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2.
Eur J Cancer ; 133: 25-28, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422506

RESUMO

It has recently been suggested that precision oncology studies should be reanalysed using the intention-to-treat (ITT) methodology developed for randomized controlled clinical trials. This reanalysis dramatically decreases response rates in precision medicine studies. We contend that the ITT analysis of precision oncology trials is invalid. The ITT methodology was developed three decades ago to mitigate the problems of randomized trials, which try to ensure that both arms have an unselected patient population free from confounders. In contrast, precision oncology trials specifically select patients for confounders (that is biomarkers) that predict response. To demonstrate the issues inherent in an ITT reanalysis for precision cancer medicine studies, we take as an example the drug larotrectinib (TRK inhibitor) approved because of remarkable responses in malignancies harbouring NTRK fusions. Based on large-scale studies, NTRK fusions are found in ~0.31% of tumours. In a non-randomized pivotal study of larotrectinib, 75% of the 55 treated patients responded. Based upon the prevalence of NTRK fusions, ~18,000 patients would need to be screened to enrol the 55 treated patients. Utilizing the ITT methodology, the revised response rate to larotrectinib would be 0.23%. This is, of course, a dramatic underestimation of the efficacy of this now Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug. Similar issues can be shown for virtually any biomarker-based precision clinical trial. Therefore, retrofitting the ITT analysis developed for unselected patient populations in randomized trials yields misleading conclusions in precision medicine studies.

3.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 45, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with antibodies inhibiting cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) (or its ligand (PD-L1)) can stimulate immune responses against cancer and have revolutionized the treatment of tumors. The influence of host germline genetics and its interaction with tumor neoantigens remains poorly defined. We sought to determine the interaction between tumor mutational burden (TMB) and the ability of a patient's major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) to efficiently present mutated driver neoantigens in predicting response ICB. METHODS: Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on 83 patients with diverse cancers treated with ICB to determine TMB and human leukocyte antigen-I (HLA-I) genotype. The ability of a patient's MHC-I to efficiently present mutated driver neoantigens (defined by the Patient Harmonic-mean Best Rank (PHBR) score (with lower PHBR indicating more efficient presentation)) was calculated for each patient. RESULTS: The median progression-free survival (PFS) for PHBR score < 0.5 vs. ≥ 0.5 was 5.1 vs. 4.4 months (P = 0.04). Using a TMB cutoff of 10 mutations/mb, the stable disease > 6 months/partial response/complete response rate, median PFS, and median overall survival (OS) of TMB high/PHBR high vs. TMB high/PHBR low were 43% vs. 78% (P = 0.049), 5.8 vs. 26.8 months (P = 0.03), and 17.2 months vs. not reached (P = 0.23), respectively. These findings were confirmed in an independent validation cohort of 32 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Poor presentation of driver mutation neoantigens by MHC-I may explain why some tumors (even with a high TMB) do not respond to ICB.

4.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 86: 102019, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251926

RESUMO

In recent years, biotechnological breakthroughs have led to identification of complex and unique biologic features associated with carcinogenesis. Tumor and cell-free DNA profiling, immune markers, and proteomic and RNA analyses are used to identify these characteristics for optimization of anticancer therapy in individual patients. Consequently, clinical trials have evolved, shifting from tumor type-centered to gene-directed, histology-agnostic, with innovative adaptive design tailored to biomarker profiling with the goal to improve treatment outcomes. A plethora of precision medicine trials have been conducted. The majority of these trials demonstrated that matched therapy is associated with superior outcomes compared to non-matched therapy across tumor types and in specific cancers. To improve the implementation of precision medicine, this approach should be used early in the course of the disease, and patients should have complete tumor profiling and access to effective matched therapy. To overcome the complexity of tumor biology, clinical trials with combinations of gene-targeted therapy with immune-targeted approaches (e.g., checkpoint blockade, personalized vaccines and/or chimeric antigen receptor T-cells), hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and/or novel agents should be considered. These studies should target dynamic changes in tumor biologic abnormalities, eliminating minimal residual disease, and eradicating significant subclones that confer resistance to treatment. Mining and expansion of real-world data, facilitated by the use of advanced computer data processing capabilities, may contribute to validation of information to predict new applications for medicines. In this review, we summarize the clinical trials and discuss challenges and opportunities to accelerate the implementation of precision oncology.

