .001), and higher decision regret (p = .020). CONCLUSIONS: Associations between SM use and psychosocial outcomes are nuanced and dependent on motivation for use. Further research is needed to better characterize SM use and associations with psychosocial outcomes among cancer survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: SM is an important potential avenue for understanding and addressing the psychosocial effects associated with cancer survivorship.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2019452, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026450

RESUMO

Importance: Both germline genetic testing and tumor DNA sequencing are increasingly used in cancer care. The indications for testing and utility of these 2 tests differ, and guidelines recommend that germline analysis follow tumor sequencing in certain patients to determine whether particular variants are of somatic or germline origin. Broad clinical experience with such follow-up testing has not yet been thoroughly described. Objective: To examine the yield and utility of germline testing following tumor DNA sequencing in a large, diverse patient population. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study examined germline testing through a laboratory supporting multiple academic and community clinics. Participants included 2023 patients with cancer who received germline testing and previously underwent tumor DNA sequencing. These patients received germline testing between January 5, 2015, and January 31, 2020, although most (81% of patients) received testing between January 2, 2018, and January 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) was calculated by gene, cancer type, and age at diagnosis. Potential actionability of these findings was determined based on current management guidelines, precision therapy labels, and clinical trial eligibility criteria. Patient records were reviewed to determine whether germline follow-up testing would have been recommended by current guidelines. Results: Among 2023 eligible patients, 1085 were female (53.6%), and the median age at cancer diagnosis was 56 (range, 0-92) years. Pathogenic germline variants were detected in 617 patients (30.5%; 95% CI, 28.5%-32.6%) and were prevalent across patient ages (1-85 years) and cancer types, including cancers known to be strongly associated with germline variance (eg, breast, colorectal) as well as others (eg, renal, lung, and bladder). Many patients (78%-82%) with PGVs met criteria for germline follow-up testing, and 8.1% of PGVs were missed by tumor sequencing. Among those with germline-positive findings, 69 patients (11.2%) had PGVs identified only after presenting with a second primary cancer that possibly could have been detected earlier or prevented given current gene-specific surveillance and risk-reduction recommendations. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that germline analysis following tumor sequencing often produces findings that may impact patient care by influencing systemic therapy choices, surgical decisions, additional cancer screening, and genetic counseling in families. Current guidelines and tumor testing approaches appear to capture many, but not all, of these germline findings, reinforcing the utility of both expanded germline follow-up testing as well as germline analysis independent of tumor sequencing in appropriate patients.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with a family history of breast cancer are frequently referred for hereditary cancer genetic testing, yet < 10% are found to have pathogenic variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes. Large-scale genotyping studies have identified common variants (primarily single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) with individually modest breast cancer risk that, in aggregate, account for considerable breast cancer susceptibility. Here, we describe the development and empirical validation of an SNP-based polygenic breast cancer risk score. METHODS: A panel of 94 SNPs was examined for association with breast cancer in women of European ancestry undergoing hereditary cancer genetic testing and negative for pathogenic variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes. Candidate polygenic risk scores (PRSs) as predictors of personal breast cancer history were developed through multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, cancer history, and ancestry. An optimized PRS was validated in 2 independent cohorts (n = 13,174; n = 141,160). RESULTS: Within the training cohort (n = 24,259), 4,291 women (18%) had a personal history of breast cancer and 8,725 women (36%) reported breast cancer in a first-degree relative. The optimized PRS included 86 variants and was highly predictive of breast cancer status in both validation cohorts (P = 6.4 × 10-66; P < 10-325). The odds ratio (OR) per unit standard deviation was consistent between validations (OR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.39 to 1.52]; OR 1.47 [95% CI, 1.45 to 1.49]). In a direct comparison, the 86-SNP PRS outperformed a previously described PRS of 77 SNPs. CONCLUSION: The validation and implementation of a PRS for women without pathogenic variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes offers potential for risk stratification to guide surveillance recommendations.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3833, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737321

