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1.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(6): 1082-1095, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A better understanding of pain treatment satisfaction in patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) and substance use is needed, especially as opioid prescribing policies are changing. We sought to identify factors associated with pain treatment satisfaction in individuals with CNCP on recent opioid therapy and prior or active substance use. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from a cohort study of 300 adults with CNCP receiving >20 morphine milligram equivalents of opioids for ≥3 of the preceding 12 months and prior or active substance use. Participants completed interviews, clinical assessments, urine drug screening, and medical chart review. RESULTS: Participants were predominantly middle-aged (mean age 57.5 years), Black (44%), and cisgender men (60%). One-third (33%) had high, 28% moderate, and 39% low pain treatment satisfaction. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), tobacco use, past-year opioid discontinuation, and higher average pain scores were associated with lower satisfaction. HIV and prescription cannabis use were associated with higher satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between PTSD and tobacco use with lower satisfaction should be explored to augment pain outcomes. Higher satisfaction among individuals with HIV and prescription cannabis use presents potential research areas to guide CNCP management and reduce reliance on opioid therapies.

2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homeless-experienced populations are at increased risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 due to their living environments and face an increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease due to underlying health conditions. Little is known about COVID-19 testing and vaccination acceptability among homeless-experienced populations. OBJECTIVE: To understand the facilitators and barriers to COVID-19 testing and vaccine acceptability among homeless-experienced adults. DESIGN: We conducted in-depth interviews with participants from July to October 2020. We purposively recruited participants from (1) a longitudinal cohort of homeless-experienced older adults in Oakland, CA (n=37) and (2) a convenience sample of people (n=57) during a mobile outreach COVID-19 testing event in San Francisco. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with current or past experience of homelessness. APPROACH: We asked participants about their experiences with and attitudes towards COVID-19 testing and their perceptions of COVID-19 vaccinations. We used participant observation techniques to document the interactions between testing teams and those approached for testing. We audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed all interviews and identified major themes and subthemes. KEY RESULTS: Participants found incentivized COVID-19 testing administered in unsheltered settings and supported by community health outreach workers (CHOWs) to be acceptable. The majority of participants expressed a positive inclination toward vaccine acceptability, citing a desire to return to routine life and civic responsibility. Those who expressed hesitancy cited a desire to see trial data, concerns that vaccines included infectious materials, and mistrust of the government. CONCLUSIONS: Participants expressed positive evaluations of the incentivized, mobile COVID-19 testing supported by CHOWs in unsheltered settings. The majority of participants expressed a positive inclination toward vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy concerns must be addressed when designing vaccine delivery strategies that overcome access challenges. Based on the successful implementation of COVID-19 testing, we recommend mobile delivery of vaccines using trusted CHOWs to address concerns and facilitate wider access to and uptake of the COVID vaccine.

3.
medRxiv ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642695

RESUMO

Background: As COVID-19 vaccines continue to be rolled-out, the "double burden" of health disparities in both exposure to infection and vaccination coverage intersect to determine the current and future patterns of infection, immunity, and mortality. Serology provides a unique opportunity to measure biomarkers of infection and vaccination simultaneously, and to relate these metrics to demographic and geographic factors. Methods: Leveraging algorithmically selected residual serum samples from two hospital networks in San Francisco, we sampled 1014 individuals during February 2021, capturing transmission during the first 11 months of the epidemic and the early roll out of vaccination. These samples were tested using two serologic assays: one detecting antibodies elicited by infection, and not by vaccines, and one detecting antibodies elicited by both infection and vaccination. We used Bayesian statistical models to estimate the proportion of the population that was naturally infected and the proportion protected due to vaccination. Findings: We estimated that the risk of prior infection of Latinx residents was 5.3 (95% CI: 3.2 - 10.3) times greater than the risk of white residents aged 18-64 and that white San Francisco residents over the age of 65 were twice as likely (2.0, 95% CI: 1.1 - 4.6) to be vaccinated as Black residents. We also found socioeconomically deprived zipcodes in the city had high probabilities of natural infections and lower vaccination coverage than wealthier zipcodes. Interpretation: Using a platform we created for SARS-CoV-2 serologic data collection in San Francisco, we characterized and quantified the stark disparities in infection rates and vaccine coverage by demographic groups over the first year of the pandemic. While the arrival of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has created a 'light at the end of the tunnel' for this pandemic, ongoing challenges in achieving and maintaining equity must also be considered. Funding: NIH, NIGMS, Schmidt Science Fellows in partnership with the Rhodes Trust and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub.