6.
Cell ; 181(1): 208-208.e1, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243791

RESUMO

Integrating precision diagnostics into personalized treatments requires understanding how biomarkers relate to clinical outcomes. Various clinical data collection methods exist, each with strengths and weaknesses. Interventional data are high quality but narrowly focused. Real-world data (RWD) provide broader information but with variable quality. Master protocols allow better efficiency in data collection. The master observational trial bridges the gap between interventional and retrospective RWD collection methods. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several cancer types harbor alterations in the gene encoding AT-Rich Interactive Domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A), but there are no approved therapies to address these alterations. Recent studies have shown that ARID1A deficiency compromises mismatch repair proteins. Herein, we analyzed 3403 patients who had tumor tissue next-generation sequencing. FINDINGS: Among nine cancer subtypes with >5% prevalence of ARID1A alterations, microsatellite instability-high as well as high tumor mutational burden was significantly more frequent in ARID1A-altered versus ARID1A wild-type tumors (20% vs 0.9%, p<0.001; and 26% vs 8.4%, p<0.001, respectively). Median progression-free survival (PFS) after checkpoint blockade immunotherapy was significantly longer in the patients with ARID1A-altered tumors (n=46) than in those with ARID1A wild-type tumors (n=329) (11 months vs 4 months, p=0.006). Also, multivariate analysis showed that ARID1A alterations predicted longer PFS after checkpoint blockade (HR (95% CI), 0.61 (0.39 to 0.94), p=0.02) and this result was independent of microsatellite instability or mutational burden; median overall survival time was also longer in ARID1A-altered versus wild-type tumors (31 months vs 20 months), but did not reach statistical significance (p=0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ARID1A alterations merit further exploration as a novel biomarker correlating with better outcomes after checkpoint blockade immunotherapy.

8.
Mol Oncol ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187847

RESUMO

We examined the impact of spatial, temporal, histologic, and quantitative factors on concordance between TP53 alterations in tissue DNA vs in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Four hundred and thirty-three patients underwent next-generation sequencing (NGS) in which both tissue and blood samples were evaluated. TP53 was detected in 258 of 433 patients (59.6%); 215 had tissue TP53 alterations (49.7%); 159, ctDNA (36.7%); and 116, both tissue and ctDNA (27.8%). Overall concordance rate between ctDNA and tissue biopsies for TP53 alterations was 67.2%; positive concordance was 45.0%. Overall concordance for TP53 did not vary among patients with ≤ 2 months vs > 6 months between test samples; however, positive concordance trended higher when time intervals between test samples were shorter, suggesting that the lack of difference in overall concordance may be due to the large number of negative/negative tests. There was a trend toward higher overall concordance based on biopsy site (metastatic vs primary) (P = 0.07) and significantly higher positive concordance if the tissue biopsy site was a metastatic lesion (P = 0.03). Positive concordance significantly decreased in noncolorectal cancer patients vs colorectal cancer patients (P = 0.02). Finally, higher %ctDNA was associated with higher concordance rates between blood and tissue (P < 0.001). Taken together, these data indicate that both blood and tissue DNA sequencing are necessary to evaluate the full scope of TP53 alterations, and that concordance rates may be related to multiple factors including, but not limited to, amount of ctDNA, histologic context, and site of tissue biopsy.

9.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 16, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066498

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has enabled patient selection for targeted drugs, some of which have shown remarkable efficacy in cancers that have the cognate molecular signatures. Intriguingly, rapidly emerging data indicate that altered genes representing oncogenic drivers can also be found in sporadic non-malignant conditions, some of which have negligible and/or low potential for transformation to cancer. For instance, activating KRAS mutations are discerned in endometriosis and in brain arteriovenous malformations, inactivating TP53 tumor suppressor mutations in rheumatoid arthritis synovium, and AKT, MAPK, and AMPK pathway gene alterations in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Furthermore, these types of alterations may also characterize hereditary conditions that result in diverse disabilities and that are associated with a range of lifetime susceptibility to the development of cancer, varying from near universal to no elevated risk. Very recently, the repurposing of targeted cancer drugs for non-malignant conditions that are associated with these genomic alterations has yielded therapeutic successes. For instance, the phenotypic manifestations of CLOVES syndrome, which is characterized by tissue overgrowth and complex vascular anomalies that result from the activation of PIK3CA mutations, can be ameliorated by the PIK3CA inhibitor alpelisib, which was developed and approved for breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the profound implications of finding molecular alterations in non-malignant conditions that are indistinguishable from those driving cancers, with respect to our understanding of the genomic basis of medicine, the potential confounding effects in early cancer detection that relies on sensitive blood tests for oncogenic mutations, and the possibility of reverse repurposing drugs that are used in oncology in order to ameliorate non-malignant illnesses and/or to prevent the emergence of cancer.

