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1.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686969

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that meditation practices have positive effects on brain ageing overall. The cingulate is known to be recruited during meditation, but research into possible effects of meditation on the ageing of the cingulate is currently missing. Thus, the present study was designed to help close this knowledge gap, with particular focus on the subgenual cingulate, a region involved in emotional regulation and autonomic and endocrine functions, making it potentially relevant for meditation. Here, we investigated differences in age-related gray matter loss between 50 long-term meditation practitioners (28 male, 22 female), aged between 24 and 77, and 50 age- and sex-matched controls. Areas of interest were four subregions of the subgenual cingulate gyrus (areas 25, 33, s24, and s32) defined as per the Julich-Brain atlas. Our study revealed a significant age-related decline in all subregions in both meditators and controls, but with significantly lower rates of annual tissue loss in meditators, specifically in left and right area s32 and right area 25. These regions have been shown to play a role in mood regulation, autonomic processing, and the integration of emotion and cognitive processes, which are all involved in and impacted by meditation. Overall, the results add further evidence to the emerging notion that meditation may slow the effects of ageing on the brain.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) misperceive that they have prominent defects in their appearance, resulting in preoccupations, time-consuming rituals, and distress. Previous neuroimaging studies have found abnormal activation patterns in the extrastriate visual cortex, which may underlie experiences of distorted perception of appearance. Correspondingly, we investigated gray matter volumes in individuals with BDD in the early extrastriate visual cortex using cytoarchitectonically-defined maps that were previously derived from post-mortem brains. METHODS: We analyzed T1-weighted MRI data from 133 unmedicated male and female participants (BDD: n=65; healthy controls: n=68). We used cytoarchitectonically-defined probability maps for the early extrastriate cortex, consisting of areas corresponding to V2, V3d, V3v/VP, V3a, and V4v. Gray matter volumes were compared between groups, supplemented by testing associations with clinical symptoms. RESULTS: The BDD group exhibited significantly larger gray matter volumes in the left and right early extrastriate cortex. Region-specific follow-up analyses revealed multiple subregions showing larger volumes in BDD, significant in the left V4v. There were no significant associations after corrections for multiple comparisons between gray matter volumes in early extrastriate cortex and BDD symptoms, comorbid symptoms, or duration of illness. CONCLUSIONS: Greater volumes of the early extrastriate visual cortex were evident in those with BDD, which aligns with outcomes of prior studies revealing BDD-specific functional abnormalities in these regions. Enlarged volumes of the extrastriate cortex in BDD might manifest during neurodevelopment, which could predispose individuals to aberrant visual perception and contribute to the core phenotype of distortion of perception for appearance.

3.
Nature ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695836

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes COVID-19. Given its acute and often self-limiting course, it is likely that components of the innate immune system play a central part in controlling virus replication and determining clinical outcome. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with notable activity against a broad range of viruses, including RNA viruses1,2. NK cell function may be altered during COVID-19 despite increased representation of NK cells with an activated and adaptive phenotype3,4. Here we show that a decline in viral load in COVID-19 correlates with NK cell status and that NK cells can control SARS-CoV-2 replication by recognizing infected target cells. In severe COVID-19, NK cells show defects in virus control, cytokine production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity despite high expression of cytotoxic effector molecules. Single-cell RNA sequencing of NK cells over the time course of the COVID-19 disease spectrum reveals a distinct gene expression signature. Transcriptional networks of interferon-driven NK cell activation are superimposed by a dominant transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) response signature, with reduced expression of genes related to cell-cell adhesion, granule exocytosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In severe COVID-19, serum levels of TGFß peak during the first two weeks of infection, and serum obtained from these patients severely inhibits NK cell function in a TGFß-dependent manner. Our data reveal that an untimely production of TGFß is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and may inhibit NK cell function and early control of the virus.

