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1.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1540-1550, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous blood pressure monitoring may facilitate early detection and prompt treatment of hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that area under the curve (AUC) mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mm Hg is reduced by continuous invasive arterial pressure monitoring. METHODS: Adults having noncardiac surgery were randomly assigned to continuous invasive arterial pressure or intermittent oscillometric blood pressure monitoring. Arterial catheter pressures were recorded at 1-minute intervals; oscillometric pressures were typically recorded at 5-minute intervals. We estimated the arterial catheter effect on AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg using a multivariable proportional odds model adjusting for imbalanced baseline variables and duration of surgery. Pressures <65 mm Hg were categorized as 0, 1-17, 18-91, and >91 mm Hg × minutes of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg (ie, no hypotension and 3 equally sized groups of increasing hypotension). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two patients were randomly assigned to arterial catheter use and 154 to oscillometric monitoring. For various clinical reasons, 143 patients received an arterial catheter, while 163 were monitored oscillometrically. There were a median [Q1, Q3] of 246 [187, 308] pressure measurements in patients with arterial catheters versus 55 (46, 75) measurements in patients monitored oscillometrically. In the primary intent-to-treat analysis, catheter-based monitoring increased detection of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg, with an estimated proportional odds ratio (ie, odds of being in a worse hypotension category) of 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.70; P = .006). The result was robust over an as-treated analysis and for sensitivity analyses with thresholds of 60 and 70 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative blood pressure monitoring with arterial catheters detected nearly twice as much hypotension as oscillometric measurements.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Cateteres , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/terapia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Oscilometria , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Br J Anaesth ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse cardiovascular events are a leading cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The definitions of perioperative cardiovascular adverse events are heterogeneous. As part of the international Standardized Endpoints in Perioperative Medicine initiative, this study aimed to find consensus amongst clinical trialists on a set of standardised and valid cardiovascular outcomes for use in future perioperative clinical trials. METHODS: We identified currently used perioperative cardiovascular outcomes by a systematic review of the anaesthesia and perioperative medicine literature (PubMed/Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane Library). We performed a three-stage Delphi consensus-gaining process that involved 55 clinician researchers worldwide. Cardiovascular outcomes were first shortlisted and the most suitable definitions determined. These cardiovascular outcomes were then assessed for validity, reliability, feasibility, and clarity. RESULTS: We identified 18 cardiovascular outcomes. Participation in the three Delphi rounds was 100% (n=19), 71% (n=55), and 89% (n=17), respectively. A final list of nine cardiovascular outcomes was elicited from the consensus: myocardial infarction, myocardial injury, cardiovascular death, non-fatal cardiac arrest, coronary revascularisation, major adverse cardiac events, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, and atrial fibrillation. These nine cardiovascular outcomes were rated by the majority of experts as valid, reliable, feasible, and clearly defined. CONCLUSIONS: These nine consensus cardiovascular outcomes can be confidently used as endpoints in clinical trials designed to evaluate perioperative interventions with the goal of improving perioperative outcomes.

3.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 192, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin T are released during myocardial wall stress and/or ischemia and are strong predictors for postoperative cardiovascular complications. However, the relative effects of goal-directed, intravenous administration of crystalloid compared to colloid solutions on NT-proBNP and troponin T, especially in relatively healthy patients undergoing moderate- to high-risk noncardiac surgery, remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated in this sub-study the effect of a goal-directed crystalloid versus a goal-directed colloid fluid regimen on postoperative maximum NT-proBNP concentration. We further evaluated the incidence of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) between both study groups. METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to receive additional intravenous fluid boluses of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and 30 patients to receive lactated Ringer's solution. Intraoperative fluid management was guided by oesophageal Doppler-according to a previously published algorithm. The primary outcome were differences in postoperative maximum NT-proBNP (maxNT-proBNP) between both groups. As our secondary outcome we evaluated the incidence of MINS between both study groups. We defined maxNT-proBNP as the maximum value measured within 2 h after surgery and on the first and second postoperative day. RESULTS: In total 56 patients were analysed. There was no significant difference in postoperative maximum NT-proBNP between the colloid group (258.7 ng/L (IQR 199.4 to 782.1)) and the crystalloid group (440.3 ng/L (IQR 177.9 to 691.2)) during the first 2 postoperative days (P = 0.29). Five patients in the colloid group and 7 patients in the crystalloid group developed MINS (P = 0.75). CONCLUSIONS: Based on this relatively small study goal-directed colloid administration did not decrease postoperative maxNT-proBNP concentration as compared to goal-directed crystalloid administration. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01195883 ) Registered on 6th September 2010.