4.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute healthcare utilization attributed to alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other substance use disorders (SUD) is rising. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations made by adults with AUD or SUD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study with retrospective analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2014 to 2018), a nationally representative survey of acute care visits with information on the presence of AUD or SUD abstracted from the medical chart. MAIN MEASURES: Outcome measured as the presence of AUD or SUD. KEY RESULTS: From 2014 to 2018, the annual average prevalence of AUD or SUD was 9.4% of ED visits (9.3 million visits) and 11.9% hospitalizations (1.4 million hospitalizations). Both estimates increased over time (30% and 57% relative increase for ED visits and hospitalizations, respectively, from 2014 to 2018). ED visits and hospitalizations from individuals with AUD or SUD, compared to individuals with neither AUD nor SUD, had higher percentages of Medicaid insurance (ED visits: AUD: 33.1%, SUD: 35.0%, neither: 24.4%; hospitalizations: AUD: 30.7%, SUD: 36.3%, neither: 14.8%); homelessness (ED visits: AUD: 6.2%, SUD 4.4%, neither 0.4%; hospitalizations: AUD: 5.9%, SUD 7.3%, neither: 0.4%); coexisting depression (ED visits: AUD: 26.3%, SUD 24.7%, neither 10.5%; hospitalizations: AUD: 33.5%, SUD 35.3%, neither: 13.9%); and injury/trauma (ED visits: AUD: 51.3%, SUD 36.3%, neither: 26.4%; hospitalizations: AUD: 31.8%, SUD: 23.8%, neither: 15.0%). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative study, 1 in 11 ED visits and 1 in 9 hospitalizations were made by adults with AUD or SUD, and both increased over time. These estimates are higher or similar than previous national estimates using claims data. This highlights the importance of identifying opportunities to address AUD and SUD in acute care settings in tandem with other medical concerns, particularly among visits presenting with injury, trauma, or coexisting depression.

5.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the US, the median age of adults experiencing homelessness and incarceration is increasing. Little is known about risk factors for incarceration among older adults experiencing homelessness. To develop targeted interventions, there is a need to understand their risk factors for incarceration. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and risk factors associated with incarceration in a cohort of older adults experiencing homelessness. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort study with interviews every 6 months for a median of 5.8 years. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited adults ≥50 years old and homeless at baseline (n=433) via population-based sampling. MAIN MEASURES: Our dependent variable was incident incarceration, defined as one night in jail or prison per 6-month follow-up period after study enrollment. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, social, health, housing, and prior criminal justice involvement. KEY RESULTS: Participants had a median age of 58 years and were predominantly men (75%) and Black (80%). Seventy percent had at least one chronic medical condition, 12% reported heavy drinking, and 38% endorsed moderate-severe use of cocaine, 8% of amphetamines, and 7% of opioids. At baseline, 84% reported a lifetime history of jail stays; 37% reported prior prison stays. During follow-up, 23% spent time in jail or prison. In multivariable models, factors associated with a higher risk of incarceration included the following: having 6 or more confidants (HR=2.13, 95% CI=1.2-3.7, p=0.007), remaining homeless (HR=1.72, 95% CI=1.1-2.8, p=0.02), heavy drinking (HR=2.05, 95% CI=1.4-3.0, p<0.001), moderate-severe amphetamine use (HR=1.89, 95% CI=1.2-3.0, p=0.006), and being on probation (HR=3.61, 95% CI=2.4-5.4, p<0.001) or parole (HR=3.02, 95% CI=1.5-5.9, p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Older adults experiencing homelessness have a high risk of incarceration. There is a need for targeted interventions addressing substance use, homelessness, and reforming parole and probation in order to abate the high ongoing risk of incarceration among older adults experiencing homelessness.