6.
Immunity ; 54(11): 2650-2669.e14, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592166

RESUMO

Longitudinal analyses of the innate immune system, including the earliest time points, are essential to understand the immunopathogenesis and clinical course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we performed a detailed characterization of natural killer (NK) cells in 205 patients (403 samples; days 2 to 41 after symptom onset) from four independent cohorts using single-cell transcriptomics and proteomics together with functional studies. We found elevated interferon (IFN)-α plasma levels in early severe COVD-19 alongside increased NK cell expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes involved in IFN-α signaling, while upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced genes was observed in moderate diseases. NK cells exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) activity but are functionally impaired in severe COVID-19. Further, NK cell dysfunction may be relevant for the development of fibrotic lung disease in severe COVID-19, as NK cells exhibited impaired anti-fibrotic activity. Our study indicates preferential IFN-α and TNF responses in severe and moderate COVID-19, respectively, and associates a prolonged IFN-α-induced NK cell response with poorer disease outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , RNA-Seq , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transcriptoma/genética , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1255-1265, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterologous vaccine regimens have been widely discussed as a way to mitigate intermittent supply shortages and to improve immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of heterologous immunisations with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNtech, Mainz, Germany) compared with homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 immunisation. METHODS: This is an interim analysis of a prospective observational cohort study enrolling health-care workers in Berlin (Germany) who received either homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination with a 10-12-week vaccine interval or homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week vaccine interval. We assessed reactogenicity after the first and second vaccination by use of electronic questionnaires on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Immunogenicity was measured by the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (full spike-IgG, S1-IgG, and RBD-IgG), by an RBD-ACE2 binding inhibition assay (surrogate SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation test), a pseudovirus neutralisation assay against two variants of concerns (alpha [B.1.1.7] and beta [B.1.351]), and anti-S1-IgG avidity. T-cell reactivity was measured by IFN-γ release assay. FINDINGS: Between Dec 27, 2020, and June 14, 2021, 380 participants were enrolled in the study, with 174 receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination, 38 receiving homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination, and 104 receiving ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination. Systemic symptoms were reported by 103 (65%, 95% CI 57·1-71·8) of 159 recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 14 (39%, 24·8-55·1) of 36 recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 51 (49%, 39·6-58·5) of 104 recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 after the booster immunisation. Median anti-RBD IgG levels 3 weeks after boost immunisation were 5·4 signal to cutoff ratio (S/co; IQR 4·8-5·9) in recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 4·9 S/co (4·3-5·6) in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 5·6 S/co (5·1-6·1) in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19- BNT162b2. Geometric mean of 50% inhibitory dose against alpha and beta variants were highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (956·6, 95% CI 835·6-1095, against alpha and 417·1, 349·3-498·2, against beta) compared with those in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (212·5, 131·2-344·4, against alpha and 48·5, 28·4-82·8, against beta; both p<0·0001) or homologous BNT162b2 (369·2, 310·7-438·6, against alpha and 72·4, 60·5-86·5, against beta; both p<0·0001). SARS-CoV-2 S1 T-cell reactivity 3 weeks after boost immunisation was highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (median IFN-γ concentration 4762 mIU/mL, IQR 2723-8403) compared with that in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (1061 mIU/mL, 599-2274, p<0·0001) and homologous BNT162b2 (2026 mIU/mL, 1459-4621, p=0·0008) vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 immunisation with 10-12-week interval, recommended in Germany, is well tolerated and improves immunogenicity compared with homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination with 10-12-week interval and BNT162b2 vaccination with 3-week interval. Heterologous prime-boost immunisation strategies for COVID-19 might be generally applicable. FUNDING: Forschungsnetzwerk der Universitätsmedizin zu COVID-19, the German Ministry of Education and Research, Zalando SE.

8.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226277

RESUMO

Here, we recorded serum proteome profiles of 33 severe COVID-19 patients admitted to respiratory and intensive care units because of respiratory failure. We received, for most patients, blood samples just after admission and at two more later time points. With the aim to predict treatment outcome, we focused on serum proteins different in abundance between the group of survivors and non-survivors. We observed that a small panel of about a dozen proteins were significantly different in abundance between these two groups. The four structurally and functionally related type-3 cystatins AHSG, FETUB, histidine-rich glycoprotein, and KNG1 were all more abundant in the survivors. The family of inter-α-trypsin inhibitors, ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, and ITIH4, were all found to be differentially abundant in between survivors and non-survivors, whereby ITIH1 and ITIH2 were more abundant in the survivor group and ITIH3 and ITIH4 more abundant in the non-survivors. ITIH1/ITIH2 and ITIH3/ITIH4 also showed opposite trends in protein abundance during disease progression. We defined an optimal panel of nine proteins for mortality risk assessment. The prediction power of this mortality risk panel was evaluated against two recent COVID-19 serum proteomics studies on independent cohorts measured in other laboratories in different countries and observed to perform very well in predicting mortality also in these cohorts. This panel may not be unique for COVID-19 as some of the proteins in the panel have previously been annotated as mortality markers in aging and in other diseases caused by different pathogens, including bacteria.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteoma/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sobreviventes
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690698, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276681

