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1.
World Neurosurg ; 132: 69-74, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) was defined only recently and can be found in many organs. As intracranial lesions, hypophysitis and pachymeningitis are well known, whereas intracranial pseudotumor is unusual. This case involved multiple intracranial pseudotumors without extracranial lesions, mimicking multiple meningioma. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with an incidental mass lesion at the craniocervical junction on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI showed diffuse enhanced extra-axial nodules around the medulla and middle cranial fossa. Surgery was performed for the gradually enlarging tumor. Intraoperative findings showed hard nodules around the vertebral artery. We performed subtotal resection. Neuropathological findings showed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with lymphoid follicles. Immunohistochemical studies for IgG4 and IgG showed the histological criteria for IgG4-RD were met. Given the high IgG4 serum level, we diagnosed IgG4-RD. Steroid was administered initially but was then tapered, and nodules have since remained small. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates IgG4-RD mimicking meningioma with multiple masses but without extracranial lesions. This case and previous descriptions suggest the possibility of pseudotumor due to IgG4-RD in the presence of multiple extra-axial lesions at the dura and supplying artery, hard nodules with thickening of the artery, and frozen section findings of lymphoplasmacytes surrounded by rich collagen fibers. In such cases, the pseudotumor due to IgG4-RD should be resected, and total resection might not be warranted.

2.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(10): 152561, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358481

RESUMO

Nephrogenic adenoma is a common diagnosis in urological pathology that may be challenging for general pathologists. Due to its polymorphic appearance under the microscope, some cases can be misdiagnosed as malignancy and then unnecessarily overtreated. Aside from the typical tubules, cysts and papillae, nephrogenic adenoma may display a broad spectrum of histologic appearances and locations, some of them atypical or unexpected. These unusual and concerning features will have special consideration in this description. The goal of the review is to increase awareness of general pathologists of the varied histology of nephrogenic adenoma.

3.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e393-e399, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) artifacts of adjustable shunt devices are thought to be similar to metal clip artifacts, in that they are larger with higher field strength scanners. We have published several reports about the artifacts of new MRI-resistant adjustable shunt devices, and we found a case in which a 3.0-T scanner showed smaller artifacts than the 1.5-T scanner. We aimed to clarify whether this claim is true or not. METHODS: Under permission of our institutional Ethical Committee, 2 volunteers underwent imaging studies using 3.0-T and 1.5-T scanners from GE, Siemens, and Philips. Four MRI-resistant adjustable shunt devices-proGAV2.0 (Miethke), Codman Certas Plus (Johnson & Johnson), Polaris (Sophysa), and Strata MR valve (Medtronic)-were fixed on the left temporal scalp. Routine MRI images, including T1-and T2-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), were obtained. We also compared artifacts between a 3.0-T scanner and a-1.5 T scanner in 4 patients. RESULTS: The 3.0 T-scanners showed smaller artifacts than the 1.5-T scanners on DWI and MRA images for all shunt devices and scanners. In the other sequences, the results depended on the MRI scanner manufacturer; however, the GE 3.0-T scanner showed smaller artifacts in every sequence. This was also true in the 4 clinical cases. CONCLUSIONS: A 3.0-T scanner is recommended over a 1.5-T scanner for patients with MRI-resistant adjustable shunt devices in the diagnosis of acute ischemic condition or when using GE scanners.

4.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e839-e845, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for infection after vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) device implantation represent an important issue but remain unclear. We hypothesized that specific risk factors for infection would be associated with VNS device implantation. This study reviewed patients with epilepsy who underwent VNS device implantation and undertook a statistical analysis of risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI). METHODS: We reviewed all medical records for patients who underwent VNS therapy in our facility between August 2011 and May 2018. Age, sex, height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), intelligence quotient (IQ), surgical incision opening time, blood loss, epilepsy classification, activities of daily living, and generator replacement were statistically compared between cases with and without SSI. RESULTS: We performed 208 VNS device implantation surgeries at our facility during the study period. Among these, 150 patients underwent initial implantation, 56 patients underwent first generator replacement, and 2 patients underwent second replacement. Six patients (2.7%) with initial implantation and 3 patients (5.4%) with first replacement showed SSI. Low BMI was a risk factor for infection at initial implantation (P < 0.0012) using a BMI within 1.78 kg/m2 of the cutoff for being underweight (100% sensitivity, 25% specificity). Low IQ (P = 0.0015) was also a risk factor for SSI. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified low BMI and low IQ at initial implantation as risk factors for infection.