4.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 210, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive perioperative fluid administration may result in iatrogenic endothelial dysfunction and tissue edema, transducing inflammatory markers into the bloodstream. Colloids remain longer in the circulation, requiring less volume to reach similar hemodynamic endpoints compared to crystalloids. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a goal-directed colloid regimen attenuates the inflammatory response compared to a goal-directed crystalloid regime. METHODS: Patients undergoing moderate- to high-risk open abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to goal-directed lactated Ringer's solution (n = 58) or a hydroxyethyl starch 6% 130/0.4 (n = 62) fluid regimen. Our primary outcome was perioperative levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Secondary outcome was perioperative levels of white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). Measurements were performed preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, on postoperative day one, two and four. RESULTS: The areas under the curve of Interleukin (IL) 6 (p = 0.60), IL 8 (p = 0.46), IL 10 (p = 0.68) and tumor necrosis factor α (p = 0.47) levels did not differ significantly between the groups. WBC, CRP and PCT values were also comparable. LBP, although significantly higher in the crystalloid group, remained in the normal range. Patients assigned to crystalloids received a median (IQR) amount of 3905 mL (2880-5288) of crystalloid. Patients assigned to colloids received 1557 mL (1207-2116) of crystalloid and 1250 mL (750-1938) of colloid. CONCLUSION: Cytokine and inflammatory marker levels did not differ between goal-directed crystalloid and colloid administration after moderate to high-risk abdominal surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00517127 ). Registered 16th August 2007.

5.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 6: 104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699643

RESUMO

Background: Surgical bleeding is associated with postoperative cardiovascular complications. The efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in noncardiac surgery are still uncertain. Statins may prevent perioperative cardiovascular complications. We conducted a pilot to assess the feasibility of a perioperative trial of TXA and rosuvastatin. Methods: Using a factorial design, we randomized patients at cardiovascular risk undergoing noncardiac surgery to intravenous TXA (1 g at the start and end of surgery) or placebo, and oral rosuvastatin (40 mg before and 20 mg daily for 30 days after surgery) or placebo. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, follow-up, and compliance to interventions. Clinical outcomes were secondarily explored. Results: After 3 months, we changed the design to a partial factorial due to the difficult recruitment of statin-naive patients. Over 6 months, 100 patients were randomized in the TXA trial (49 TXA, 51 placebo), 34 in the rosuvastatin trial (18 rosuvastatin, 16 placebo). Ninety-two percent (95% CI 80-98) of TXA and 86% (95% CI 74-94) of TXA-placebo patients received the 2 study doses. Thirty-three percent (95% CI 13-59) of rosuvastatin patients and 37% (95% CI 15-65) of rosuvastatin-placebo patients discontinued the study drug. A major cardiovascular complication occurred at 30 days in 1 TXA and 6 TXA-placebo patients, and 1 rosuvastatin and no rosuvastatin-placebo patients. Conclusions: Our pilot study supports the feasibility of a perioperative TXA trial in noncardiac surgery. Feasibility of a perioperative rosuvastatin trial is uncertain because of a high prevalence of statin use in the target population and concerns about compliance. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.govNCT02546648.

6.