11.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(3): 140-146, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020042

RESUMO

The traditional regulatory drug approval paradigm comprising discrete phases of clinical testing that culminate in a large randomized superiority trial has historically been predominant in oncology. However, this approach has evolved in the current era of drug development, with multiple other development pathways now being utilized. Indeed, treatment approaches designed on the basis of an improved understanding of cancer biology have led to unprecedented responses in early phase trials, sometimes resulting in drug approvals in the absence of large-scale trials. At the same time, improved molecular diagnostic technologies have led to the identification of ever-smaller patient subgroups for molecularly targeted therapy. Moreover, new FDA regulatory paradigms have enabled the rapid review and accelerated approval of certain drugs in the absence of survival data. Regulatory approvals based on large-cohort trials with surrogate or intermediate clinical end points or on non-inferiority trials, as well as new tumour-agnostic indications, also set important precedents in the field. In this Viewpoint, we asked two leading oncologists involved in clinical drug development, an expert in regulatory science and prescription drug policy and a prominent patient advocate, to provide their opinions on the implications of these changes in regulatory practices for patient care.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Aprovação de Drogas , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(3): e209-e217, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Siltuximab is recommended by international consensus as a first-line treatment for idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease on the basis of durable efficacy and safety data. This study was done to assess the long-term safety and activity of siltuximab over up to 6 years of treatment. METHODS: This study is a prespecified open-label extension analysis of a phase 1 trial (NCT00412321) and a phase 2 trial (NCT01024036), done at 26 hospitals worldwide. Patients in both studies were at least 18 years old with histologically confirmed, symptomatic Castleman disease. This extension study enrolled 60 patients who completed the previous trials without disease progression on siltuximab. Patients received siltuximab infusions of 11 mg/kg every 3 weeks (which could be extended to 6 weeks) for up to 6 years. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the data. No formal hypothesis testing was performed. The primary endpoint was the safety of siltuximab, assessed at each dosing cycle. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01400503 and with EudraCT, number 2010-022837-27. FINDINGS: Patient enrolment into the phase 1 trial was from June 20, 2005, to Sept 15, 2009, and enrolment into the phase 2 trial was from Feb 9, 2010, to Feb 3, 2012. Patients were enrolled in this long-term extension from April 1, 2011, to Jan 15, 2014. Median follow-up was 6 years (IQR 5·11-7·76). Median treatment duration, from the beginning of the previous trials to the end of the present study, was 5·5 years (IQR 4·26-7·14). Siltuximab was well tolerated; however, adverse events of grade 3 or worse were reported in 36 (60%) of 60 patients with the most common being hypertension (eight [13%]), fatigue (five [8%]), nausea (four [7%]), neutropenia (four [7%]), and vomiting (three [5%]). 25 (42%) patients reported at least one serious adverse event, which most commonly was an infection (eight [13%]). Only two serious adverse events, polycythaemia and urinary retention, were considered related to siltuximab treatment. 18 patients discontinued before study completion, either to receive siltuximab locally (eight) or because of progressive disease (two), adverse events (two), or other reasons (six). No deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: These results show that siltuximab is well tolerated long term and provides important evidence for the feasibility of the life-long use required by patients with idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease. FUNDING: Janssen R&D and EUSA Pharma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Prognóstico
13.
Oncologist ; 25(2): e386-e390, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients with ECD harboring a BRAF V600E mutation. Successful treatment has also been reported with MEK-targeted therapies, likely because of the fact that BRAF mutant-negative patients harbor MEK pathway alterations. In our Rare Tumor Clinic, we noted that these patients have frequent drug-related toxicity, consistent with previous reports indicating the need to markedly lower doses of interferon-alpha when that agent is used in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a review of ten patients with ECD seen at the Rare Tumor Clinic at University of California San Diego receiving 16 regimens of targeted BRAF, MEK, or combined therapies. RESULTS: The median age of the ten patients with ECD was 53 years (range, 29-77); seven were men. The median dose percentage (percent of FDA-approved dose) tolerated was 25% (range, 25%-50%). The most common clinically significant adverse effects resulting in dose adjustments of targeted therapies were rash, arthralgias, and uveitis. Renal toxicity and congestive heart failure were seen in one patient each. In spite of these issues, eight of ten patients (80%) achieved a partial remission on therapy. DISCUSSION: Patients with ECD appear to require substantially reduced doses of BRAF and MEK inhibitors but are responsive to these lower doses.

