Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 196
Filtrar
1.
JGH Open ; 6(1): 20-28, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35071784

RESUMO

Background and Aim: The pathogenic process underlying the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not yet clear in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who have received direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy and achieved sustained virological response (SVR). This study validated a composite predictive model for HCC in these patients. Methods: This study included 3058 patients in whom HCV was eradicated with DAA therapy. After DAAs recommendation for surveillance (ADRES) score, which is based on sex, FIB-4 index, and α-fetoprotein, was used as a composite predictive model for HCC development. Results: The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative incidence rates of HCC were 0.9, 4.5, and 15.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards models showed that male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 2.646; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.790-3.911), FIB-4 index >3.25 (HR, 2.891; 95% CI, 1.947-4.293), and α-fetoprotein >5 ng/mL (HR, 2.835; 95% CI, 1.914-4.200) are independently associated with HCC development. The incidence of HCC differed significantly by ADRES score (P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards models showed that compared to the ADRES score 0 group, the HR for HCC development was 2.947 (95% CI, 1.367-6.354) in the ADRES score 1 group, 9.171 (95% CI, 4.339-19.380) in the ADRES score 2 group, and 20.630 (95% CI, 8.641-49.230) in the ADRES score 3 group. ADRES score had superior predictive power for HCC development compared with the FIB-4 index and α-fetoprotein according to time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis. Conclusion: The ADRES score is useful for predicting HCC development after SVR.

2.
J Gastroenterol ; 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy enables a high rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with hepatitis C virus associated cirrhosis. However, the impact of DAA therapy on liver-related events in patients with cirrhosis is unclear. METHODS: A total of 350 patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis administered DAA therapy at 29 Japanese hospitals were enrolled (Child-Pugh class A [CP-A]: 195 patients, CP-B: 131 patients and CP-C: 24 patients). RESULTS: The SVR rates of patients with CP-A, CP-B and CP-C were 96.9%, 93.1% and 83.3%, respectively (p = 0.006). Seventy patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and male sex, previous HCC treatment, platelet counts < 10.0 × 104/µl, alpha-fetoprotein levels ≥ 5.0 ng/ml and CP-C were identified as significant factors in the multivariate analysis. The cumulative HCC occurrence/recurrence rates at 1 year were 6.6%/45.2%. The cumulative rate of decompensated cirrhotic events requiring hospital admission at 1 year was 9.1%. In the multivariate analysis, CP-B and CP-C were identified as significant factors. During the median observation period of 14.9 months, 13 patients died and one patient received liver transplant. The overall survival rates at 1 year were 98.4% in patients with CP-A, 96.4% in those with CP-B and 85.6% in those with CP-C (CP-A vs. CP-B: p = 0.759, CP-A vs. CP-C: p = 0.001 and CP-B vs. CP-C: p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: HCC development and mortality in patients with CP-B were not different from those with CP-A. On the other hand, in patients with CP-C, the development of HCC and decompensated cirrhotic events requiring hospital admission, and death were frequent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN000036150).

3.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 55(3): 292-301, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has the highest diagnostic accuracy for liver fibrosis; however, the association between MRE-associated liver stiffness and the development of hepatic and extrahepatic complications as well as mortality remains unclear. AIM: In this study, we investigated the longitudinal association between MRE-associated liver stiffness and complications and mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study included 2373 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease. All patients received standard of care and the development of complications was assessed every 1-6 months. RESULTS: Newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), decompensation, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), extrahepatic cancer and death were observed in 99, 117, 73, 77 and 170 patients respectively. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for HCC, decompensation, MACE, extrahepatic cancer and mortality were 1.28 (1.2-1.4), 1.34 (1.3-1.4), 0.96 (0.9-1.1), 1.00 (0.9-1.1) and 1.17 (1.1-1.2), respectively, with each 1-kPa increase in liver stiffness. Similarly, the aHR (95% CI) for HCC, decompensation, MACE, extrahepatic cancer and mortality were 4.20 (2.2-8.2), 67.5 (9.2-492), 0.83 (0.4-1.7), 0.90 (0.5-1.7) and 2.90 (1.6-5.4), respectively, in patients with cirrhosis (>4.7 kPa) compared to those with minimal fibrosis (<3 kPa). CONCLUSIONS: Increased MRE-associated liver stiffness was associated with increased risk for HCC, decompensation and mortality in a dose-dependent fashion but not with MACE or extrahepatic cancer, implicating a significant role for MRE in liver-related events and mortality; however, further studies are warranted to explore its role in MACE and extrahepatic cancer.