7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 116, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 outbreaks have occurred in homeless shelters across the US, highlighting an urgent need to identify the most effective infection control strategy to prevent future outbreaks. METHODS: We developed a microsimulation model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a homeless shelter and calibrated it to data from cross-sectional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) surveys conducted during COVID-19 outbreaks in five homeless shelters in three US cities from March 28 to April 10, 2020. We estimated the probability of averting a COVID-19 outbreak when an exposed individual is introduced into a representative homeless shelter of 250 residents and 50 staff over 30 days under different infection control strategies, including daily symptom-based screening, twice-weekly PCR testing, and universal mask wearing. RESULTS: The proportion of PCR-positive residents and staff at the shelters with observed outbreaks ranged from 2.6 to 51.6%, which translated to the basic reproduction number (R0) estimates of 2.9-6.2. With moderate community incidence (~ 30 confirmed cases/1,000,000 people/day), the estimated probabilities of averting an outbreak in a low-risk (R0 = 1.5), moderate-risk (R0 = 2.9), and high-risk (R0 = 6.2) shelter were respectively 0.35, 0.13, and 0.04 for daily symptom-based screening; 0.53, 0.20, and 0.09 for twice-weekly PCR testing; 0.62, 0.27, and 0.08 for universal masking; and 0.74, 0.42, and 0.19 for these strategies in combination. The probability of averting an outbreak diminished with higher transmissibility (R0) within the simulated shelter and increasing incidence in the local community. CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk homeless shelter environments and locations with high community incidence of COVID-19, even intensive infection control strategies (incorporating daily symptom screening, frequent PCR testing, and universal mask wearing) are unlikely to prevent outbreaks, suggesting a need for non-congregate housing arrangements for people experiencing homelessness. In lower-risk environments, combined interventions should be employed to reduce outbreak risk.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Controle de Infecções/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Cidades/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 222: 108671, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent changes in opioid prescribing practices in the US may exacerbate disparities in opioid access among Black compared to White patients. METHODS: To evaluate racial disparities in opioid prescribing and stewardship, we used baseline data collected from 2017 to 2019 for a longitudinal cohort of patients with chronic non-cancer pain and a history of illicit substance use. Sociodemographic characteristics, pain, psychological distress, substance use, and opioid prescription practices were compared between Black and White participants. We conducted multivariable logistic regression with race as the outcome. We also compared yellow flag events (opioid-related emergency department visits, illicit substances on urine drug screens, provider-documentation of concerning behaviors) by race. RESULTS: Over half of participants analyzed were Black (57%) and the remainder White (43%). Participants with worse average pain in the past three months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]:1.29, 95%CI:1.08-1.55, p = 0.006) had higher odds of being Black. Past-year injection drug use (AOR:0.39, 95%CI:0.16-0.94, p = 0.04) and a higher past-year maximum opioid dose (AOR per 10 morphine milligram equivalents (MME):0.99, 95%CI:0.98-1.00, p = 0.006) were associated with lower odds of being Black. We found no differences by race in the use of opioid stewardship measures or discontinuation of opioids based on yellow flag events. CONCLUSION: Lower past-year maximum MME dose, despite higher average pain and less injection drug use, may represent bias away from prescribing opioids for chronic pain among Black patients. This could be due to unmeasured implicit provider bias or patient-level factors (e.g., utilizing non-opioid pain coping strategies or being less likely to request additional opioids).