5.
Pathol Int ; 69(6): 366-371, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215130

RESUMO

A 35-year-old Japanese man who had experienced hoarseness for 10 years presented with a vocal cord lesion. A gross examination revealed a left vocal cord polyp occupying two-thirds of the vocal space. The endoscopically resected lesion contained scattered atypical fibroblastic, stellate, or ganglion-like cells with mucoid stroma. Vacuolated cells were also seen. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was largely undetectable. A vocal cord polyp was first suspected, but well-differentiated liposarcoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) were included in the differential diagnoses. The tumor cells were positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), calponin, and vimentin, and negative for other smooth muscle markers by immunohistochemistry. Structures resembling myofibroblasts were not observed by electron microscopy, which confirmed abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum in the tumor cells and accumulated lipid droplets in some tumor cells. ALK gene rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and TIMP3-ALK fusion was confirmed by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We diagnosed the lesion as an IMT, and an ALK-rearranged stellate cell tumor may be postulated. This is the first report of a fusion partner gene of ALK in a case of laryngeal IMT.

6.
World Neurosurg ; 128: 320-323, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) originates with neuroendocrine cells and is mainly found in the pancreas, lungs and gastrointestinal tract. We surgically treated a case of primary unknown NEC with only cerebral metastasis that mimicked hemangioblastoma. Recurrence was seen at the fornix, and no primary lesion had been identified as of 2 years after treatments despite careful examination. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 61-year-old man presented with dizziness. Past medical history included hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and colon polyp. We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the cause of dizziness, revealing tumor with enhancement and peritumoral edema at the right cerebral lesion. Contrast-enhanced whole-body computed tomography (CT) showed no other lesions. We suspected hemangioblastoma from examinations and decided on surgical resection. Neuropathologically, the resected tumor was diagnosed as brain metastasis of NEC, but CT, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, gastrointestinal endoscopy, and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy all failed to reveal the primary lesion. As postoperative MRI showed enhancement around the resection cavity and at the right fornix, radiotherapy was performed. No other lesions were seen at 24 months postoperatively. We are continuing careful monitoring and no chemotherapy has been administered. CONCLUSIONS: We treated brain metastasis from NEC of unknown primary and mimicking hemangioblastoma using only local treatment. When an enhancing, single, solid tumor is seen in the cerebellum, brain metastasis from NEC of unknown primary is 1 differential diagnosis.

7.
Mol Cancer Res ; 17(8): 1613-1626, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043488

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation (TFE3-RCC) has been recently defined as a distinct subset of RCC classified by characteristic morphology and clinical presentation. The Xp11 translocations involve the TFE3 transcription factor and produce chimeric TFE3 proteins retaining the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper structure for dimerization and DNA binding suggesting that chimeric TFE3 proteins function as oncogenic transcription factors. Diagnostic biomarkers and effective forms of therapy for advanced cases of TFE3-RCC are as yet unavailable. To facilitate the development of molecular based diagnostic tools and targeted therapies for this aggressive kidney cancer, we generated a translocation RCC mouse model, in which the PRCC-TFE3 transgene is expressed specifically in kidneys leading to the development of RCC with characteristic histology. Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret was elevated in the kidneys of the TFE3-RCC mice, and treatment with RET inhibitor, vandetanib, significantly suppressed RCC growth. Moreover, we found that Gpnmb (Glycoprotein nonmetastatic B) expression was notably elevated in the TFE3-RCC mouse kidneys as seen in human TFE3-RCC tumors, and confirmed that GPNMB is the direct transcriptional target of TFE3 fusions. While GPNMB IHC staining was positive in 9/9 cases of TFE3-RCC, Cathepsin K, a conventional marker for TFE3-RCC, was positive in only 67% of cases. These data support RET as a potential target and GPNMB as a diagnostic marker for TFE3-RCC. The TFE3-RCC mouse provides a preclinical in vivo model for the development of new biomarkers and targeted therapeutics for patients affected with this aggressive form of RCC. IMPLICATIONS: Key findings from studies with this preclinical mouse model of TFE3-RCC underscore the potential for RET as a therapeutic target for treatment of patients with TFE3-RCC, and suggest that GPNMB may serve as diagnostic biomarker for TFE3 fusion RCC.