4.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 489, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is widely used and recommended as first-line treatment for patients infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, current data are limited regarding the efficacy and safety of switching to TDF for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients who are virologically suppressed with another nucleos(t)ide analogue. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) reduction potential of switching from entecavir (ETV) to TDF at week 48 in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with undetectable serum HBV-DNA. METHODS: In this multicenter, single-arm, open-label, phase 4 clinical study, 75 participants currently treated with ETV 0.5 mg once daily were switched to TDF 300 mg once daily for 96 weeks. RESULTS: At week 48, 3/74 participants (4%) achieved 0.25 log10 reduction of HBsAg levels from baseline (the primary endpoint). Mean HBsAg reduction was -0.14 log10 IU/mL and 12% (9/74) achieved 0.25 log10 reduction by 96 weeks. No participants achieved HBsAg seroclearance. HBsAg reduction at weeks 48 and 96 was numerically greater in participants with higher alanine aminotransferase levels (≥ 60 U/L). Seventeen participants (25%) achieved HBeAg seroclearance up to week 96. No participants experienced viral breakthrough. All drug-related adverse events (18 participants [24%]) were mild in intensity, including an increase in urine beta-2-microglobulin (15 participants [20%]). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, HBsAg reduction was limited after switching from ETV to TDF in this study population. Further investigation is warranted to better understand the clinical impact of switching from ETV to TDF. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03258710 registered August 21, 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03258710?term=NCT03258710&draw=2&rank=1.


Assuntos
Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ultrasound-guided attenuation parameter (UGAP) is recently developed for noninvasive evaluation of steatosis. However, reports on its usefulness in clinical practice are limited. This prospective multicenter study analyzed the diagnostic accuracy of grading steatosis with reference to magnetic resonance imaging-based proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF), a noninvasive method with high accuracy, in a large cohort. METHODS: Altogether, 1010 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent MRI-PDFF and UGAP were recruited and prospectively enrolled from 6 Japanese liver centers. Linearity was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients between MRI-PDFF and UGAP values. Bias, defined as the mean difference between MRI-PDFF and UGAP values, was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. UGAP cutoffs for pairwise MRI-PDFF-based steatosis grade were determined using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analyses. RESULTS: UGAP values were shown to be normally distributed. However, because PDFF values were not normally distributed, they were log-transformed (MRI-logPDFF). UGAP values significantly correlated with MRI-logPDFF (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.768). Additionally, Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between MRI-logPDFF and UGAP with a mean bias of 0.0002% and a narrow range of agreement (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.015 to 0.015). The AUROCs for distinguishing steatosis grade ≥1 (MRI-PDFF ≥5.2%), ≥2 (MRI-PDFF ≥11.3%), and 3 (MRI-PDFF ≥17.1%) were 0.910 (95% CI, 0.891-0.928), 0.912 (95% CI, 0.894-0.929), and 0.894 (95% CI, 0.873-0.916), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: UGAP has excellent diagnostic accuracy for grading steatosis with reference to MRI-PDFF. Additionally, UGAP has good linearity and negligible bias, suggesting that UGAP has excellent technical performance characteristics that can be widely used in clinical trials and patient care. (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, Number: UMIN000041196).