Anesthesiology ; 132(5): 992-1002, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various multimodal analgesic approaches have been proposed for spine surgery. The authors evaluated the effect of using a combination of four nonopioid analgesics versus placebo on Quality of Recovery, postoperative opioid consumption, and pain scores. METHODS: Adults having multilevel spine surgery who were at high risk for postoperative pain were double-blind randomized to placebos or the combination of single preoperative oral doses of acetaminophen 1,000 mg and gabapentin 600 mg, an infusion of ketamine 5 µg/kg/min throughout surgery, and an infusion of lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg/h intraoperatively and during the initial hour of recovery. Postoperative analgesia included acetaminophen, gabapentin, and opioids. The primary outcome was the Quality of Recovery 15-questionnaire (0 to 150 points, with 15% considered to be a clinically important difference) assessed on the third postoperative day. Secondary outcomes were opioid use in morphine equivalents (with 20% considered to be a clinically important change) and verbal-response pain scores (0 to 10, with a 1-point change considered important) over the initial postoperative 48 h. RESULTS: The trial was stopped early for futility per a priori guidelines. The average duration ± SD of surgery was 5.4 ± 2.1 h. The mean ± SD Quality of Recovery score was 109 ± 25 in the pathway patients (n = 150) versus 109 ± 23 in the placebo group (n = 149); estimated difference in means was 0 (95% CI, -6 to 6, P = 0.920). Pain management within the initial 48 postoperative hours was not superior in analgesic pathway group: 48-h opioid consumption median (Q1, Q3) was 72 (48, 113) mg in the analgesic pathway group and 75 (50, 152) mg in the placebo group, with the difference in medians being -9 (97.5% CI, -23 to 5, P = 0.175) mg. Mean 48-h pain scores were 4.8 ± 1.8 in the analgesic pathway group versus 5.2 ± 1.9 in the placebo group, with the difference in means being -0.4 (97.5% CI; -0.8, 0.1, P = 0.094). CONCLUSIONS: An analgesic pathway based on preoperative acetaminophen and gabapentin, combined with intraoperative infusions of lidocaine and ketamine, did not improve recovery in patients who had multilevel spine surgery.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gabapentina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico
7.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 692-701, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors previously reported that perioperative aspirin and/or clonidine does not prevent a composite of death or myocardial infarction 30 days after noncardiac surgery. Moreover, aspirin increased the risk of major bleeding and clonidine caused hypotension and bradycardia. Whether these complications produce harm at 1 yr remains unknown. METHODS: The authors randomized 10,010 patients with or at risk of atherosclerosis and scheduled for noncardiac surgery in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to clonidine/aspirin, clonidine/aspirin placebo, clonidine placebo/aspirin, or clonidine placebo/aspirin placebo. Patients started taking aspirin or placebo just before surgery; those not previously taking aspirin continued daily for 30 days, and those taking aspirin previously continued for 7 days. Patients were also randomly assigned to receive clonidine or placebo just before surgery, with the study drug continued for 72 h. RESULTS: Neither aspirin nor clonidine had a significant effect on the primary 1-yr outcome, a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, with a 1-yr hazard ratio for aspirin of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.12; P = 0.948; 586 patients [11.8%] vs. 589 patients [11.8%]) and a hazard ratio for clonidine of 1.07 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.20; P = 0.218; 608 patients [12.1%] vs. 567 patients [11.3%]), with effect on death or nonfatal infarction. Reduction in death and nonfatal myocardial infarction from aspirin in patients who previously had percutaneous coronary intervention at 30 days persisted at 1 yr. Specifically, the hazard ratio was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.95) in those with previous percutaneous coronary intervention and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.91to 1.16) in those without (interaction P = 0.033). There was no significant effect of either drug on death, cardiovascular complications, cancer, or chronic incisional pain at 1 yr (all P > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Neither perioperative aspirin nor clonidine have significant long-term effects after noncardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin in patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention showed persistent benefit at 1 yr, a plausible sub-group effect.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Clonidina/administração & dosagem , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Idoso , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clonidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Anesthesiology ; 132(4): 614-624, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both saline and lactated Ringer's solutions are commonly given to surgical patients. However, hyperchloremic acidosis consequent to saline administration may provoke complications. The authors therefore tested the primary hypothesis that a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative complications is less common in patients given lactated Ringer's solution than normal saline. METHODS: The authors conducted an alternating cohort controlled trial in which adults having colorectal and orthopedic surgery were given either lactated Ringer's solution or normal saline in 2-week blocks between September 2015 and August 2018. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality and major postoperative renal, respiratory, infectious, and hemorrhagic complications. The secondary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury. RESULTS: Among 8,616 qualifying patients, 4,187 (49%) were assigned to lactated Ringer's solution, and 4,429 (51%) were assigned to saline. Each group received a median 1.9 l of fluid. The primary composite of major complications was observed in 5.8% of lactated Ringer's versus 6.1% of normal saline patients, with estimated average relative risk across the components of the composite of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.52; P = 0.261). The secondary outcome, postoperative acute kidney injury, Acute Kidney Injury Network stage I-III versus 0, occurred in 6.6% of lactated Ringer's patients versus 6.2% of normal saline patients, with an estimated relative risk of 1.18 (99.3% CI, 0.99 to 1.41; P = 0.009, significance criterion of 0.007). Absolute differences between the treatment groups for each outcome were less than 0.5%, an amount that is not clinically meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: In elective orthopedic and colorectal surgery patients, there was no clinically meaningful difference in postoperative complications with lactated Ringer's or saline volume replacement. Clinicians can reasonably use either solution intraoperatively.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Lactato de Ringer/administração & dosagem , Solução Salina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Lactato de Ringer/efeitos adversos , Solução Salina/efeitos adversos
9.