8.
Histopathology ; 75(1): 104-117, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851202

RESUMO

AIMS: Primary renal well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (NET) (hereafter referred to as renal NET) is rare, with ~100 cases having been reported in the literature. There are also limited data on the molecular-genetic background of primary renal NETs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 11 renal NETs by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify characteristic genetic aberrations. All tumours were positive for synaptophysin, and also expressed insulinoma-associated protein 1 (10/11), chromogranin-A (8/11), and CD56 (3/11). Cytoplasmic positivity of CD99 was present in eight of 11 cases, and strong nuclear expression of α-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) was retained in all 11 cases. Molecular-genetic analysis of aberration of VHL gave negative results in all cases. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 3p21 was found in three of nine analysable cases. NGS was successful in nine cases, showing a total of 56 variants being left after the updated filtering process, representing an average of five variants per sample. All analysable cases were negative for ATRX and DAXX (death-domain associated protein X) mutations. The most frequently mutated genes were CDH1 and TET2, with three mutations in two cases. Mutations in AKT3, ROS1, PIK3R2, BCR and MYC were found in two cases. The remaining 41 genes were found to be mutated only in individual cases. In four cases, the mutations affected a subset of genes related to angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the mutation profile of primary renal NETs is variable, and none of the studied genes or affected pathways seems to be specific for renal NET.

9.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 35(5): 883-887, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810857

RESUMO

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) was first described as a distinct neuropathological entity in 1971 by Taylor and colleagues. FCD is thought to be an embryological migration disorder and is thus considered a non-progressive, unchangeable disease throughout life. A 9-year-old right-handed boy was referred from a local hospital for medically intractable epileptic seizures. Serial magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed intensity changes that indicated exacerbation and remission. After presurgical evaluations including intracranial video-electroencephalogram monitoring, we performed a lesionectomy aided by MRI and epileptic focus resection. He has been free from seizures for more than 3 years. Neuropathological findings showed FCD type Ib. We surgically treated a patient with FCD, which showed MRI intensity changes indicating exacerbation and remission. Although FCD type Ib is generally invisible on MRI, in this patient, changes in intensity on MRI made FCD type Ib visible.

11.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 57(3): 688-694, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576713

RESUMO

Trousseau syndrome was first described by Armand Trousseau in 1865 and is characterized by hypercoagulation resulting from malignant tumors. This complication can markedly impact quality of life (QOL). This is the first report of a terminally ill patient who developed large-vessel occlusion stroke from Trousseau syndrome and underwent mechanical thrombectomy. A 75-year-old woman presented with Stage IV ovarian cancer. Goals of care were transitioned to palliative care. The patient was hospitalized with vertebral compression fracture and suddenly developed right hemiparesis and total aphasia during admission. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed occlusion of Segment 1 of the left middle cerebral artery. We administered tissue-plasminogen activator, but symptoms remained unimproved. We performed mechanical thrombectomy based on medical indications and with the consent of her family. Thrombectomy improved symptoms dramatically. She was able to walk and talk with her family at discharge. She eventually died of respiratory failure on postoperative Day 98, but QOL remained high for those 98 days. Mechanical thrombectomy has the potential to markedly improve QOL in terminally ill patients with large-vessel occlusion associated with Trousseau syndrome.

12.
J Clin Neurosci ; 2018 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epilepsy associated with neurocutaneous disorders is well known, and the prevalence of epilepsy among patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) ranges from 4% to 13%. However, epilepsy surgery for patients with NF1 is not commonly performed. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a patient with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) concomitant NF1 and moyamoya syndrome (MMS) who had already undergone bilateral superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis at 17 years old. As the standard temporal approach was unavailable, we evaluated the patient with neurologists, radiologists, neurosurgeons and neuropsychologists to identify the safest trajectory for epilepsy surgery. The patient underwent the right selective amygdala hippocampectomy from the posterior auricle part at 32 years old and obtained freedom from seizures. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first surgical case report for mTLE concomitant with NF1 and MMS.

13.
BMC Urol ; 18(1): 106, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare variety of a kidney neoplasm. We report a case of bilateral Xp11.2 translocation RCC occurring metachronously and discuss this very rare entity with reference to the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 56-year-old woman who presented with a right renal tumor. The patient had undergone left radical nephrectomy 7 years previously, which resulted in a histopathological diagnosis of clear cell RCC. Open right partial nephrectomy was performed under the presumptive diagnosis of recurrence of clear cell RCC. The present right renal tumor was pathologically diagnosed Xp11.2 translocation RCC. More than 70% of the tumor cells in the present right tumor were strongly positive for transcription factor E3 (TFE3) expression by immunohistochemical analysis with an anti-TFE3 antibody. A break-apart of the TFE3 genes in the bilateral tumors was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Real time-polymerase chain reaction analysis for the alveolar soft part sarcoma locus-TFE3 fusion gene was performed, which gave a positive result in the bilateral tumors. Pathological comparison of each of the tumors might lead to a final diagnosis of Xp11.2 translocation RCC occurring metachronously. CONCLUSIONS: We present the bilateral Xp11.2 translocation RCC. A combination of immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and molecular biological approaches allowed the final diagnosis of such a rare RCC.