8.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676692

RESUMO

The identification of patients with advanced fibrosis who do not need any further hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance after the eradication of hepatitis C is pivotal. In this study, we developed a simple serum-based risk model that could identify patients with low-risk HCC. This was a nationwide multicenter study involving 16 Hospitals in Japan. Patients with advanced fibrosis (1,325 in a derivation cohort and 508 in a validation cohort) who achieved sustained virological responses at 24 weeks after treatment (SVR24) were enrolled. The HCC risk model at any point after SVR24 and its change were evaluated, and subsequent HCC development was analyzed. Based on the multivariable analysis, patients fulfilling all of the factors (GAF4 criteria: gamma-glutamyl transferase < 28 IU/L, alpha-fetoprotein < 4.0 ng/mL, and Fibrosis-4 Index < 4.28) were classified as low-risk and others were classified as high-risk. When patients were stratified at the SVR24, and 1 year, and 2 years after SVR24, subsequent HCC development was significantly lower in low-risk patients (0.5-1.1 per 100 person-years in the derivation cohort and 0.9-1.1 per 100 person-years in the validation cohort) than in high-risk patients at each point. HCC risk from 1 year after SVR24 decreased in patients whose risk improved from high-risk to low-risk (HCC incidence: 0.6 per 100 person-years [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.163 in the derivation cohort] and 1.3 per 100 person-years [HR = 0.239 in the validation cohort]) than in those with sustained high risk. Conclusion: The HCC risk model based on simple serum markers at any point after SVR and its change can identify patients with advanced fibrosis who are at low HCC risk, and these patients may be able to reduce HCC surveillance.

9.
Hepatol Res ; 51(12): 1181-1195, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555262

RESUMO

Thrombocytopenia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and these patients often require invasive procedures that carry a risk of bleeding. To prevent bleeding, guidelines recommend increasing platelet counts in patients with CLD who have thrombocytopenia and are planned to undergo invasive procedures. There are currently two options to increase platelet counts in patients in this setting: platelet transfusion or thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPORAs). Several treatment algorithms have been developed in the US to help physicians choose the best course of treatment for each patient; however, to date, no such algorithm has been proposed in other countries, where the choice of treatment has been based on each physician's judgment and experience. Here, we discuss the pathogenesis and treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD, we review and present current evidence of the efficacy of TPORAs for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD, and we present our expert opinion on a Japanese treatment algorithm for thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD who are planned to undergo invasive procedures. This algorithm aims to provide guidance for optimal decision making in the selection of TPORA therapy or platelet transfusion based on the latest evidence and according to actual clinical practice.

10.
JGH Open ; 5(9): 1085-1091, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584979

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Administration of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) as prevention or treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is not well known. The aim of this study is to reveal the efficacy and safety of TAF against HBV reactivation. Methods: Entecavir (ETV) and TAF were given to 66 and 11 patients, respectively, as prophylaxis against or treatment of HBV reactivation during chemotherapy or immune suppression therapy from January 2010 to June 2020. The antiviral effects and safety were assessed. Results: At week 24, the antiviral effects on patients receiving ETV and TAF were similar in terms of reduction of HBV DNA (-2.83 ± 1.45log IU/mL vs -3.05 ± 2.47log IU/mL; P = 0.857) and achieving undetectable levels of HBV DNA (78.8 vs 90.9%; P = 0.681). There was no significant difference in the decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between the two groups (-0.62 ± 11.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs -3.67 ± 13.2 mL/min/1.73 m2; P = 0.291). Conclusion: TAF is safe and effective against HBV reactivation.

11.
Invest New Drugs ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab therapy in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) based on whether they had previously received systemic therapy, as well as the association of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab with early alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response in real-world practice. METHODS: A total of 52 patients with u-HCC were treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab between October 2020 and April 2021. The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and modified RECIST were used to evaluate radiological responses. RESULTS: The patients received atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as 1st-line (n = 23), 2nd-line (n = 16), 3rd-line (n = 6), 4th-line (n = 3), 5th-line (n = 3), or 6th-line (n = 1) therapy. According to RECIST, the objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) in all patients were 15.4% and 57.7%. In the 1st-line patients, ORR and DCR based on RECIST 1.1 were 27.3% and 81.8%. The median time to progression (TTP) assessed by RECIST was significantly longer among patients receiving atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as 1st-line therapy than in patients receiving atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as later-line therapy (P < 0.001). Patients with an AFP response (reduction ≥ 20% from baseline) at 6 weeks had a significantly longer TTP assessed by RECIST than those without an AFP response (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Patients who received atezolizumab plus bevacizumab as 1st-line therapy had better clinical outcome than those who received atezolizumab plus bevacizumab in later lines. The AFP response at 6 weeks could be a predictor of disease progression.