Anesth Analg ; 130(4): 933-940, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hyperoxia has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the prevention of surgical site infections. Based on animal studies and physiological concerns, the kidneys and heart may be at risk from hyperoxia. We therefore conducted 2 unplanned subanalyses of a previous alternating cohort trial in which patients having colorectal surgery were assigned to either 30% or 80% inspired intraoperative oxygen. Specifically, we tested 2 coprimary hypotheses: (1) hyperoxia increases the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) within 7 postoperative days (PODs); and (2) hyperoxia worsens a composite of myocardial injury, in-hospital cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality. METHODS: The underlying controlled trial included 5749 colorectal surgeries in 4481 patients, with the exposure alternating between 30% and 80% fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) during general anesthesia at 2-week intervals over a period of 39 months. AKI was defined as a 1.5-fold increase in creatinine from the preoperative level to the highest value measured during the initial 7 PODs. Myocardial injury was defined by fourth-generation troponin-T level >0.03 ng/mL. We assessed the effect of 80% vs 30% oxygen on the outcomes using generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic models that adjusted for the possible within-patient correlation across multiple potential operations for a patient on different visits. RESULTS: For the AKI outcome, 2522 surgeries were allocated to 80% oxygen and 2552 to 30% oxygen. Hyperoxia had no effect on the primary outcome of postoperative AKI, with an incidence of 7.7% in the 80% oxygen group and 7.7% in the 30% oxygen group (relative risk = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.2; P = .95). One thousand six hundred forty-seven surgeries (all with scheduled troponin monitoring) were analyzed for the composite cardiovascular outcome. Hyperoxia had no effect on the collapsed composite of myocardial injury, cardiac arrest, and 30-day mortality, nor on any of its components (estimated relative risk = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.44-1.16; P = .17). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that intraoperative hyperoxia causes AKI or cardiovascular complications in adults undergoing colorectal surgery. Consequently, we suggest that clinicians select intraoperative inspired oxygen fraction based on other considerations.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Oxigenoterapia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia Geral , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/etiologia , Humanos , Hiperóxia/epidemiologia , Hiperóxia/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Troponina I/sangue
10.
Anesth Analg ; 130(2): 360-366, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that the duration of hospitalization was not different between isoflurane and sevoflurane. But more plausible consequences of using soluble volatile anesthetics are delayed emergence from anesthesia and prolonged stays in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). We therefore compared isoflurane and sevoflurane on emergence time and PACU duration. METHODS: We reanalyzed data from 1498 adults who participated in a previous alternating intervention trial comparing isoflurane and sevoflurane. Patients, mostly having colorectal surgery, were assigned to either volatile anesthetic in 2-week blocks that alternated for half a year. Emergence time was defined as the time from minimum alveolar concentration fraction reaching 0.3 at the end of the procedure until patients left the operating room. PACU duration was defined from admission to the end of phase 1 recovery. Treatment effect was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for imbalanced baseline variables. RESULTS: A total of 674 patients were given isoflurane, and 824 sevoflurane. Emergence time was slightly longer for isoflurane with a median (quartiles) of 16 minutes (12-22 minutes) vs 14 minutes (11-19 minutes) for sevoflurane, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.81 (97.5% CI, 0.71-0.92; P < .001). Duration in the PACU did not differ, with a median (quartiles) of 2.6 hours (2.0-3.6 hours) for isoflurane and 2.6 hours (2.0-3.7 hours) hours for sevoflurane. The adjusted hazard ratio for PACU discharge time was 1.04 (97.5% CI, 0.91-1.18; P = .56). CONCLUSIONS: Isoflurane prolonged emergence by only 2 minutes, which is not a clinically important amount, and did not prolong length of stay in the PACU. The more soluble and much less-expensive anesthetic isoflurane thus seems to be a reasonable alternative to sevoflurane.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/tendências , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Isoflurano/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Anesthesiology ; 132(1): 121-130, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and infectious risks. Postsurgical patients are susceptible to similar complications, but whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to postoperative complications remains unclear. We tested whether low preoperative vitamin D is associated with cardiovascular events within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We evaluated a subset of patients enrolled in the biobank substudy of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) study, who were at least 45 yr with at least an overnight hospitalization. Blood was collected preoperatively, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored samples. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial injury, nonfatal cardiac arrest, stroke, congestive heart failure) within 30 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were kidney injury and infectious complications. RESULTS: A total of 3,851 participants were eligible for analysis. Preoperative 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 70 ± 30 nmol/l, and 62% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Overall, 26 (0.7%) patients died, 41 (1.1%) had congestive heart failure or nonfatal cardiac arrest, 540 (14%) had myocardial injury, and 15 (0.4%) had strokes. Preoperative vitamin D concentration was not associated with the primary outcome (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.93 [0.85, 1.01] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P = 0.095). However, it was associated with postoperative infection (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.94 [0.90, 0.98] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.005) and kidney function (estimated mean change in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [95% CI]: 0.29 [0.11, 0.48] ml min 1.73 m per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomes. However, there was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and a composite of infectious complications and decreased kidney function. While renal effects were not clinically meaningful, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on infectious complications requires further study.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doenças Transmissíveis/sangue , Comorbidade , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
12.
Anesthesiology ; 132(1): 82-94, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes, but it remains unclear which measure of frailty is best. This study compared two approaches: the Modified Frailty Index, which is a deficit accumulation model (number of accumulated deficits), and the Hopkins Frailty Score, which is a phenotype model (consisting of shrinking, weakness, exhaustion, slowness, and low physical activity). The primary aim was to compare the ability of each frailty score to predict prolonged hospitalization. Secondarily, the ability of each score to predict 30-day readmission and/or postoperative complications was compared. METHODS: This study prospectively enrolled adults presenting for preanesthesia evaluation before elective noncardiac surgery. The Hopkins Frailty Score and Modified Frailty Index were both determined. The ability of each frailty score to predict the primary outcome (prolonged hospitalization) was compared using a ratio of root-mean-square prediction errors from linear regression models. The ability of each score to predict the secondary outcome (readmission and complications) was compared using ratio of root-mean-square prediction errors from logistic regression models. RESULTS: The study included 1,042 patients. The frailty rates were 23% (Modified Frailty Index of 4 or higher) and 18% (Hopkins Frailty Score of 3 or higher). In total, 12.9% patients were readmitted or had postoperative complications. The error of the Modified Frailty Index and Hopkins Frailty Score in predicting the primary outcome was 2.5 (95% CI, 2.2, 2.9) and 2.6 (95% CI, 2.2, 3.0) days, respectively, and their ratio was 1.0 (95% CI, 1.0, 1.0), indicating similarly poor prediction. Similarly, the error of respective frailty scores in predicting the probability of secondary outcome was high, specifically 0.3 (95% CI, 0.3, 0.4) and 0.3 (95% CI, 0.3, 0.4), and their ratio was 1.00 (95% CI, 1.0, 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The Modified Frailty Index and Hopkins Frailty Score were similarly poor predictors of perioperative risk. Further studies, with different frailty screening tools, are needed to identify the best method to measure perioperative frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tempo
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 172(2): 96-104, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869834

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary data suggest that preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may improve risk prediction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Objective: To determine whether preoperative NT-proBNP has additional predictive value beyond a clinical risk score for the composite of vascular death and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) within 30 days after surgery. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 16 hospitals in 9 countries. Patients: 10 402 patients aged 45 years or older having inpatient noncardiac surgery. Measurements: All patients had NT-proBNP levels measured before surgery and troponin T levels measured daily for up to 3 days after surgery. Results: In multivariable analyses, compared with preoperative NT-proBNP values less than 100 pg/mL (the reference group), those of 100 to less than 200 pg/mL, 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL, and 1500 pg/mL or greater were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.90 to 2.70), 3.63 (CI, 3.13 to 4.21), and 5.82 (CI, 4.81 to 7.05) and corresponding incidences of the primary outcome of 12.3% (226 of 1843), 20.8% (542 of 2608), and 37.5% (223 of 595), respectively. Adding NT-proBNP thresholds to clinical stratification (that is, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index [RCRI]) resulted in a net absolute reclassification improvement of 258 per 1000 patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP values were also statistically significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (less than 100 pg/mL [incidence, 0.3%], 100 to less than 200 pg/mL [incidence, 0.7%], 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL [incidence, 1.4%], and 1500 pg/mL or greater [incidence, 4.0%]). Limitation: External validation of the identified NT-proBNP thresholds in other cohorts would reinforce our findings. Conclusion: Preoperative NT-proBNP is strongly associated with vascular death and MINS within 30 days after noncardiac surgery and improves cardiac risk prediction in addition to the RCRI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina T/sangue
14.