14.
Oncologist ; 25(2): 94-98, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043794

RESUMO

There are currently seven approved immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for the treatment of various cancers. These drugs are associated with profound, durable responses in a subset of patients with advanced cancers. Unfortunately, in addition to individuals whose tumors show resistance, there is a minority subgroup treated with ICIs who demonstrate a paradoxical acceleration in the rate of growth or their tumors-hyperprogressive disease. Hyperprogressive disease is associated with significantly worse outcomes in these patients. This phenomenon, though still a matter of dispute, has been recognized by multiple groups of investigators across the globe and in diverse types of cancers. There are not yet consensus standardized criteria for defining hyperprogressive disease, but most commonly time to treatment failure less than 2 months and an increase in pace of progression of at least twofold between pre-immunotherapy and on-treatment imaging has been used. In some patients, the change in rate of progression can be especially dramatic-up to 35- to 40-fold. MDM2 amplification and EGFR mutations have been suggested as genomic correlates of increased risk of hyperprogression, but these correlates require validation. The underlying mechanism for hyperprogression is not known but warrants urgent investigation.

15.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 85(4): 673-683, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062691

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the safety, tolerability, and recommended phase II doses of trametinib plus uprosertib (GSK2141795) in patients with solid tumors likely to be sensitive to MEK and/or AKT inhibition. METHODS: This was a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation, and dose-expansion study in patients with triple-negative breast cancer or BRAF-wild type advanced melanoma. The primary outcome of the expansion study was investigator-assessed response. Among 126 enrolled patients, 63 received continuous oral daily dosing of trametinib and uprosertib, 29 received various alternative dosing schedules, and 34 were enrolled into expansion cohorts. Doses tested in the expansion cohort were trametinib 1.5 mg once daily (QD) + uprosertib 50 mg QD. RESULTS: Adverse events (AEs) were consistent with those reported in monotherapy studies but occurred at lower doses and with greater severity. Diarrhea was the most common dose-limiting toxicity; diarrhea and rash were particularly difficult to tolerate. Overall, 59% and 6% of patients reported AEs with a maximum severity of grade 3 and 4, respectively. Poor tolerability prevented adequate delivery of uprosertib with trametinib at a concentration predicted to have clinical activity. The study was terminated early based on futility in the continuous-dosing expansion cohorts and a lack of pharmacological or therapeutic advantage with intermittent dosing. The objective response rate was < 5% (1 complete response, 5 partial responses). CONCLUSIONS: Continuous and intermittent dosing of trametinib in combination with uprosertib was not tolerated, and minimal clinical activity was observed in all schedules tested.

16.
Cell ; 180(1): 9-14, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951522

RESUMO

This commentary introduces a new clinical trial construct, the Master Observational Trial (MOT), which hybridizes the power of molecularly based master interventional protocols with the breadth of real-world data. The MOT provides a clinical venue to allow molecular medicine to rapidly advance, answers questions that traditional interventional trials generally do not address, and seamlessly integrates with interventional trials in both diagnostic and therapeutic arenas. The result is a more comprehensive data collection ecosystem in precision medicine.

17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(10): 2290-2296, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969335

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint blockade has improved outcomes across tumor types; little is known about the efficacy of these agents in rare tumors. We report the results of the (nonpancreatic) neuroendocrine neoplasm cohort of SWOG S1609 dual anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 blockade in rare tumors (DART). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, open-label, multicenter phase II clinical trial of ipilimumab plus nivolumab across multiple rare tumor cohorts, with the (nonpancreatic) neuroendocrine cohort reported here. Response assessment by grade was not prespecified. The primary endpoint was overall response rate [ORR; RECIST v1.1; complete response (CR) and partial response (PR)]; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), stable disease >6 months, and toxicity. RESULTS: Thirty-two eligible patients received therapy; 18 (56%) had high-grade disease. Most common primary sites were gastrointestinal (47%; N = 15) and lung (19%; N = 6). The overall ORR was 25% [95% confidence interval (CI) 13-64%; CR, 3%, N = 1; PR, 22%, N = 7]. Patients with high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma had an ORR of 44% (8/18 patients) versus 0% in low/intermediate grade tumors (0/14 patients; P = 0.004). The 6-month PFS was 31% (95% CI, 19%-52%); median OS was 11 months (95% CI, 6-∞). The most common toxicities were hypothyroidism (31%), fatigue (28%), and nausea (28%), with alanine aminotransferase elevation (9%) as the most common grade 3/4 immune-related adverse event, and no grade 5 events. CONCLUSIONS: Ipilimumab plus nivolumab demonstrated a 44% ORR in patients with nonpancreatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, with 0% ORR in low/intermediate grade disease.