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Dor Crônica , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica
9.
Subst Abus ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain affects one-fifth of US adults. Reductions in opioid prescribing have been associated with increased non-prescription opioid use and, chronologically, increased stimulant (methamphetamine and cocaine) use. While non-prescription opioid use is commonly attributed to pain self-management, the role of stimulants in managing pain is unclear. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from a longitudinal study of patients with chronic non-cancer pain in an urban safety-net healthcare system who had been prescribed an opioid for ≥3 of the last 12 months, and had a history of non-prescription opioid, cocaine, or amphetamine use (N = 300). We estimated the prevalence and identified correlates of stimulant use to treat pain among a subgroup of patients who reported past-year stimulant use (N = 105). Data sources included computer-assisted questionnaire (demographics, substance use, pain), clinical exam and procedures (pain, pain tolerance), and chart abstraction (opioid prescriptions). We conducted bivariate analyses to assess associations between demographics, pain characteristics, non-opioid therapies, substance use, opioid prescriptions, and self-reported symptoms, with reporting using stimulants to treat pain. Demographic variables and those with significant bivariate associations were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Fifty-two percent of participants with past-year stimulant use reported using stimulants in the past year to treat pain. Participants who used stimulants for pain reported slightly higher average pain in the past 3 months (median of 8 (IQR: 6-8) vs 7 (7-9) out of 10, p = 0.049). In the multivariable analysis, female gender (AOR= 3.20, 95% CI: 1.06-9.63, p = 0.039) and higher score on the Douleur Neuropathique 4 neuropathic pain questionnaire (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.70, p = 0.017) were associated with past-year stimulant use to treat pain. CONCLUSION: Stimulants may be used for pain self-management, particularly for neuropathic pain and among women. Our findings suggest an underexplored motivation for stimulant use in an era of reduced access to prescribed opioids.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e210490, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651111

RESUMO

Importance: Several jurisdictions in the United States have secured hotels to temporarily house people experiencing homelessness who require isolation or quarantine for confirmed or suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To our knowledge, little is known about how these programs serve this vulnerable population outside the hospital setting. Objective: To assess the safety of a hotel-based isolation and quarantine (I/Q) care system and its association with inpatient hospital capacity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study of a hotel-based I/Q care system for homeless and unstably housed individuals in San Francisco, California, was conducted from March 19 to May 31, 2020. Individuals unable to safely isolate or quarantine at home with mild to moderate COVID-19, persons under investigation, or close contacts were referred from hospitals, outpatient settings, and public health surveillance to 5 I/Q hotels. Of 1009 I/Q hotel guests, 346 were transferred from a large county public hospital serving patients experiencing homelessness. Exposure: A physician-supervised team of nurses and health workers provided around-the-clock support, including symptom monitoring, wellness checks, meals, harm-reduction services, and medications for opioid use disorder. Main Outcomes and Measures: Characteristics of I/Q hotel guests, program retention, county hospital readmissions, and mean length of stay. Results: Overall, the 1009 I/Q hotel guests had a median age of 44 years (interquartile range, 33-55 years), 756 (75%) were men, 454 (45%) were Latinx, and 501 (50%) were persons experiencing sheltered (n = 295) or unsheltered (n = 206) homelessness. Overall, 463 (46%) received a diagnosis of COVID-19; 303 of 907 (33%) had comorbid medical disorders, 225 of 907 (25%) had comorbid mental health disorders, and 236 of 907 (26%) had comorbid substance use disorders. A total of 776 of 955 guests (81%) completed their I/Q hotel stay; factors most strongly associated with premature discontinuation were unsheltered homelessness (adjusted odds ratio, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.3-8.6; P < .001) and quarantine status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6; P = .001). In total, 346 of 549 patients (63%) were transferred from the county hospital; of 113 ineligible referrals, 48 patients (42%) had behavioral health needs exceeding I/Q hotel capabilities. Thirteen of the 346 patients transferred from the county hospital (4%) were readmitted for worsening COVID-19. Overall, direct transfers to I/Q hotels from emergency and outpatient departments were associated with averting many hospital admissions. There was a nonsignificant decrease in the mean hospital length of stay for inpatients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 from 5.5 to 2.7 days from March to May 2020 (P = .11). Conclusions and Relevance: To support persons experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic, San Francisco rapidly and safely scaled a hotel-based model of I/Q that was associated with reduced strain on inpatient capacity. Strategies to improve guest retention and address behavioral health needs not met in hotel settings are intervention priorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Isolamento de Pacientes , Quarentena , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Habitação , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Cooperação do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , São Francisco , Populações Vulneráveis
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): 324-327, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744615

RESUMO

We report the public health response to a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in a San Francisco shelter where 67% of residents and 17% of staff tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We describe the limited utility of case investigation, person-based contact tracing and symptom screening, and the benefits of mass testing in outbreak response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , São Francisco/epidemiologia
15.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(10): 425-435, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941054

RESUMO

Food insecurity (FI) contributes to HIV-related morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms whereby FI negatively impacts HIV health are untested. We tested the hypothesis that FI leads to poor HIV clinical outcomes through nutritional, mental health, and behavioral paths. We analyzed data from Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) among 1803 women living with HIV (WLWH) (8225 person-visits) collected from 2013 to 2015 biannually from nine sites across the United States participating in the WIHS. FI was measured with the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes included HIV viral nonsuppression, CD4 cell counts, and physical health status (PHS). We used longitudinal logistic and linear regression models with random effects to examine associations adjusting for covariates and path analysis to test nutritional, mental health, and behavioral paths. Increasing severity of FI was associated with unsuppressed viral load, lower CD4 counts, and worse PHS (all p < 0.05). Report of FI 6 months earlier was independently associated with most outcomes after adjusting for concurrent FI. For viral nonsuppression, the nutritional and behavioral paths accounted for 2.09% and 30.66% of the total effect, with the mental health path operating via serial mediation through the behavioral path. For CD4 count, the mental health and behavioral paths accounted for 15.21% and 17.0% of the total effect, respectively. For PHS, depressive symptoms accounted for 60.2% of the total effect. In conclusion, FI is associated with poor health among WLWH through different paths depending on the outcome. Interventions should target FI and its behavioral and mental health mechanisms to improve HIV outcomes.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Health Serv Res ; 55 Suppl 2: 797-806, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether randomization to permanent supportive housing (PSH) versus usual care reduces the use of acute health care and other services among chronically homeless high users of county-funded services. DATA SOURCES: Between 2015 and 2019, we assessed service use from Santa Clara County, CA, administrative claims data for all county-funded health care, jail and shelter, and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among chronically homeless high users of multiple systems. We compared postrandomization outcomes from county-funded systems using multivariate regression analysis. DATA COLLECTION: We extracted encounter data from an integrated database capturing health care at county-funded facilities, shelter and jails, county housing placement, and death certificates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We enrolled 423 participants (199 intervention; 224 control). Eighty-six percent of those randomized to PSH received housing compared with 36 percent in usual care. On average, the 169 individuals housed by the PSH intervention have remained housed for 28.8 months (92.9 percent of the study follow-up period). Intervention group members had lower rates of psychiatric ED visits IRR 0.62; 95% CI [0.43, 0.91] and shelter days IRR 0.30; 95% CI [0.17, 0.53], and higher rates of ambulatory mental health services use IRR 1.84; 95% CI [1.43, 2.37] compared to controls. We found no differences in total ED or inpatient use, or jail. Seventy (37 treatment; 33 control) participants died. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention placed and retained frequent user, chronically homeless individuals in housing. It decreased psychiatric ED visits and shelter use, and increased outpatient mental health care, but not medical ED visits or hospitalizations. Limitations included more than one-third of usual care participants received another form of subsidized housing, potentially biasing results to the null, and loss of power due to high death rates. PSH can house high-risk individuals and reduce emergent psychiatric services and shelter use. Reductions in hospitalizations may be more difficult to realize.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação Popular/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(9): 2576-2583, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals experiencing homelessness have higher hospitalization and mortality rates compared with the housed. Whether they also experience higher readmission rates, and if readmissions vary by region or cause of hospitalization is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association of homelessness with readmission rates across multiple US states. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of administrative claims PATIENTS: All inpatient hospitalizations in Florida, Massachusetts, and New York from January 2010 to October 2015 MAIN MEASURES: Thirty- and 90-day readmission rates KEY RESULTS: Out of a total of 23,103,125 index hospitalizations, 515,737 were for patients who were identified as homeless at the time of discharge. After adjusting for cause of index hospitalization, state, demographics, and clinical comorbidities, 30-day and 90-day readmission rates were higher for index hospitalizations in the homeless compared with those in the housed group. The difference in 30-day readmission rates between homeless and housed groups was the largest in Florida (30.4% vs. 19.3%; p < 0.001), followed by Massachusetts (23.5% vs. 15.2%; p < 0.001) and New York (15.7% vs. 13.4%; p < 0.001) (combined 17.3% vs. 14.0%; p < 0.001). Among the most common causes of hospitalization, 30-day readmission rates were 4.1 percentage points higher for the homeless group for mental illness, 4.9 percentage points higher for diseases of the circulatory system, and 2.4 percentage points higher for diseases of the digestive system. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, homelessness is associated with significantly higher 30- and 90-day readmission rates, with a significant variation across the three states. Interventions to reduce the burden of readmissions among individuals experiencing homelessness are urgently needed. Differences across states point to the potential of certain public policies to impact health outcomes for individuals experiencing homelessness.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Readmissão do Paciente , Florida/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , New York , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Palliat Med ; 23(10): 1300-1306, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182155

RESUMO

Background/Objectives: Older homeless-experienced adults have low rates of advance care planning (ACP) engagement despite high rates of morbidity and mortality. To inform intervention development, we examined potential barriers and solutions to ACP engagement. Design: Cross-sectional qualitative study. Setting: We recruited adults who were homeless in the prior three years and ≥50 years of age in the San Francisco Bay Area, and recruited clinical stakeholders from a national meeting of homeless providers. We analyzed qualitative data using thematic analysis. Measurements: We conducted semistructured interviews with homeless-experienced older adults (n = 20) and focus groups with clinical stakeholders (n = 24) about perceived barriers and solutions to ACP engagement. Results: Participants considered ACP important, reflecting on deaths of people in their networks who had died. Participant-identified barriers to ACP included poor ACP knowledge, lack of familial ties and social isolation, competing priorities, avoidance and lack of readiness, fatalism and mistrust, and lack of ACP training for clinical and nonclinical staff. They identified solutions that included framing ACP as a way to provide meaning and assert choice, providing easy-to-read written documents focused on the populations' unique needs, tailoring content and delivery, initiating ACP in nonclinical settings, such as permanent supportive housing, and providing incentives. Conclusions: Both older homeless-experienced adults and clinical stakeholders believe that ACP is important, but acknowledge multiple barriers that impede engagement. By focusing on potential solutions, including capitalizing on opportunities outside of health care settings, focusing on the period after housing, and tailoring content, there are opportunities to improve ACP uptake.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Focais , Humanos
20.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(6): 1813-1820, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than half of homeless adults are of age ≥ 50 years. Falls are a common cause of morbidity in older adults in the general population. Risk factors for falls in the general population include poor health, alcohol use, and exposure to unsafe environments. Homeless adults aged ≥ 50 have a high prevalence of known risk factors and face additional potential risks. OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of and risk of falling in a cohort of older homeless adults. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study with participant interviews every 6 months for 3 years; data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred fifty adults aged ≥ 50, homeless at study entry, recruited via population-based sampling. MEASURES: The dependent variable is any falls in prior 6 months; independent variables include individual (i.e., illness, behaviors) and social/environmental (i.e., social support, experiencing violence, living unsheltered) factors. RESULTS: Over three quarters of participants were men (77.1%) and Black (79.7%). The median age was 58 (IQR 54, 61). At baseline, one third (33.7%) reported a fall in the prior 6 months. At follow-up visits, 23.1% to 31.2% of participants reported having fallen. In GEE models, individual risk factors (non-Black race, being a women, older age, functional impairment, urinary incontinence, history of stroke, and use of assistive devices, opioid, and marijuana) were associated with increased odds of falls. Environmental and social factors (spending any nights unsheltered (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.42, CI = 1.10-1.83) and experiencing physical assault (AOR = 1.67, CI = 1.18-2.37) were also associated. CONCLUSIONS: Older homeless adults fall frequently. Likely contributors include having a high prevalence of conditions that increase the risk of falls, compounded by heightened exposure to unsafe environments. Fall prevention in this population should target those at highest risk and address modifiable environmental conditions. Providing shelter or housing and addressing substance use could reduce morbidity from falls in homeless older adults.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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