Anesth Analg ; 130(3): 636-643, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is common in critically ill patients, with a reported incidence of 11%-43%, and is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Perioperative hypotension and consequent brain hypoperfusion may contribute. We, therefore, tested the hypotheses that intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with critical care delirium. METHODS: We included 1083 postoperative patients who were admitted directly from an operating room to the surgical intensive care unit. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit patients at 12-hour intervals. We used a confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazard survival model to assess the association between the amount of intraoperative hypotension, which was measured as the time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg, and delirium while in critical care. Thereafter, we used a Cox model with the lowest mean arterial pressure on each intensive care day as a time-varying covariate to assess the relationship between critical care hypotension and delirium, adjusted for confounders and amount of intraoperative hypotension. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-seven (35%) patients had delirium within the first 5 postoperative days in the surgical intensive care unit. Intraoperative hypotension was moderately associated with higher odds of postoperative delirium. The adjusted hazard ratio associated with 1 mm Hg increase in time-weighted average of mean arterial pressure <65 mm Hg was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.20; P = .008). Postoperatively, a 10 mm Hg reduction in the lowest mean pressure on each day in the critical care unit was significantly associated with a higher hazard of delirium, with an adjusted hazard ratio 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04-1.20; P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Both intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with delirium in postoperative critical care patients. The extent to which these relationships are causal remains unknown, but to the extent that they are, hypotension prevention may help reduce delirium and should be studied in prospective clinical trials.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Delírio/epidemiologia , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio/epidemiologia , Período Perioperatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Eur Heart J ; 41(5): 645-651, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237939

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the 1-year risk of stroke and other adverse outcomes in patients with a new diagnosis of perioperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after non-cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation (POISE)-1 trial evaluated the effects of metoprolol vs. placebo in 8351 patients, and POISE-2 compared the effect of aspirin vs. placebo, and clonidine vs. placebo in 10 010 patients. These trials included patients with, or at risk of, cardiovascular disease who were undergoing non-cardiac surgery. For the purpose of this study, we combined the POISE datasets, excluding 244 patients who were in atrial fibrillation (AF) at the time of randomization. Perioperative atrial fibrillation was defined as new AF that occurred within 30 days after surgery. Our primary outcome was the incidence of stroke at 1 year of follow-up; secondary outcomes were mortality and myocardial infarction (MI). We compared outcomes among patients with and without POAF using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Among 18 117 patients (mean age 69 years, 57.4% male), 404 had POAF (2.2%). The stroke incidence 1 year after surgery was 5.58 vs. 1.54 per 100 patient-years in patients with and without POAF, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.00-5.90; P < 0.001. Patients with POAF also had an increased risk of death (incidence 31.37 vs. 9.34; aHR 2.51, 95% CI 2.01-3.14; P < 0.001) and MI (incidence 26.20 vs. 8.23; aHR 5.10, 95% CI 3.91-6.64; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with POAF have a significantly increased risk of stroke, MI, and death at 1 year. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate risk reduction strategies in this high-risk population.