13.
Liver Cancer ; 10(3): 249-259, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239811

RESUMO

Introduction: Combining an immune checkpoint inhibitor with a targeted antiangiogenic agent may leverage complementary mechanisms of action for the treatment of advanced/metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC). Avelumab is a human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 antibody with clinical activity in various tumor types; axitinib is a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3. We report the final analysis from VEGF Liver 100 (NCT03289533), a phase 1b study evaluating safety and efficacy of avelumab plus axitinib in treatment-naive patients with aHCC. Methods: Eligible patients had confirmed aHCC, no prior systemic therapy, ≥1 measurable lesion, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤1, and Child-Pugh class A disease. Patients received avelumab 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks plus axitinib 5 mg orally twice daily until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal. Endpoints included safety and investigator-assessed objective response per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and modified RECIST (mRECIST) for HCC. Results: Twenty-two Japanese patients were enrolled and treated with avelumab plus axitinib. The minimum follow-up was 18 months as of October 25, 2019 (data cutoff). Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 16 patients (72.7%); the most common (≥3 patients) were hypertension (n = 11 [50.0%]), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (n = 5 [22.7%]), and decreased appetite (n = 3 [13.6%]). No grade 4 TRAEs or treatment-related deaths occurred. Ten patients (45.5%) had an immune-related AE (irAE) of any grade; 3 patients (13.6%) had an infusion-related reaction (IRR) of any grade, and no grade ≥3 irAE and IRR were observed. The objective response rate was 13.6% (95% CI: 2.9-34.9%) per RECIST 1.1 and 31.8% (95% CI: 13.9-54.9%) per mRECIST for HCC. Conclusion: Treatment with avelumab plus axitinib was associated with a manageable toxicity profile and showed antitumor activity in patients with aHCC.

14.
Liver Cancer ; 10(3): 275-284, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239813

RESUMO

Introduction: KEYNOTE-240 investigated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab plus best supportive care (BSC) in sorafenib-treated patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results for the subgroup of patients from Asia are described. Methods: Adults with advanced HCC previously treated with sorafenib were randomized 2:1 to pembrolizumab or placebo plus BSC. Here, the Asian subgroup comprised patients enrolled in Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) per blinded central imaging review and overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) per blinded central imaging review, duration of response (DOR), and safety. Results: The Asian subgroup included 157 patients. As of January 2, 2019, the median follow-up in this subgroup was 13.8 months for pembrolizumab and 8.3 months for placebo. The median PFS was 2.8 months for pembrolizumab (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-4.1) versus 1.4 months (95% CI 1.4-2.4) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% CI 0.32-0.70). The median OS was 13.8 months (95% CI 10.1-16.9) for pembrolizumab versus 8.3 months (95% CI 6.3-11.8) for placebo (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.37-0.80). ORR was 20.6% (95% CI 13.4-29.5) for pembrolizumab versus 2.0% (95% CI 0.1-10.6) for placebo (difference: 18.5%; 95% CI 8.3-27.6). The median DOR was 8.6 and 2.8 months for pembrolizumab and placebo, respectively. Any grade treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 63 patients (58.9%) receiving pembrolizumab and 24 patients (48.0%) receiving placebo; 14 (13.1%) and 2 (4.0%) patients experienced grade 3-5 TRAEs, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Conclusion: Pembrolizumab demonstrated antitumor activity and was well tolerated in the Asian subgroup of KEYNOTE-240. A trend toward greater benefit with pembrolizumab in the Asian subgroup was observed compared with the overall cohort, supporting further evaluation of pembrolizumab treatment in this population.

15.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(7): 593-619, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231046