18.
Cancer Biol Ther ; 21(1): 95-100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564192

RESUMO

Anti-angiogenic therapies are an important class of anti-cancer treatment drugs. However, their efficacy is limited to certain tumors and would benefit from identifying a biomarker predictive of therapeutic response. TP53 (tumor protein p53) is a tumor suppressor gene frequently mutated in cancer and implicated in cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Data from 7,525 unique tumor samples (representing 30 tumor cohorts) were retrieved from the TCGA database to analyze the relationship between TP53-mutation status and VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) expression. Univariate analyses were done using a Mann-Whitney univariate test or Fisher's exact test. Parameters with a p-value (p)≤0.1 in univariate analysis were selected for follow-up multivariate analyses, including TP53-mutation status, cancer cohorts, cancer subtypes, and VEGFA expression. Our analysis demonstrates statistically significant increases in VEGFA mRNA tissue expression in TP53-mutated adenocarcinomas (but not in squamous cancers) compared to TP53 wild-type tumors. This association holds true in multivariate analyses and remains independent of HIF-1α and MDM2 overexpression. Our findings provide additional evidence that TP53 mutations are linked to the VEGF pathway, potentially offering insight into the mechanism behind increased sensitivity to anti-angiogenic therapies observed in some TP53-mutant tumors.

19.
Cancer ; 126(6): 1315-1321, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fusions are increasingly pursued as oncology therapeutic targets. The current study evaluated differences in outcomes for fusion versus nonfusion targets. METHODS: Outcomes were compared for patients with fusions versus those with other alterations for US Food and Drug Administration-approved single agents (from package inserts) and for patients treated at the University of California at San Diego. RESULTS: A total of 28 drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (6189 patients) were included in the analysis. The median response rate was 68% versus 50% for fusions versus nonfusion matches (odds ratio [OR], 1.67; P < .0001); solid tumor therapies had an OR of 2.07 (P < .0001) and hematologic therapies had an OR of 3.35 (P < .0001) for fusion versus nonfusion targets. The University of California at San Diego analysis included 79 patients in whom fusions were treated of the 2455 patients screened. Patients matched to fusions were found to have a longer median progression-free survival (PFS) (11.6 months; 95% CI, 4.0-35.4 months) compared with those unmatched to fusions (4.9 months; 95% CI, 3.5-8.8 months) (P = .034). Patients with fusions matched to other alterations present in the tumor had a median PFS that was indistinguishable from that of those patients with fusions who were treated with unmatched therapy (4.0 months vs 5.0 months; P = .75). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly higher response rates and a longer PFS were observed when targeting fusions compared with nonfusions. The observations reported in the current study suggest that fusions are important targets and that additional studies are needed to confirm that optimized therapy may require targeting fusions, even in the presence of other alterations.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 566-576, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199507

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of time interval, primary vs. metastatic biopsy site, variant allele fraction (VAF) and histology on concordance of KRAS alterations in tissue vs. circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), and association of concordance with survival. Blood and tissue were evaluated by next-generation sequencing in 433 patients with diverse cancers. Altogether, 101 patients (23.3%) had KRAS alterations: 56, ctDNA (12.9%); 81, tissue (18.7%); and 36, both (8.3%). The overall blood and tissue concordance rate for KRAS alterations was 85%, but was mainly driven by the large negative/negative subset. Therefore, specificity of one test for the other was high (88.1-94.3%), while sensitivity was not high (44.4-64.3%) and was lower still in patients with >6 vs. ≤2 months between blood and tissue sampling (31.0-40.9% vs. 51.2-84.0%; p = 0.14 time interval-dependent sensitivity of blood for tissue; p = 0.003, tissue for blood). Positive concordance rate for KRAS alterations was 57.1% vs. 27.4% (colorectal vs. noncolorectal cancer; p = 0.01), but site of biopsy (primary vs. metastatic) and VAF (%ctDNA) was not impactful. The presence of KRAS alterations in both tests was independently associated with shorter survival from diagnosis (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.86) and from recurrent/metastatic disease (1.70; 1.03-2.81). Positive concordance of KRAS alterations between ctDNA and tissue was negatively affected by a longer time period between blood and tissue sampling and was higher in colorectal cancer than in other malignancies. The presence of KRAS alterations in both tests was an independent prognostic factor for poor survival.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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