16.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(6): 768-776, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sufficient tissue oxygen tension may reduce the risk of postoperative wound infections. Supplemental administration of crystalloids increases subcutaneous oxygen tension (Psqo2). Colloids remain longer in the intravascular system and might therefore increase Psqo2 even more than crystalloids. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that goal-directed colloid administration increases the perioperative Psqo2 more compared with crystalloid administration. METHODS: We randomly assigned 80 patients undergoing elective open abdominal surgery to receive fluid boluses of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or lactated Ringer's (LR) solution guided by oesophageal Doppler. Intraoperative Psqo2 was measured in the upper arm. After operation, we measured the Psqo2 in the upper arm and in the surgical wound. RESULTS: Forty patients were enrolled in each group. Patients in the colloid group received HES solution 750 ml (500; 1000) and LR solution 1500 ml (1000; 2000). Patients in the crystalloid group received LR solution 2825 ml (2000; 3960). The goal-directed administration of colloids did not improve intraoperative Psqo2 in the arm compared with crystalloid administration (11.4 kPa [9.0; 16.6] vs 11.2 kPa [8.6; 15.1], respectively; P=0.58). Postoperative arm Psqo2 was 8.1 kPa (6.5; 9.6) in the colloid group and 7.3 kPa (5.7; 9.1) in the crystalloid group (P=0.11). Postoperative surgical wound Psqo2 was 10.7 kPa (8.6; 13.4) in the colloid group and 10.1 kPa (8.1; 12.7) in the crystalloid group (P=0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Goal-directed colloid administration did not increase Psqo2 compared with goal-directed crystalloid administration in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00517127.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Hidratação/métodos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Lactato de Ringer/administração & dosagem , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Braço , Coloides , Soluções Cristaloides , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substitutos do Plasma/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1807-1815, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three perioperative factors impair host defence against recurrence during cancer surgery: the surgical stress response, use of volatile anaesthetic, and opioids for analgesia. All factors are ameliorated by regional anaesthesia-analgesia. We tested the primary hypothesis that breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery is lower with regional anaesthesia-analgesia using paravertebral blocks and the anaesthetic propofol than with general anaesthesia with the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane and opioid analgesia. A second hypothesis was that regional anaesthesia-analgesia reduces persistent incisional pain. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial at 13 hospitals in Argentina, Austria, China, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, and the USA. Women (age <85 years) having potentially curative primary breast cancer resections were randomised by computer to either regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral blocks and propofol) or general anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioid analgesia. The primary outcome was local or metastatic breast cancer recurrence. The secondary outcome was incisional pain at 6 months and 12 months. Primary analyses were done under intention-to-treat principles. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00418457. The study was stopped after a preplanned futility boundary was crossed. FINDINGS: Between Jan 30, 2007, and Jan 18, 2018, 2132 women were enrolled to the study, of whom 24 were excluded before surgery. 1043 were assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 1065 were allocated to general anaesthesia. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between study groups. Median follow-up was 36 (IQR 24-49) months. Among women assigned regional anaesthesia-analgesia, 102 (10%) recurrences were reported, compared with 111 (10%) recurrences among those allocated general anaesthesia (hazard ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·74-1·28; p=0·84). Incisional pain was reported by 442 (52%) of 856 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 456 (52%) of 872 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 239 (28%) of 854 patients and 232 (27%) of 852 patients, respectively, at 12 months (overall interim-adjusted odds ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·85-1·17; p=0·99). Neuropathic breast pain did not differ by anaesthetic technique and was reported by 87 (10%) of 859 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 89 (10%) of 870 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 57 (7%) of 857 patients and 57 (7%) of 854 patients, respectively, at 12 months. INTERPRETATION: In our study population, regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral block and propofol) did not reduce breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery compared with volatile anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioids. The frequency and severity of persistent incisional breast pain was unaffected by anaesthetic technique. Clinicians can use regional or general anaesthesia with respect to breast cancer recurrence and persistent incisional pain. FUNDING: Sisk Healthcare Foundation (Ireland), Eccles Breast Cancer Research Fund, British Journal of Anaesthesia International, College of Anaesthetists of Ireland, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Science Fund for Junior Faculty 2016, Central Bank of Austria, and National Healthcare Group.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Mastectomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos
18.