RESUMO

Patients with kidney failure have notoriously weak responses to common vaccines. Thus, immunogenicity of novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might be impaired in this group. To determine immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with chronic dialysis, we analyzed the humoral and T-cell response after two doses of mRNA vaccine Tozinameran (BNT162b2 BioNTech/Pfizer). This observational study included 43 patients on dialysis before vaccination with two doses of Tozinameran 21 days apart. Overall, 36 patients completed the observation period until three weeks after the second dose and 32 patients were further analyzed at week 10. Serum samples were analyzed by SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgA antibodies ~1, ~3-4 and ~10 weeks after the second vaccination. In addition, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were assessed at ~3-4 weeks by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Antibody and T cell outcomes at this timepoint were compared to a group of 44 elderly patients not on dialysis, after immunization with Tozinameran. Median age of patients on chronic dialysis was 74.0 years (IQR 66.0, 82.0). The proportion of males was higher (69.4%) than females. Only 20/36 patients (55.6%, 95%CI: 38.29-71.67) developed SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies at the first sampling, whereas 32/36 patients (88.9%, 95%CI: 73.00-96.38) demonstrated IgG detection at the second sampling. In a longitudinal follow-up at ~10 weeks after the second dose, the proportion of dialysis patients reactive for anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG decreased to 27/32 (84.37%, 95%CI: 66.46-94.10) The proportion of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgA decreased from 33/36 (91.67%; 95%CI: 76.41-97.82) at weeks 3-4 down to 19/32 (59.38; 95%CI: 40.79-75.78). Compared to a cohort of vaccinees with similar age but not on chronic dialysis seroconversion rates and antibody titers were significantly lower. SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses 3 weeks after second vaccination were detected in 21/31 vaccinated dialysis patients (67.7%, 95%CI: 48.53-82.68) compared to 42/44 (93.3%, 95%CI: 76.49-98.84) in controls of similar age. Patients on dialysis demonstrate a delayed, but robust immune response three to four weeks after the second dose, which indicates effective vaccination of this vulnerable group. However, the lower immunogenicity of Tozinameran in these patients needs further attention to develop potential countermeasures such as an additional booster vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Diálise Renal , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2174-2178, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102097

RESUMO

We detected delayed and reduced antibody and T-cell responses after BNT162b2 vaccination in 71 elderly persons (median age 81 years) compared with 123 healthcare workers (median age 34 years) in Germany. These data emphasize that nonpharmaceutical interventions for coronavirus disease remain crucial and that additional immunizations for the elderly might become necessary.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T , Vacinação
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2169-2173, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102098

RESUMO

One week after second vaccinations were administered, an outbreak of B.1.1.7 lineage severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections occurred in a long-term care facility in Berlin, Germany, affecting 16/20 vaccinated and 4/4 unvaccinated residents. Despite considerable viral loads, vaccinated residents experienced mild symptoms and faster time to negative test results.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Berlim , Surtos de Doenças , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Vacinação
12.
Metab Brain Dis ; 36(7): 2071-2078, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146215

RESUMO

Hippocampal brain regions are strongly implicated in Niemann Pick type C disease (NPC), but little is known regarding distinct subregions of the hippocampal complex and whether these are equally or differentially affected. To address this gap, we compared volumes of five hippocampal subfields between NPC and healthy individuals using MRI. To this end, 9 adult-onset NPC cases and 9 age- and gender-matched controls underwent a 3 T T1-weighted MRI scan. Gray matter volumes of the cornu ammonis (CA1, CA2 and CA3), dentate gyrus (DG), subiculum, entorhinal cortex and hippocampal-amygdalar transition area were calculated by integrating MRI-based image intensities with microscopically defined cytoarchitectonic probabilities. Compared to healthy controls, NPC patients showed smaller volumes of the CA1-3 and DG regions bilaterally, with the greatest difference localized to the left DG (Cohen's d = 1.993, p = 0.008). No significant associations were shown between hippocampal subfield volumes and key clinical features of NPC, including disease duration, symptom severity and psychosis. The pattern of hippocampal subregional atrophy in NPC differs from those seen in other dementias, which may indicate unique cytoarchitectural vulnerabilities in this earlier-onset disorder. Future MRI studies of hippocampal subfields may clarify its potential as a biomarker of neurodegeneration in NPC.

