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J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 752-759, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383070


An Al3+-based metal-organic framework (MOF), CAU-11-COOH, with a V-shaped ligand, DPSDA (3,3'-4,4'-diphenylsulfonetetracarboxylic dianhydride), was prepared using the solvothermal method, and was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, and CO2 adsorption. The catalytic efficiency of CAU-11-COOH was investigated in the solvent-free cycloaddition of carbon dioxide with epoxides, which yielded five-membered cyclic carbonates under mild reaction conditions. CAU-11-COOH with a co-catalyst, tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), gave higher than 98% yield of epichlorohydrin carbonate at 80 °C without a solvent. A plausible reaction mechanism in which the Lewis acidic metal center, an uncoordinated carboxyl group, and a nucleophilic bromide anion operate synergistically is proposed. The CAU-11-COOH catalysts were found to exhibit high thermal stability and could be reused more than four times without any significant reduction in activity.

Inorg Chem ; 58(17): 11389-11403, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433625


We synthesized two new adenine-based Zn(II)/Cd(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, [Zn2(H2O)(stdb)2(5H-Ade)(9H-Ade)2]n (PNU-21) and [Cd2(Hstdb)(stdb)(8H-Ade)(Ade)]n (PNU-22), containing auxiliary dicarboxylate ligand (stdb = 4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylate). Both MOFs were characterized by multiple analytical techniques such as single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD), powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, as well as temperature program desorption and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. Both MOFs were structurally robust and possessed unsaturated Lewis acidic metal centers [Zn(II) and Cd(II)] and free basic N atoms of adenine molecules. They were used as heterogeneous catalysts for the fixation of CO2 into five-membered cyclic carbonates. Significant conversion of epichlorohydrin (ECH) was attained at a low CO2 pressure (0.4 MPa) and moderate catalyst (0.6 mol %)/cocatalyst (0.3 mol %) amounts, with over 99% selectivity toward the ECH carbonate. They showed comparable or even higher catalytic activity than other previously reported MOFs. Because of high thermal stability and robust architecture of PNU-21/PNU-22, both catalysts could be reused with simple separation up to five successive cycles without any considerable loss of their catalytic activity. Densely populated acidic and basic sites in both Zn(II)/Cd(II) MOFs facilitated the conversion of ECH to ECH carbonate in high yields. The reaction mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction between ECH and CO2 is described by possible intermediates, transition states, and pathways, from the density functional theory calculation in correlation with the SXRD structure of PNU-21.

ChemSusChem ; 12(5): 1033-1042, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610753


A facile approach for modifying the UiO-66-NH2 metal-organic framework by incorporating imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts for the cycloaddition of epoxides to CO2 is reported. Methylimidazolium- and methylbenzimidazolium-based IL units (ILA and ILB, respectively) were introduced into the pore walls of the UiO-66-NH2 framework through a condensation reaction to generate ILA@U6N and ILB@U6N catalysts, respectively. The resultant heterogeneous catalysts, especially ILA@U6N, exhibited excellent CO2 adsorption capability, which makes them effective for cycloaddition reactions producing cyclic carbonates under mild reaction conditions in the absence of any cocatalyst or solvent. The significantly enhanced activity of ILA@U6N is attributed to the synergism between the coordinately unsaturated Lewis acidic Zr4+ centers and Br- ions in the bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts. The size effect of the ILs on coupling between the epoxide and CO2 was also studied for ILA@U6N and ILB@U6N. A periodic DFT study was performed to provide evidence of possible intermediates, transition states, and pathways, as well as to gain deeper insight into the mechanism of the ILA@U6N-catalyzed cycloaddition reaction between epichlorohydrin and CO2 .

ChemSusChem ; 11(5): 924-932, 2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316308


A pyridinium-based ionic-liquid-decorated 1 D metal-organic framework (MOF; IL-[In2 (dpa)3 (1,10-phen)2 ]; IL=ionic liquid; dpa=diphenic acid; 1,10-phen=1,10-phenanthroline) was developed as a bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst system for CO2 -oxirane coupling reactions. An aqueous-microwave route was employed to perform the hydrothermal reaction for the synthesis of the [In2 (dpa)3 (1,10-phen)2 ] MOF, and the IL-[In2 (dpa)3 (1,10-phen)2 ] catalyst was synthesized by covalent postfunctionalization. As a result of the synergetic effect of the dual-functional sites, which include Lewis acid sites (coordinatively unsaturated In sites) and the I- ion in the IL functional sites, IL-[In2 (dpa)3 (1,10-phen)2 ] displayed a high catalytic activity for CO2 -epoxide cycloaddition reactions under mild and solvent-free conditions. Microwave pulses were employed for the first time in MOF-catalyzed CO2 -epoxide cycloaddition reactions to result in a high turnover frequency of 2000-3100 h-1 . The catalyst had an excellent reusability and maintained a continuous high selectivity. Furthermore, only a small amount of leaching was observed from the spent catalyst. A plausible reaction mechanism based on the synergistic effect of the dual-functional sites that catalyze the CO2 -epoxide cycloaddition reaction effectively is proposed.