14.
Pol J Pathol ; 69(2): 109-113, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351856

RESUMO

ALK-rearranged renal cell carcinoma (ALK-RCC) has been recently proposed and incorporated into the recent World Health Organisation Classification of renal tumours as a provisional entity. In this article, we review ALK-RCC with a focus on clinical and pathobiological aspects. Seventeen cases have been described to date. ALK-RCC accounts for less than 1% of all renal tumours. The age of patients ranges from 6 to 61 years with a mean age of 29.6 years. Grossly, the tumour forms were ill-demarcated or well demarcated solid mass in the renal medulla. Histologically, RCC with VCL-ALK translocation resembles renal medullary carcinoma and mucinous cribriform pattern, signet-ring cell pattern and solid rhabdoid pattern are often observed in RCC with non-VCL-ALK fusion. Immunohistochemically, ALK protein diffusely expresses and TFE3 is often expressed. ALK gene can fuse to VCL, TPM3, EML4, HOOK1 or STRN gene. A break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridisation study is clinically available for the practice of definite diagnosis. ALK inhibitor therapy will provide great benefit for patients with advanced stage of ALK-RCC in the near future.

15.
Pol J Pathol ; 69(2): 128-135, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351859

RESUMO

Gastric adenocarcinoma with hepatoid or enteroblastic differentiation (GAHED), known also as AFP-producing carcinoma, is a rare neoplasm. Ten cases with GAHED and 209 cases without GAHED were selected. Clinicopathological features of GAHED were investigated. The disease-free survival (DFS) of the GAHED group was compared with that of the non-GAHED group. Grossly, the tumours consisted of two early types and eight advanced types. Histologically, all tumours were composed of various proportions of tubular, cribriform, papillary, solid, and/or trabecular growth patterns of clear to slightly eosinophilic tumour cells. Hyaline globules were observed in all tumours. AFP and Hep-Par1 were immunoreactive in all tumours. In fluorescence in situ hybridisation of HER2 gene/chromosome 17, the amplification of HER2 gene was observed in two cases that showed positive reaction for HER2 protein. Clinical follow-up was available in nine cases. Regarding the clinical outcome, 3 and 6 patients were alive without disease and alive with disease, respectively. In a statistical analysis, the DFS of the GAHED group was significantly worse than that of the non-GAHED group. GAHED is morphologically characterised by various growth patterns of clear to slightly eosinophilic tumour cells and intracytoplasmic possession of hyaline globules. This tumour may have the potential to behave in an aggressive clinical fashion.

16.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 16(6): e1201-e1214, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard treatments have not been established in metastatic papillary renal-cell carcinoma (PRCC). We aimed to investigate treatment outcomes in patients with mPRCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 51 patients who were diagnosed with PRCC at 14 institutions. Pathologic slides were reviewed by pathologists. The associations between clinical factors and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: Final pathologic diagnoses could be determined in 50 patients. Thirty-five tumors were diagnosed as PRCC (type 2 PRCC, 91.4%), and 15 were diagnosed as other histologic types. Targeted therapies (TTs) were provided to 25 mPRCC patients. Patients treated with TT survived significantly longer than those treated before the era of TT (median OS, 22.5 vs. 6.3 months; P = .0035). Median OS of patients who experienced stable disease for ≥ 9 months using single TT was 43.1 months. Patients treated with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) as first-line TT survived longer after TT initiation than those treated with an mTOR inhibitor (median, 22.4 vs. 11.7 months; P = .2684). Patients treated with TKIs in both first- and second-line settings had significantly better survival after TT initiation than those treated with a TKI in one therapy line and an mTOR inhibitor in the other (31.4 vs. 12.9 months, P = .0172). Patients treated with a TKI as second-line TT survived significantly longer after second-line TT initiation than did those treated with an mTOR inhibitor (16.2 vs. 7.4 months, P = .0016). CONCLUSION: Prognoses of patients with mPRCC were improved by TT, and TKIs appeared to be the treatment of choice in both the first- and second-line settings.

17.
Lung Cancer ; 122: 22-24, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032835

RESUMO

Nivolumab, an anti-programmed death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI), is now widely used to treat numerous cancers. Although most adverse effects related to ICIs are controllable, fulminant immune-related adverse events can occur. A 74-year-old patient with non-small-cell lung cancer was treated with nivolumab as a second-line treatment. After 8 cycles, acute kidney injury with macroscopic hematuria appeared, followed by diffuse ground-glass opacities with hemoptysis. Since the clinical course suggested Goodpasture's disease, methylprednisolone pulse therapy and plasma exchange were started. Later, it was confirmed that the serum anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody was positive. However, the patient died 35 days after admission due to respiratory failure, and an autopsy showed crescentic glomerulonephritis and massive alveolar hemorrhage which were compatible with Goodpasture's disease. Our case provides a possible link between nivolumab and lethal Goodpasture's disease.