13.
Brain Commun ; 3(2): fcab100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095833

RESUMO

Mental disorders diagnosis is based on specific clinical criteria. However, clinical studies found similarities and overlapping phenomenology across a variety of disorders, which suggests a common neurobiological substrate. Thus, there is a need to measure disease-related neuroanatomical similarities and differences across conditions. While structural alterations of the corpus callosum have been investigated in obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, no study has addressed callosal aberrations in all diseases in a single study. Moreover, results from pairwise comparisons (patients vs. controls) show some inconsistencies, possibly related to the parcellation methods to divide the corpus callosum into subregions. The main aim of the present paper was to uncover highly localized callosal characteristics for each condition (i.e. obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder) as compared either to healthy control subjects or to each other. For this purpose, we did not rely on any sub-callosal parcellation method, but applied a well-validated approach measuring callosal thickness at 100 equidistant locations along the whole midline of the corpus callosum. One hundred and twenty patients (30 in each disorder) as well as 30 controls were recruited for the study. All groups were closely matched for age and gender, and the analyses were performed controlling for the impact of antipsychotic treatment and illness duration. There was a significant main effect of group along the whole callosal surface. Pairwise post hoc comparisons revealed that, compared to controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder had the thinnest corpora callosa with significant effects almost on the entire callosal structure. Patients with schizophrenia also showed thinner corpora callosa than controls but effects were confined to the isthmus and the anterior part of the splenium. No significant differences were found in both major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder patients compared to controls. When comparing the disease groups to each other, the corpus callosum was thinner in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients than in any other group. The effect was evident across the entire corpus callosum, with the exception of the posterior body. Altogether, our study suggests that the corpus callosum is highly changed in obsessive-compulsive disorder, selectively changed in schizophrenia and not changed in bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. These results shed light on callosal similarities and differences among mental disorders providing valuable insights regarding the involvement of the major brain commissural fibre tract in the pathophysiology of each specific mental illness.

14.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1520.e7-1520.e10, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dexamethasone has become the standard of care for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its virological impact is poorly understood. The objectives of this work were to characterize the kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) concentration in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and the antibody response in patients with (D+) and without (D-) dexamethasone treatment. METHODS: Data and biosamples from hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, enrolled between 4th March and 11th December 2020 in a prospective observational study, were analysed. SARS-CoV-2 virus concentration in serial URT samples was measured using RT-PCR. SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins A and G (IgA and IgG) were measured in serum samples using S1-ELISA. RESULTS: We compared 101 immunocompetent patients who received dexamethasone (according to the inclusion criteria and dosage determined in the RECOVERY trial) to 93 immunocompetent patients with comparable disease severity from the first months of the pandemic, who had not been treated with dexamethasone or other glucocorticoids. We found no inter-group differences in virus concentration kinetics, duration of presence of viral loads >106 viral copies/mL (D+ median 17 days (IQR 13-24), D- 19 days (IQR 13-29)), or time from symptom onset until seroconversion (IgA: D+ median 11.5 days (IQR 11-12), D- 14 days (IQR 11.5-15.75); IgG: D+ 13 days (IQR 12-14.5), D- 12 days (IQR 11-15)). CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone does not appear to lead to a change in virus clearance or a delay in antibody response in immunocompetent patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Cinética , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/análise , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Soroconversão , Carga Viral
15.
J Neurosci Res ; 99(9): 2261-2270, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101893

RESUMO

Research exploring the underlying neuroanatomical correlates of early motherhood seems to suggest that the period after giving birth is marked by tissue increases in the mother's brain. While some studies point to the amygdala as one of the areas undergoing postpartum changes, existing analyses did not discriminate between the different subregions of this functionally heterogeneous structure. Thus, to further extend this understudied field of research and to better understand the potential role of the amygdala when transitioning to motherhood, we applied an advanced region-of-interest technique that enabled us to analyze the amygdala as a whole as well as its different subareas, specifically the left and right centromedian (CM), laterobasal (LB), and superficial (SF) regions. Comparing the brains of 14 healthy women between immediate postpartum (within 1-2 days of childbirth) and late postpartum (at 4-6 weeks after childbirth), we revealed increases of the amygdala. However, effects manifested differentially across subareas, with particularly strong effects for the SF region, moderate effects for the CM region, and no effects for the LB region. These findings might reflect region-specific adaptations of the mother's brain tuning into the distinct and ever-changing needs of a newborn, either as a cause for it or as a consequence thereof.

16.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062729

RESUMO

(1) Background: To evaluate time-dependent right ventricular (RV) performance in patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) undergoing intensive care (ICU) treatment. (2) Methods: This prospective observational study included 21 ICU patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS in a university hospital in 2020 (first wave). Patients were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography at an early (EE) and late (LE) stage of disease. Echocardiographic parameters describing RV size and function as well as RV size in correlation to PaO2/FiO2 ratio were assessed in survivors and nonsurvivors. (3) Results: Echocardiographic RV parameters were within normal range and not significantly different between EE and LE. Comparing survivors and nonsurvivors revealed no differences in RV performance at EE. Linear regression analysis did not show a correlation between RV size and PaO2/FiO2 ratio over all measurements. Analysing EE and LE separately showed a significant increase in RV size correlated to a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio at a later stage of COVID-19 ARDS. (4) Conclusion: The present study reveals neither a severe RV dilatation nor an impairment of systolic RV function during the initial course of COVID-19-associated ARDS. A trend towards an increase in RV size in correlation with ARDS severity in the second week after ICU admission was observed.