CMAJ ; 191(30): E830-E837, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among adults undergoing contemporary noncardiac surgery, little is known about the frequency and timing of death and the associations between perioperative complications and mortality. We aimed to establish the frequency and timing of death and its association with perioperative complications. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years and older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery at 28 centres in 14 countries. We monitored patients for complications until 30 days after surgery and determined the relation between these complications and 30-day mortality using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: We included 40 004 patients. Of those, 715 patients (1.8%) died within 30 days of surgery. Five deaths (0.7%) occurred in the operating room, 500 deaths (69.9%) occurred after surgery during the index admission to hospital and 210 deaths (29.4%) occurred after discharge from the hospital. Eight complications were independently associated with 30-day mortality. The 3 complications with the largest attributable fractions (AF; i.e., potential proportion of deaths attributable to these complications) were major bleeding (6238 patients, 15.6%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2-3.1; AF 17.0%); myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery [MINS] (5191 patients, 13.0%; adjusted HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.6; AF 15.9%); and sepsis (1783 patients, 4.5%; adjusted HR 5.6, 95% CI 4.6-6.8; AF 12.0%). INTERPRETATION: Among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery, 99.3% of deaths occurred after the procedure and 44.9% of deaths were associated with 3 complications: major bleeding, MINS and sepsis. Given these findings, focusing on the prevention, early identification and management of these 3 complications holds promise for reducing perioperative mortality. Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00512109.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/mortalidade
19.
Trials ; 20(1): 255, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotension is associated with serious complications, including myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, and mortality. Consequently, predicting and preventing hypotension may improve outcomes. We will therefore determine if use of a novel hypotension prediction tool reduces the duration and severity of hypotension in patients having non-cardiac surgery. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a two-center, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial (N = 213) in noncardiac surgical patients > 45 years old who require intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring. All participating patients will be connected to a Flortrac IQ sensor and EV1000 platform (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine). They will be randomly assigned to blinded or unblinded arms. The Hypotension Prediction Index (HPI) and advanced hemodynamic information will be universally recorded, but will only be available to clinicians when patients are assigned to unblinded monitoring. The primary outcome will be the effect of HPI software guidance on intraoperative time-weighted average mean arterial pressure under a threshold of 65 mmHg, which will be assessed with a Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney 2-sample, two-tailed test. DISCUSSION: Our trial will determine whether the Hypotension Prediction Index and associated hemodynamic information substantively reduces hypotension during non-cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03610165 . Registered on 1 August 2018.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Software , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ohio , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 36(5): 320-326, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends routine intra-operative and early postoperative use of high inspired oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia). However, a high intra-operative inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) might result in an increased risk of postoperative respiratory complications. AIM: To test the hypothesis that intra-operative FiO2 of 80% compared with 30% inspired oxygen decreases the postoperative ratio of arterial saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2). Secondarily, to evaluate whether an intra-operative inspired FiO2 of 80% increases the incidence of pulmonary complications. DESIGN: Posthoc subanalysis of a large alternating cohort trial. SETTING: Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, United States, from 2013 to 2016. PATIENTS: Adults having colorectal surgery. Cases lasting less than 2 h, re-operations on the same hospitalisation, and cases with missing intra-operative or postoperative data were excluded. INTERVENTION: Maintaining intra-operative FiO2 at 30 or 80% and alternating this management every 2 weeks for a study period of 39 months. MAIN OUTCOME: Minimal SpO2/FiO2 ratio value in the postanaesthesia care unit. Secondary outcome was a composite of postoperative pulmonary complications throughout hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 5056 patients were included. Groups were well balanced on all demographic, baseline and procedural variables. Median time-weighted averages of intra-operative FiO2 in the 30 and 80% groups were 43% (IQR 38 to 54%, N=2486) and 81% (IQR 78 to 82%, N=2570), respectively. No difference was found in the lowest SpO2/FiO2 ratio (estimated median difference 0 [95% confidence interval: 0, 0], P = 0.91). The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 16.3 and 17.6% in the 30 and 80% FiO2 groups, respectively (relative risk 1.07 [95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.21], P = 0.25). CONCLUSION: Intra-operative hyperoxia did not change the postoperative SpO2/FiO2 ratio or the risk for pulmonary complications. Clinicians should not refrain from using hyperoxia for fear of provoking respiratory complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01777568.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Oxigênio , Adulto , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Metiltransferases , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo
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