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been shown to predict breast cancer risk in European women, but their utility in Asian women is unclear. Here we evaluate the best performing PRSs for European-ancestry women using data from 17,262 breast cancer cases and 17,695 controls of Asian ancestry from 13 case-control studies, and 10,255 Chinese women from a prospective cohort (413 incident breast cancers). Compared to women in the middle quintile of the risk distribution, women in the highest 1% of PRS distribution have a ~2.7-fold risk and women in the lowest 1% of PRS distribution has ~0.4-fold risk of developing breast cancer. There is no evidence of heterogeneity in PRS performance in Chinese, Malay and Indian women. A PRS developed for European-ancestry women is also predictive of breast cancer risk in Asian women and can help in developing risk-stratified screening programmes in Asia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e208501, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609350

RESUMO

Importance: To date, few studies have examined the extent to which polygenic single-nucleotide variation (SNV) (formerly single-nucleotide polymorphism) scores modify risk for carriers of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer susceptibility genes. In previous reports, polygenic risk modification was reduced for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers, but limited information is available for carriers of CHEK2, ATM, or PALB2 PVs. Objective: To examine an 86-SNV polygenic risk score (PRS) for BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective case-control study using data on 150 962 women tested with a multigene hereditary cancer panel between July 19, 2016, and January 11, 2019, was conducted in a commercial testing laboratory. Participants included women of European ancestry between the ages of 18 and 84 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association of the 86-SNV score with invasive breast cancer after adjusting for age, ancestry, and personal and/or family cancer history. Effect sizes, expressed as standardized odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs, were assessed for carriers of PVs in each gene as well as for noncarriers. Results: The median age at hereditary cancer testing of the population was 48 years (range, 18-84 years); there were 141 160 noncarriers in addition to carriers of BRCA1 (n = 2249), BRCA2 (n = 2638), CHEK2 (n = 2564), ATM (n = 1445), and PALB2 (n = 906) PVs included in the analysis. The 86-SNV score was associated with breast cancer risk in each of the carrier populations (P < 1 × 10-4). Stratification was more pronounced for noncarriers (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.45-1.49) and CHEK2 PV carriers (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.36-1.64) than for carriers of BRCA1 (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.32) or BRCA2 (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12-1.34) PVs. Odds ratios for ATM (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.55) and PALB2 (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55) PV carrier populations were intermediate between those for BRCA1/2 and CHEK2 noncarriers. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the 86-SNV score was associated with modified risk for carriers of BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, ATM, and PALB2 PVs. This finding supports previous reports of reduced PRS stratification for BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers compared with noncarriers. Modification of risk in CHEK2 carriers associated with the 86-SNV score appeared to be similar to that observed in women without a PV. Larger studies are needed to provide more refined estimates of polygenic modification of risk for women with PVs in other moderate-penetrance genes.

15.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(6): e517-e528, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer survival are well documented, but the influence of health care institutions is unclear. We therefore examined the effect of hospital characteristics on survival. METHODS: Harmonized data pooled from 5 case-control and prospective cohort studies within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium were linked to the California Cancer Registry and the California Neighborhoods Data System. The study included 9,701 patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2007. First reporting hospitals were classified by hospital type-National Cancer Institute (NCI) -designated cancer center, American College of Surgeons (ACS) Cancer Program, other-and hospital composition of the neighborhood socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity of patients with cancer. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for clinical and patient-level prognostic factors were used to examine the influence of hospital characteristics on survival. RESULTS: Fewer than one half of women received their initial care at an NCI-designated cancer center (5%) or ACS program (38%) hospital. Receipt of initial care in ACS program hospitals varied by race/ethnicity-highest among non-Latina White patients (45%), and lowest among African Americans (21%). African-American women had superior breast cancer survival when receiving initial care in ACS hospitals versus other hospitals (non-ACS program and non-NCI-designated cancer center; hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.83). Other hospital characteristics were not associated with survival. CONCLUSION: African American women may benefit significantly from breast cancer care in ACS program hospitals; however, most did not receive initial care at such facilities. Future research should identify the aspects of ACS program hospitals that are associated with higher survival and evaluate strategies by which to enhance access to and use of high-quality hospitals, particularly among African American women.