17.
Science ; 373(6551)2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035154

RESUMO

Two elementary parameters for quantifying viral infection and shedding are viral load and whether samples yield a replicating virus isolate in cell culture. We examined 25,381 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Germany, including 6110 from test centers attended by presymptomatic, asymptomatic, and mildly symptomatic (PAMS) subjects, 9519 who were hospitalized, and 1533 B.1.1.7 lineage infections. The viral load of the youngest subjects was lower than that of the older subjects by 0.5 (or fewer) log10 units, and they displayed an estimated ~78% of the peak cell culture replication probability; in part this was due to smaller swab sizes and unlikely to be clinically relevant. Viral loads above 109 copies per swab were found in 8% of subjects, one-third of whom were PAMS, with a mean age of 37.6 years. We estimate 4.3 days from onset of shedding to peak viral load (108.1 RNA copies per swab) and peak cell culture isolation probability (0.75). B.1.1.7 subjects had mean log10 viral load 1.05 higher than that of non-B.1.1.7 subjects, and the estimated cell culture replication probability of B.1.1.7 subjects was higher by a factor of 2.6.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Células CACO-2 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Infection ; 49(4): 757-762, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825125

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Type I interferons are important in the defense of viral infections. Recently, neutralizing IgG auto-antibodies against type I interferons were found in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Here, we analyzed expression of CD169/SIGLEC1, a well described downstream molecule in interferon signaling, and found increased monocytic CD169/SIGLEC1 expression levels in patients with mild, acute COVID-19, compared to patients with severe disease. We recommend further clinical studies to evaluate the value of CD169/SIGLEC1 expression in patients with COVID-19 with or without auto-antibodies against type I interferons.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima
19.
Infection ; 49(4): 703-714, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890243

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adequate patient allocation is pivotal for optimal resource management in strained healthcare systems, and requires detailed knowledge of clinical and virological disease trajectories. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors associated with need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), to analyse viral kinetics in patients with and without IMV and to provide a comprehensive description of clinical course. METHODS: A cohort of 168 hospitalised adult COVID-19 patients enrolled in a prospective observational study at a large European tertiary care centre was analysed. RESULTS: Forty-four per cent (71/161) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Shorter duration of symptoms before admission (aOR 1.22 per day less, 95% CI 1.10-1.37, p < 0.01) and history of hypertension (aOR 5.55, 95% CI 2.00-16.82, p < 0.01) were associated with need for IMV. Patients on IMV had higher maximal concentrations, slower decline rates, and longer shedding of SARS-CoV-2 than non-IMV patients (33 days, IQR 26-46.75, vs 18 days, IQR 16-46.75, respectively, p < 0.01). Median duration of hospitalisation was 9 days (IQR 6-15.5) for non-IMV and 49.5 days (IQR 36.8-82.5) for IMV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a short duration of symptoms before admission as a risk factor for severe disease that merits further investigation and different viral load kinetics in severely affected patients. Median duration of hospitalisation of IMV patients was longer than described for acute respiratory distress syndrome unrelated to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Cinética , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
20.
Psychosom Med ; 83(6): 650-654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A growing body of scientific evidence suggests that meditation may slow brain aging. The amygdala-a heterogenous brain region known to decrease in volume with increasing age-seems to be involved in meditation and affected by meditation. Thus, we hypothesized that the age-related decline of the amygdala is diminished in meditation practitioners. METHODS: We investigated whether correlations between age and gray matter volumes of the amygdala are significantly reduced in 50 long-term meditators compared with 50 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Both the meditator and control groups included 44% women. The age of the participants ranged between 24 and 77 years, with mean (standard deviation) ages of 50.4 (±11.8) years in meditators and 51.4 (±12.8) years in controls. In addition to studying the amygdala as a whole, we investigated its centromedial, laterobasal, and superficial subregions using a well-validated approach combining imaging-based signal intensities and cytoarchitectonically defined probabilities. RESULTS: We detected significant group-by-age interactions for the whole amygdala and for its subregions. Follow-up analyses indicated negative age-related correlations in both meditators and controls (the older the participants, the smaller the volumes) but with significantly steeper aging trajectories in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these findings suggest that the age-related volume loss of the amygdala is less pronounced in long-term meditators. This effect was particularly evident for the laterobasal subregion, which has been functionally linked to aspects of self-focused reflection.


Assuntos
Meditação , Adulto , Idoso , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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