18.
Pathol Int ; 68(9): 524-529, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015409

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occasionally has sarcomatoid differentiation and rarely contains heterologous components. We report a case of chromophobe RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation that had various heterologous components including a unique lipomatous area. The patient was an 83-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the left lower abdomen. Grossly, the tumor was 14 cm in diameter and had yellowish-to-whitish color with focal necrosis and hemorrhage. Histologically, the tumor was composed of an eosinophilic subtype of chromophobe RCC with sarcomatoid differentiation including mainly chondrosarcoma, some osteosarcoma and a lipomatous area. The heterologous components of sarcomatoid RCC are usually osteosarcoma or chondrosarcoma, and sarcomatoid RCC with multiple heterologous components is extremely rare.

19.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 42(9): 1253-1261, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878933

RESUMO

Staging criteria for renal cell carcinoma differ from many other cancers, in that renal tumors are often spherical with subtle, finger-like extensions into veins, renal sinus, or perinephric tissue. We sought to study interobserver agreement in pathologic stage categories for challenging cases. An online survey was circulated to urologic pathologists interested in kidney tumors, yielding 89% response (31/35). Most questions included 1 to 4 images, focusing on: vascular and renal sinus invasion (n=24), perinephric invasion (n=9), and gross pathology/specimen handling (n=17). Responses were collapsed for analysis into positive and negative/equivocal for upstaging. Consensus was regarded as an agreement of 67% (2/3) of participants, which was reached in 20/33 (61%) evaluable scenarios regarding renal sinus, perinephric, or vein invasion, of which 13/33 (39%) had ≥80% consensus. Lack of agreement was especially encountered regarding small tumor protrusions into a possible vascular lumen, close to the tumor leading edge. For gross photographs, most were interpreted as suspicious but requiring histologic confirmation. Most participants (61%) rarely used special stains to evaluate vascular invasion, usually endothelial markers (81%). Most agreed that a spherical mass bulging well beyond the kidney parenchyma into the renal sinus (71%) or perinephric fat (90%) did not necessarily indicate invasion. Interobserver agreement in pathologic staging of renal cancer is relatively good among urologic pathologists interested in kidney tumors, even when selecting cases that test the earliest and borderline thresholds for extrarenal extension. Disagreements remain, however, particularly for tumors with small, finger-like protrusions, closely juxtaposed to the main mass.

20.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 34: 31-35, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661724

RESUMO

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (CRCC) is not amenable to International Society for Urologic Pathology-endorsed nucleolar grading. Novel grading approaches were proposed, but the rarity of adverse pathology hampers their discriminatory value. We investigate simple linear micrometer measurements and a proposed immunostain in CRCCs. 32 patients' CRCCs were studied: 12 adverse cases (stage pT3, recurrence, or metastasis), 15 controls (stage ≤pT2, no recurrence or metastasis after >3 years), and 8 metastases (3 were paired with primary adverse cases). The ratio of greatest dimensions of largest and smallest nuclei, in each of 5 "worst" high-power fields, excluding those with degenerative features, was designated variation in nuclear size (VNS). Percent multinucleate cells (PMC) were also counted. Mouse anti PD-L2 monoclonal antibody immunostaining was performed. Mean VNS measured in adverse primary and control primary tumors were 3.7 ±â€¯0.5 and 2.4 ±â€¯0.4 respectively (P < .001), and 3.4 ±â€¯0.4 for metastases (P < .001). Optimal VNS cut-off was 2.5, with sensitivity and specificity 0.85 and 0.81, respectively. PMCs were 6.0 ±â€¯3.0 for adverse group, 5.7 ±â€¯2.7 for controls, and 4.1 ±â€¯1.6 for metastases (P = NS). PD-L2 could not discriminate adverse versus good primary tumors (χ21.6, P = .2), but was higher in metastases (χ2 6.9, P < .01), or metastases plus adverse primary tumors (χ2 4.8, P = .03), compared to good-pathology primary tumors. In conclusion, VNS is an easily obtained measurement that can predict adverse behavior of chromophobe RCC, and may impart value for needle biopsy reporting and the choice of active surveillance. PD-L2 was elevated in metastases but was less useful for primary tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Tamanho do Núcleo Celular , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Proteína 2 Ligante de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
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