RESUMO

The first edition of the clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis was published in 2010, and the second edition was published in 2015 by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE). The revised third edition was recently published in 2020. This version has become a joint guideline by the JSGE and the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH). In addition to the clinical questions (CQs), background questions (BQs) are new items for basic clinical knowledge, and future research questions (FRQs) are newly added clinically important items. Concerning the clinical treatment of liver cirrhosis, new findings have been reported over the past 5 years since the second edition. In this revision, we decided to match the international standards as much as possible by referring to the latest international guidelines. Newly developed agents for various complications have also made great progress. In comparison with the latest global guidelines, such as the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), we are introducing data based on the evidence for clinical practice in Japan. The flowchart for nutrition therapy was reviewed to be useful for daily medical care by referring to overseas guidelines. We also explain several clinically important items that have recently received focus and were not mentioned in the last editions. This digest version describes the issues related to the management of liver cirrhosis and several complications in clinical practice. The content begins with a diagnostic algorithm, the revised flowchart for nutritional therapy, and refracted ascites, which are of great importance to patients with cirrhosis. In addition to the updated antiviral therapy for hepatitis B and C liver cirrhosis, the latest treatments for non-viral cirrhosis, such as alcoholic steatohepatitis/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH/NASH) and autoimmune-related cirrhosis, are also described. It also covers the latest evidence regarding the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis complications, namely gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome and acute kidney injury, hepatic encephalopathy, portal thrombus, sarcopenia, muscle cramp, thrombocytopenia, pruritus, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and vitamin D deficiency, including BQ, CQ and FRQ. Finally, this guideline covers prognosis prediction and liver transplantation, especially focusing on several new findings since the last version. Since this revision is a joint guideline by both societies, the same content is published simultaneously in the official English journal of JSGE and JSH.

16.
Hepatol Res ; 51(7): 725-749, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228859

RESUMO

The first edition of the clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis was published in 2010, and the second edition was published in 2015 by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE). The revised third edition was recently published in 2020. This version has become a joint guideline by the JSGE and the Japanese Society of Hepatology (JSH). In addition to the clinical questions (CQs), background questions (BQs) are new items for basic clinical knowledge, and future research questions (FRQs) are newly added clinically important items. Concerning the clinical treatment of liver cirrhosis, new findings have been reported over the past 5 years since the second edition. In this revision, we decided to match the international standards as much as possible by referring to the latest international guidelines. Newly developed agents for various complications have also made great progress. In comparison with the latest global guidelines, such as the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), we are introducing data based on the evidence for clinical practice in Japan. The flowchart for nutrition therapy was reviewed to be useful for daily medical care by referring to overseas guidelines. We also explain several clinically important items that have recently received focus and were not mentioned in the last editions. This digest version describes the issues related to the management of liver cirrhosis and several complications in clinical practice. The content begins with a diagnostic algorithm, the revised flowchart for nutritional therapy, and refracted ascites, which are of great importance to patients with cirrhosis. In addition to the updated antiviral therapy for hepatitis B and C liver cirrhosis, the latest treatments for non-viral cirrhosis, such as alcoholic steatohepatitis/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH/NASH) and autoimmune-related cirrhosis, are also described. It also covers the latest evidence regarding the diagnosis and treatment of liver cirrhosis complications, namely gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome and acute kidney injury, hepatic encephalopathy, portal thrombus, sarcopenia, muscle cramp, thrombocytopenia, pruritus, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and vitamin D deficiency, including BQ, CQ and FRQ. Finally, this guideline covers prognosis prediction and liver transplantation, especially focusing on several new findings since the last version. Since this revision is a joint guideline by both societies, the same content is published simultaneously in the official English journal of JSGE and JSH.

17.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6813-6817, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314037

RESUMO

Vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 is necessary to overcome coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the time-dependent vaccine-induced immune response is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 antispike immunoglobulin G (IgG) response. Medical staff participants who received two sequential doses of the BNT162b2 vaccination on days 0 and 21 were recruited prospectively from the Musashino Red Cross Hospital between March and May 2021. The quantitative antispike receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG antibody responses were measured using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgGII Quant assay (cut off ≥50 AU/ml). A total of 59 participants without past COVID-19 history were continuously tracked with serum samples. The median age was 41 (22-75) years, and 14 participants were male (23.7%). The median antispike RBD IgG and seropositivity rates were 0 (0-31.1) AU/ml, 0.3 (0-39.5) AU/ml, 529.1 (48.3-8711.4) AU/ml, 18,836.9 (742.2-57,260.4) AU/ml, and 0%, 0%, 98.3%, and 100% on days 0, 3, 14, and 28 after the first vaccination, respectively. The antispike RBD IgG levels were significantly increased after day 14 from vaccination (p < 0.001) The BNT162b2 vaccination led almost all participants to obtain serum antispike RBD IgG 14 days after the first dose.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacinação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lenvatinib (LEN) has been approved for patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (u-HCC) since March 2018 in Japan. We performed a retrospective nationwide multicenter study to clarify the clinical characteristics of LEN in real-world practice. METHODS: A total of 343 u-HCC patients who received LEN from March 2018 to May 2020 at 23 sites in Japan were registered. RESULTS: During the median observation period of 10.5 months, 143 patients died. In Child-Pugh A (n = 276) and Child-Pugh B (n = 67) patients, the median overall survival (OS) was 21.0 and 9.0 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.8 months in Child-Pugh A patients. The objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) according to modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST criteria) were 42.1% and 82.1%. The independent pretreatment factors associated with mortality in all patients were AFP ≥ 400 ng/mL (hazard ratio (HR) 2.00, 95% confidential interval (95% CI) 1.08-2.09, p < 0.0001), modified albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade 2b or 3 (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.09-2.17, p = 0.012), major vascular invasion (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.26-2.89, p = 0.0022), PS > 0 (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.09-2.08, p = 0.014), and MTT (molecular targeted therapy) experience (HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.56-3.13, p = 0.00038). In the MTT naïve patients with ALBI grade 1 or modified ALBI 2a and BCLC stage B (n = 68), median OS and PFS were 25.3 and 12.3 months. Liver-related adverse events during LEN were the only significant adverse event associated with OS (HR 2.74, 95% CI 1.93-3.88, p < 0.0001). Among the Child-Pugh A patients with extrahepatic metastasis and no major vascular invasion, median PFS in the patients with bone metastasis was significantly shorter than those with lung or adrenal grand metastasis (6.3 vs. 12.5 months, p = 0.0025). CONCLUSION: LEN showed a high response rate in real-world practice. Pretreatment factors, including ALBI score, AFP, and major vascular invasion are important in making a treatment strategy for patients with u-HCC. The patients with bone metastasis would be candidates for new therapeutic approaches.

19.
J Med Virol ; 93(11): 6247-6256, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170517

RESUMO

The real-world virological efficacy and safety of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy with sofosbuvir (SOF) and velpatasvir (VEL) were assessed in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1- and 2-infected patients with decompensated cirrhosis. A total of 65 patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh score of 7 points or more) who were treated with the SOF/VEL regimen were enrolled. The sustained virological response (SVR) rate and safety profile were analyzed. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV RNA at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). The percentages of patients with undetectable HCV RNA at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the start of therapy were 81.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69.5-89.9) (52/64), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.2-100.0) (60/61), and 98.5% (95% CI, 91.7-100.0) (64/65), respectively. The overall SVR rate was 92.3% (95% CI, 83.0-97.5) (60/65). Albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) scores decreased during and after treatment (p < 0.001), and there were significant differences between baseline and end of treatment and between baseline and SVR12. Subgroup analyses showed no significant differences in SVR rates according to patient age, sex, HCV genotype (subtype), Child-Pugh classification, modified ALBI grade, presence of ascites, presence of hepatic coma, or history of hepatocellular carcinoma. In all subpopulations, the SVR rates were higher than 80%. There were no severe adverse events associated with the treatment. The SOF/VEL regimen showed good virological efficacy and acceptable safety even in patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis.

20.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 48(4): 481-487, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165645

RESUMO

Liver fat is one of the main clinical features in chronic liver disease, and the number of fatty liver patients is increasing as the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome increases globally. Noninvasive and quantitative assessment of liver fat content was made possible by recent technological advances. Attenuation coefficient (ATT) measurement is a noninvasive and quantitative liver fat measurement method used in clinical practice. The ATT value is significantly associated with histological steatosis grade. The diagnostic accuracy of ATT for histological steatosis grade is equivalent to controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), and ATT has a lower measurement failure rate than CAP because ATT can be measured on a B-mode image with the exact location of the region of interest. Furthermore, ATT measurement has high interobserver reproducibility. Since ATT measurement and other ultrasound-based modalities for liver fat quantification are easy to perform and inexpensive, these modalities are suitable for point-of-care and screening. Although emerging data suggest that quantitative liver fat content and its changes over time may be associated with disease progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the association between ATT and disease progression has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, further investigation and validation studies are necessary to strengthen the clinical significance of ATT measurement in chronic liver disease.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...