16.
Value Health ; 23(5): 551-558, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the temporal trajectory of insurance coverage for next-generation tumor sequencing (sequencing) by private US payers, describe the characteristics of coverage adopters and nonadopters, and explore adoption trends relative to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' National Coverage Determination (CMS NCD) for sequencing. METHODS: We identified payers with positive coverage (adopters) or negative coverage (nonadopters) of sequencing on or before April 1, 2019, and abstracted their characteristics including size, membership in the BlueCross BlueShield Association, and whether they used a third-party policy. Using descriptive statistics, payer characteristics were compared between adopters and nonadopters and between pre-NCD and post-NCD adopters. An adoption timeline was constructed. RESULTS: Sixty-nine payers had a sequencing policy. Positive coverage started November 30, 2015, with 1 payer and increased to 33 (48%) as of April 1, 2019. Adopters were less likely to be BlueCross BlueShield members (P < .05) and more likely to use a third-party policy (P < .001). Fifty-eight percent of adopters were small payers. Among adopters, 52% initiated coverage pre-NCD over a 25-month period and 48% post-NCD over 17 months. CONCLUSIONS: We found an increase, but continued variability, in coverage over 3.5 years. Temporal analyses revealed important trends: the possible contribution of the CMS NCD to a faster pace of coverage adoption, the interdependence in coverage timing among BlueCross BlueShield members, the impact of using a third-party policy on coverage timing, and the importance of small payers in early adoption. Our study is a step toward systematic temporal research of coverage for precision medicine, which will inform policy and affordability assessments.


Assuntos
Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão/economia , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Medicare/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 895-902, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New technologies are being developed for early detection of multiple types of cancer simultaneously. To quantify the potential benefit, we estimated reductions in absolute cancer-related deaths that could occur if cancers diagnosed after metastasis (stage IV) were instead diagnosed at earlier stages. METHODS: We obtained stage-specific incidence and survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 17 cancer types for all persons diagnosed ages 50 to 79 years in 18 geographic regions between 2006 and 2015. For a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons, we estimated cancer-related deaths under assumptions that cancers diagnosed at stage IV were diagnosed at earlier stages. RESULTS: Stage IV cancers represented 18% of all estimated diagnoses but 48% of all estimated cancer-related deaths within 5 years. Assuming all stage IV cancers were diagnosed at stage III, 51 fewer cancer-related deaths would be expected per 100,000, a reduction of 15% of all cancer-related deaths. Assuming one third of metastatic cancers were diagnosed at stage III, one third diagnosed at stage II, and one third diagnosed at stage I, 81 fewer cancer-related deaths would be expected per 100,000, a reduction of 24% of all cancer-related deaths, corresponding to a reduction in all-cause mortality comparable in magnitude to eliminating deaths due to cerebrovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of multiple cancer types earlier than stage IV could reduce at least 15% of cancer-related deaths within 5 years, affecting not only cancer-specific but all-cause mortality. IMPACT: Detecting cancer before stage IV, including modest shifts to stage III, could offer substantial population benefit.

19.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(4): 380-391, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259785

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic provide recommendations for genetic testing and counseling for hereditary cancer syndromes, and risk management recommendations for patients who are diagnosed with syndromes associated with an increased risk of these cancers. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments, examine relevant new data, and reevaluate and update recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's discussion and most recent recommendations regarding criteria for high-penetrance genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer beyond BRCA1/2, pancreas screening and genes associated with pancreatic cancer, genetic testing for the purpose of systemic therapy decision-making, and testing for people with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA