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1.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515498

RESUMO

The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes the Diet and Physical Activity Guideline to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. This guideline is developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and reflects the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS guideline focuses on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. This 2020 ACS guideline is consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

2.
J Cancer Surviv ; 14(3): 393-403, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify distinct trajectories of total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior following a breast cancer diagnosis and their correlates. METHODS: The analysis examined 3000 female breast cancer survivors within Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2006 and 2013. Self-reported time spent on total MVPA and sedentary behaviors were assessed at baseline (mean = 1.8 months post-diagnosis) and at 6 and 24 months follow up. Trajectory groups were identified using group-based trajectory modeling and K-means for longitudinal data analysis. Trajectory groups were named by baseline activity level (high, medium, or low) and direction of change (increaser, decreaser, or maintainer). RESULTS: Trajectory analyses identified three MVPA trajectories [high decreaser (7%), medium decreaser (35%), low maintainer (58%)] and four sedentary behavior trajectories [high maintainer (18%), high decreaser (27%), low increaser (24%), and low maintainer (31%)]. Women with higher education (ORs: 1.63-4.37), income (OR: 1.37), dispositional optimism (ORs: 1.60-1.86), and social support (OR: 1.33) were more likely to be high or medium decreasers of MVPA (all P < 0.05). High maintainers and high decreasers of sedentary behavior were more likely to have higher education (OR: 1.84) and social support (ORs: 1.42-1.86), but lower income (OR: 0.66; all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the 24 months following breast cancer diagnosis, 42% of survivors decreased MVPA and 73% maintained or increased time on sedentary behavior. Socioeconomic status and stress coping at diagnosis predicted subsequent PA trajectory. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: It is important to prioritize exercise intervention and counseling during early stage of breast cancer survivorship, especially in survivors who are at high risk of becoming physically inactive post-diagnosis.

3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 521-528, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145911

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the feasibility, patient acceptability of and compliance of a new surveillance strategy for ovarian cancer surveillance in women with BRCA mutations, based on assessments of serum CA125 and HE4 every 4 months (Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) arm), compared to Standard of Care (SOC) surveillance with CA125 blood tests and pelvic ultrasounds every 6 months. METHODS: Women were recruited 6/13/16-9/11/17 from an integrated health care system in California for this non-randomized prospective cohort study. Women were invited to participate in a novel serum biomarker surveillance strategy using ROCA or they could opt to be in the standard of care control arm with ultrasound and CA 125 every 6 months. Outcomes assessed included compliance, self-reported distress using the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and cancer anxiety using the Cancer Worry Scale. RESULTS: There were 159 women in the ROCA arm and 43 in the SOC arm. Overall, compliance was higher in the ROCA arm (83.2%) than in SOC (51.9%), p < 0.0001. Based on the IES, ROCA arm women reported less feelings about intrusion and avoidance at 12 months compared to baseline; the difference approached significance for intrusion (7.6% vs 4.1% severe, p = 0.057) and was statistically significant for avoidance (20.8% vs 9.9% severe, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot demonstrated that compliance was high with blood tests performed every four months for ovarian cancer surveillance. Moreover, ROCA women had lower stress scores over time than SOC women. Given the lack of clinical utility and poor compliance shown with traditional ultrasound and CA125 tests, further investigation is warranted of longitudinal biomarker surveillance for early detection of ovarian cancer.

4.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(4): 596-603, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008799

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act increases healthcare access and includes provisions that directly impact access to and cost of evidence-based colorectal cancer screening. The Affordable Care Act's removal of cost sharing for colorectal cancer screening as well as Medicaid expansion have been hypothesized to increase screening and improve other health outcomes. However, since its passage in 2010, there is little consensus on the Affordable Care Act's impact. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Data from March 2010 to June 2019 were reviewed and 21 relevant studies were identified; 19 studies examined colorectal cancer screening with most finding increased screening rates. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Eleven studies found significant increases, 5 found nonsignificant increases, 3 found nonsignificant decreases, and 1 study found a significant decrease in colorectal cancer screening. Three studies examined the impact on colorectal cancer incidence and stage of diagnosis, where a significant 2.4% increase in early diagnosis was found in one and a nonsignificant increase in incidence in another. However, survival improved after Medicaid expansion. CONCLUSIONS: Free preventive colorectal cancer screening and Medicaid expansion because of passage of the Affordable Care Act have been, in general, positively associated with modest improvements in screening rates across the country. Future studies are needed that investigate the longer-term impact of the Affordable Care Act on colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality rates, as screening is only the first step in treatment of cancerous and precancerous lesions, preventing them from progressing. Moreover, more studies examining subpopulations are needed to better assess where gaps in care remain.

5.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(1): 219-226, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reports suggest that up to 50% of women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) do not complete the recommended 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). We examined the impact of an outreach program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) on adherence and discontinuation of AET among patients who initiated AET. METHODS: We assembled a retrospective cohort of all KPNC patients diagnosed with HR+, stage I-III BC initiating AET before (n = 4287) and after (n = 3580) implementation of the outreach program. We compared adherence proportions and discontinuation rates before and after program implementation, both crude and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and stage. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six Cancer Research Network (CRN) sites that had not implemented programs for improving AET adherence, using identical methods and time periods, to assess possible secular trends. RESULTS: In the pre-outreach period, estimated adherence in years 1, 2, and 3 following AET initiation was 75.2%, 71.0%, and 67.3%; following the outreach program, the estimates were 79.4%, 75.6%, and 72.2% (p-values < .0001 for pairwise comparisons). Results were comparable after adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. The estimated cumulative incidence of discontinuation was 0.22 (0.21-0.24) and 0.18 (0.17-0.19) at 3 years for pre- and post-outreach groups (p-value < .0001). We found no evidence of an increase in adherence between the study periods at the CRN sites with no AET adherence program. CONCLUSION: Adherence and discontinuation after AET initiation improved modestly following implementation of the outreach program.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(1): 187-195, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteoporosis and fragility fracture are major bone toxicities of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Except for a few small studies on bone turnover markers and reduced bone mineral density after AI treatment, data on the associations of bone markers and risk of osteoporosis or fracture from prospective studies are lacking. METHODS: In a prospective study of 1709 women on AIs, two bone turnover markers, BALP and TRACP, and two bone regulatory markers, RANKL and OPG, were measured and examined in relation to risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures during a median follow-up time of 6.1 years. RESULTS: Higher levels of BALP and TRACP were both associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and higher BALP/TRACP ratios were associated with lower risk of osteoporosis, but no associations were observed for fracture risk. Higher levels of OPG were associated with increased risk of fracture, whereas higher levels of RANKL were associated with lower risk. As a result, OPG/RANKL ratios were positively associated with fracture risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-4.61]. After controlling for age and fracture history, the associations became non-significant but a suggestive trend remained (HR = 1.80, 95% CI 0.96-3.37). CONCLUSION: Our study provides suggestive evidence for the potential utility of OPG/RANKL ratios in predicting risk of fracture in women treated with AIs for breast cancer. Further validation may be warranted.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(1): 229-240, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify distinct diet trajectories after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, and to examine the characteristics associated with diet trajectories. METHODS: We analyzed 2865 Pathways Study participants who completed ≥ 2 food frequency questionnaires at the time of BC diagnosis (baseline), and at 6 and 24 months after baseline. Trajectory groups of fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake, % calories from dietary fat, and alcohol intake over 24 months were identified using group-based trajectory modeling. Associations between diet trajectories and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical factors were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Analyses identified 3 F/V trajectory groups, 4 dietary fat groups, and 3 alcohol groups. All 3 F/V trajectory groups reported slightly increased F/V intake post-diagnosis (mean increase = 0.2-0.5 serving/day), while 2 groups (48% of participants) persistently consumed < 4 servings/day of F/V. Dietary fat intake did not change post-diagnosis, with 45% of survivors maintaining a high-fat diet (> 40% of calories from fat). While most survivors consumed < 1 drink/day of alcohol at all times, 21% of survivors had 1.4-3.0 drinks/day at baseline and temporarily decreased to 0.1-0.5 drinks/day at 6 months. In multivariable analysis, diet trajectory groups were significantly associated with education (ORs: 1.93-2.49), income (ORs: 1.32-2.57), optimism (ORs: 1.93-2.49), social support (OR = 1.82), and changes in physical well-being (ORs: 0.58-0.61) and neuropathy symptoms after diagnosis (ORs: 1.29-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: Pathways Study participants reported slightly increasing F/V and decreasing alcohol intake after BC diagnosis. Nearly half of survivors consumed insufficient F/V and excessive dietary fat. It is important to prioritize nutrition counseling and education in BC survivors.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 64: 101652, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based cancer registries collect information on first course of treatment that may be utilized in research on cancer care quality, yet few studies have investigated the validity of this information. We examined the accuracy and completeness of registry-based treatment information in a cohort of adolescent and young adult women. METHODS: Women diagnosed with breast cancer, lymphoma, thyroid cancer, cervical/uterine cancer or ovarian cancer at ages 15-39 during 2003-2014 were identified using data from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry (CCR) (N = 2342). CCR data were linked to Medicaid and private insurance claims data, and claims were reviewed for the 12 months following diagnosis to identify cancer treatments received. Using claims data as the gold standard, we calculated the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of CCR data for receipt of chemotherapy, radiation and hormone therapy. We also compared dates of treatment initiation between the two data sources. RESULTS: For all cancer types combined, the sensitivity of the CCR data was high for chemotherapy (86%) and moderate for radiation (74%). PPVs were 82% and 83% for chemotherapy and radiation, respectively. Both the sensitivity (67%) and PPV (70%) were lower for hormone therapy for breast cancer. For all three treatment types, dates of initiation in the registry and the claims differed by ≤30 days for most women. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of young women, population-based cancer registry data on chemotherapy receipt was reasonably accurate and complete in comparison with insurance claims. Radiation and hormone therapy appeared to be less complete.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671594

RESUMO

Childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a risk factor for adverse health outcomes and may disproportionately burden lower socioeconomic status groups, exacerbating health disparities. We explored associations of demographic factors, stressful life events, and chemical co-exposures, with cotinine levels, among girls in the CYGNET Study. Data were collected from families of girls aged 6-8 years old in Northern California, through clinic exams, questionnaires and biospecimens (n = 421). Linear regression and factor analysis were conducted to explore predictors of urinary cotinine and co-exposure body burdens, respectively. In unadjusted models, geometric mean cotinine concentrations were higher among Black (0.59 ug/g creatinine) than non-Hispanic white (0.27), Asian (0.32), or Hispanic (0.34) participants. Following adjustment, living in a rented home, lower primary caregiver education, and lack of two biologic parents in the home were associated with higher cotinine concentrations. Girls who experienced parental separation or unemployment in the family had higher unadjusted cotinine concentrations. Higher cotinine was also associated with higher polybrominated diphenyl ether and metals concentrations. Our findings have environmental justice implications as Black and socio-economically disadvantaged young girls experienced higher ETS exposure, also associated with higher exposure to other chemicals. Efforts to reduce ETS and co-exposures should account for other disparity-related factors.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Cuidadores , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cotinina/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Metais/análise , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified; these SNPs can be combined into polygenic risk scores (PRS) to predict breast cancer risk. Since most SNPs were identified in predominantly European populations, little is known about the performance of PRS in non-Europeans. We tested the performance of a 180-SNP PRS in Latinas, a large ethnic group with variable levels of Indigenous American, European, and African ancestry. METHODS: We conducted a pooled case-control analysis of U.S. Latinas and Latin-American women (4,658 cases, 7,622 controls). We constructed a 180-SNP PRS consisting of SNPs associated with breast cancer risk (p < 5 x 10-8). We evaluated the association between the PRS and breast cancer risk using multivariable logistic regression and assessed discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). We also assessed PRS performance across quartiles of Indigenous American genetic ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of 180 SNPs tested, 142 showed directionally consistent associations compared with European populations, and 39 were nominally statistically significant (p < 0.05). The PRS was associated with breast cancer risk, with an odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation increment of 1.58 (95% CI 1.52 to 1.64) and AUCROC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.64). The discrimination of the PRS was similar between the top and bottom quartiles of Indigenous American ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: The 180-SNP PRS predicts breast cancer risk in Latinas, with similar performance as reported for Europeans. The performance of the PRS did not vary substantially according to Indigenous American ancestry.

11.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 317, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488079

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that Table 4 was incorrectly presented. The revised and corrected version is shown below.

12.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-10, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate health care systems for the availability of population-level data on the frequency of use and results of clinical molecular marker tests to inform precision cancer care. METHODS: We assessed cancer-related molecular marker test data availability across 12 US health care systems in the Cancer Research Network. Overall, these systems provide care to a diverse population of more than 12 million people in the United States. We performed qualitative analyses of test data availability for five blood-based protein, nine germline, and 14 tissue-based tumor marker tests in each health care system's electronic health record and tumor registry using key informants, test code lists, and manual review of data types and output. We then performed quantitative analyses to estimate the proportion of patients with cancer with test utilization data and results for specific molecular marker tests. RESULTS: Health systems were able to systematically capture population-level data on all five blood protein markers, six of 14 tissue-based tumor markers, and none of the nine germline markers. Successful, systematic data capture was achievable for tests with electronic data feeds for test results (blood protein markers) or through prior manual abstraction by tumor registrars (select tumor-based markers). For test results stored in scanned image files (particularly germline and tumor marker tests), information on which test was performed and test results was not readily accessible in an electronic format. CONCLUSION: Even in health care systems with sophisticated electronic health records, there were few codified data elements available for evaluating precision cancer medicine test use and results at the population level. Health care organizations should establish standards for electronic reporting of precision medicine tests to expedite cancer research and facilitate the implementation of precision medicine approaches.

13.
JAMA ; 322(9): 843-856, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479136

RESUMO

Importance: Medical imaging increased rapidly from 2000 to 2006, but trends in recent years have not been analyzed. Objective: To evaluate recent trends in medical imaging. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of patterns of medical imaging between 2000 and 2016 among 16 million to 21 million patients enrolled annually in 7 US integrated and mixed-model insurance health care systems and for individuals receiving care in Ontario, Canada. Exposures: Calendar year and country (United States vs Canada). Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine imaging. Annual and relative imaging rates by imaging modality, country, and age (children [<18 years], adults [18-64 years], and older adults [≥65 years]). Results: Overall, 135 774 532 imaging examinations were included; 5 439 874 (4%) in children, 89 635 312 (66%) in adults, and 40 699 346 (30%) in older adults. Among adults and older adults, imaging rates were significantly higher in 2016 vs 2000 for all imaging modalities other than nuclear medicine. For example, among older adults, CT imaging rates were 428 per 1000 person-years in 2016 vs 204 per 1000 in 2000 in US health care systems and 409 per 1000 vs 161 per 1000 in Ontario; for MRI, 139 per 1000 vs 62 per 1000 in the United States and 89 per 1000 vs 13 per 1000 in Ontario; and for ultrasound, 495 per 1000 vs 324 per 1000 in the United States and 580 per 1000 vs 332 per 1000 in Ontario. Annual growth in imaging rates among US adults and older adults slowed over time for CT (from an 11.6% annual percentage increase among adults and 9.5% among older adults in 2000-2006 to 3.7% among adults in 2013-2016 and 5.2% among older adults in 2014-2016) and for MRI (from 11.4% in 2000-2004 in adults and 11.3% in 2000-2005 in older adults to 1.3% in 2007-2016 in adults and 2.2% in 2005-2016 in older adults). Patterns in Ontario were similar. Among children, annual growth for CT stabilized or declined (United States: from 10.1% in 2000-2005 to 0.8% in 2013-2016; Ontario: from 3.3% in 2000-2006 to -5.3% in 2006-2016), but patterns for MRI were similar to adults. Changes in annual growth in ultrasound were smaller among adults and children in the United States and Ontario compared with CT and MRI. Nuclear medicine imaging declined in adults and children after 2006. Conclusions and Relevance: From 2000 to 2016 in 7 US integrated and mixed-model health care systems and in Ontario, rates of CT and MRI use continued to increase among adults, but at a slower pace in more recent years. In children, imaging rates continued to increase except for CT, which stabilized or declined in more recent periods. Whether the observed imaging utilization was appropriate or was associated with improved patient outcomes is unknown.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/tendências , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Diagnóstico por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Cintilografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cintilografia/tendências , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Res ; 176: 108551, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at female puberty is associated with adult morbidities, including breast cancer and diabetes. Hormonally active chemicals are suspected of altering pubertal timing. We examined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are associated with age at menarche in a longitudinal study. METHODS: We analyzed data for females enrolled at age 6-8 years in the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program from California and Ohio. Participants were followed annually 2004-2013 and provided serum (mean age 7.8 years) for measurement of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), organochlorine pesticide (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations. Age of menarche was assigned based on parental and participant reported dates and ages of menarche. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for menarchal onset were calculated with Cox proportional regression. Body mass index (BMI), potentially on the causal pathway, was added to parallel analyses. RESULTS: Age of menarche was later with higher summed PCB levels (median 11.9 years in quartile 1 [Q1] versus 12.7 in quartile 4 [Q4]) and OCP levels (12.1 years versus 12.4, respectively). When adjusting for all covariates except BMI, higher POP concentrations were associated with later age at menarche (Q4 versus Q1 aHRs: PBDEs 0.75 [95% CI 0.58, 0.97], PCBs 0.67 [95% CI 0.5, 0.89], and OCPs 0.66 [95% CI 0.50, 0.89]). Additional adjustment for BMI attenuated aHRs; PCB aHR approached the null. CONCLUSION: Findings revealed later onset of menarche with higher concentrations of certain POPs, possibly through an association with BMI. Altered pubertal timing may have long lasting effects on reproductive health and disease risk, so continued attention is important for understanding the biological processes affected by hormonally active chemicals.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Menarca , Bifenilos Policlorados , Adulto , California , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ohio
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 277, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early puberty is associated with higher risk of adverse health and behavioral outcomes throughout adolescence and adulthood. US girls are experiencing earlier puberty with substantial racial/ethnic differences. We examined the association between breastfeeding and pubertal timing to identify modifiable risk factors of early puberty and potential sources of racial/ethnic differences in the timing of pubertal development. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 3331 racially/ethnically diverse girls born at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) between 2004 and 06. All data were obtained from KPNC electronic clinical and administrative datasets. Mother-reported duration of breastfeeding was obtained from questionnaires administered at each 'well-baby' check-up exam throughout the baby's first year and categorized as 'Not breastfed', 'Breastfed < 6 months', and 'Breastfed ≥ 6 months'. Pubertal development data used Tanner stages assessed by pediatricians during routine pediatric checkups starting at age 6. Pubertal onset was defined as transition from Tanner Stage 1 to Tanner Stage 2+ for breast (thelarche) and pubic hair (pubarche). Weibull regression models accommodating for left, right, and interval censoring were used in all analyses. Models were adjusted for maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, parity and prepubertal body mass index (BMI). We also examined race/ethnicity as a potential effect modifier of these associations. RESULTS: Not breastfeeding was associated with earlier onset of breast and pubic hair development compared to breastfeeding ≥6 months (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.46; HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.05-1.46, respectively). Breastfeeding for < 6 months was also associated with the risk of earlier pubic hair development (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.30, compared to breastfeeding ≥6 months). Inclusion of girls' prepubertal BMI slightly attenuated the association between breastfeeding and timing of breast onset but remained significant. The association between not breastfeeding and early breast development may be stronger among African American girls (HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.01-3.66, no breastfeeding vs. ≥6 months) than other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding is an independent predictor of pubertal onset in girls, and the strength of the association may vary by race/ethnicity. Providing breastfeeding support and lactation education for high risk mothers may help prevent earlier pubertal onset and promote positive health outcomes later in life.

16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e197249, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339541

RESUMO

Importance: The use of medical imaging has sharply increased over the last 2 decades. Imaging rates during pregnancy have not been quantified in a large, multisite study setting. Objective: To evaluate patterns of medical imaging during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 US integrated health care systems and in Ontario, Canada. Participants included pregnant women who gave birth to a live neonate of at least 24 weeks' gestation between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2016, and who were enrolled in the health care system for the entire pregnancy. Exposures: Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, conventional radiography, angiography and fluoroscopy, and nuclear medicine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Imaging rates per pregnancy stratified by country and year of child's birth. Results: A total of 3 497 603 pregnancies in 2 211 789 women were included. Overall, 26% of pregnancies were from US sites. Most (92%) were in women aged 20 to 39 years, and 85% resulted in full-term births. Computed tomography imaging rates in the United States increased from 2.0 examinations/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 11.4/1000 pregnancies in 2007, remained stable through 2010, and decreased to 9.3/1000 pregnancies by 2016, for an overall increase of 3.7-fold. Computed tomography rates in Ontario, Canada, increased more gradually by 2.0-fold, from 2.0/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 6.2/1000 pregnancies in 2016, which was 33% lower than in the United States. Overall, 5.3% of pregnant women in US sites and 3.6% in Ontario underwent imaging with ionizing radiation, and 0.8% of women at US sites and 0.4% in Ontario underwent CT. Magnetic resonance imaging rates increased steadily from 1.0/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 11.9/1000 pregnancies in 2016 in the United States and from 0.5/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 9.8/1000 pregnancies in 2016 in Ontario, surpassing CT rates in 2013 in the United States and in 2007 in Ontario. In the United States, radiography rates doubled from 34.5/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 72.6/1000 pregnancies in 1999 and then decreased to 47.6/1000 pregnancies in 2016; rates in Ontario slowly increased from 36.2/1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 44.7/1000 pregnancies in 2016. Angiography and fluoroscopy and nuclear medicine use rates were low (5.2/1000 pregnancies), but in most years, higher in Ontario than the United States. Imaging rates were highest for women who were younger than 20 years or aged 40 years or older, gave birth preterm, or were black, Native American, or Hispanic (US data only). Considering advanced imaging only, chest imaging of pregnant women was more likely to use CT in the United States and nuclear medicine imaging in Ontario. Conclusions and Relevance: The use of CT during pregnancy substantially increased in the United States and Ontario over the past 2 decades. Imaging rates during pregnancy should be monitored to avoid unnecessary exposure of women and fetuses to ionizing radiation.

18.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 19(4): 225-235.e2, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: GATA3 is a critical transcription factor in maintaining the differentiated state of luminal mammary epithelial cells. We sought to determine the prognostic and predictive roles of GATA3 genotypes for breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 2 breast cancer cohorts, including the SWOG S8897 trial where patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (CAF [cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil] vs. CMF [cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil]) or untreated, and the observational Pathways Study. RESULTS: In the S8897 trial, rs3802604 and rs568727 were associated with disease-free survival and overall survival in the treated group, regardless of chemotherapy regimen. The GG genotype of rs3802604 conferred poorer overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.05) and disease-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.99) compared with the AA genotype. Similar associations were found for rs568727. In contrast, no association with either SNP was found in the untreated group. Subgroup analyses indicated that these 2 SNPs more strongly influenced outcomes in the patients who also received tamoxifen. However, the associations in the subgroup with tamoxifen treatment were not replicated in the Pathways Study, possibly owing to substantial differences between the 2 patient cohorts, such as chemotherapy regimen and length of follow-up. Results from joint analyses across these 2 cohorts were marginally significant, driven by the results in S8897. Bioinformatic analyses support potential functional disruption of the GATA3 SNPs in breast tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides some evidence for the predictive value of GATA3 genotypes for breast cancer adjuvant therapies. Future replication studies in appropriate patient populations are warranted.

19.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 7(1): 7, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972356

RESUMO

The Cancer Research Network (CRN) is a consortium of 12 research groups, each affiliated with a nonprofit integrated health care delivery system, that was first funded in 1998. The overall goal of the CRN is to support and facilitate collaborative cancer research within its component delivery systems. This paper describes the CRN's 20-year experience and evolution. The network combined its members' scientific capabilities and data resources to create an infrastructure that has ultimately supported over 275 projects. Insights about the strengths and limitations of electronic health data for research, approaches to optimizing multidisciplinary collaboration, and the role of a health services research infrastructure to complement traditional clinical trials and large observational datasets are described, along with recommendations for other research consortia.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 996-999, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about factors associated with long-term survival (LTS) following a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) to explore predictors of LTS (defined as ≥7 years of survival) using electronic medical record data from a network of integrated health care systems. Multivariable logistic regression with forward selection was used to compare characteristics of women who survived ≥7 years after diagnosis (n = 148) to those who died within 7 years of diagnosis (n = 494). RESULTS: Our final model included study site, age, stage at diagnosis, CA-125, comorbidity score, receipt of chemotherapy, BMI, and four separate comorbid conditions: weight loss, depression, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Of these, only younger age, lower stage, and depression were statistically significantly associated with LTS. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any new characteristics associated with HGSOC survival. IMPACT: Prognosis of ovarian cancer generally remains poor. Large, pooled studies of ovarian cancer are needed to identify characteristics that may improve survival.

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