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1.
Trauma Case Rep ; 37: 100586, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35005163

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) is a sensitive and specific test for thoracic aortic injury, and is the choice of diagnostic test for adult patients. However, the diagnostic accuracy of conventional CT in pediatric patients has not been elucidated, and the diagnostic strategy has not been clarified. We present the case of an eight-year-old patient who had a thoracic injury, with left open pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, and multiple left-sided rib fractures. Although the findings on conventional CT were insufficient either to diagnose or deny as having thoracic aortic injury, additional examination using electrocardiogram-gated CT angiography and three-dimensional reconstruction revealed a localized enlarged aortic diameter with an intimal flap. Electrocardiogram-gated CT may be useful for diagnosing thoracic aortic injury in pediatric patients.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 767637, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869481

RESUMO

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-associated coagulopathy is a widely recognized risk factor for secondary brain damage and contributes to poor clinical outcomes. Various theories, including disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), have been proposed regarding its pathomechanisms; no consensus has been reached thus far. This study aimed to elucidate the pathophysiology of TBI-induced coagulopathy by comparing coagulofibrinolytic changes in isolated TBI (iTBI) to those in non-TBI, to determine the associated factors, and identify the clinical significance of DIC diagnosis in patients with iTBI. Methods: This secondary multicenter, prospective study assessed patients with severe trauma. iTBI was defined as Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores ≥4 in the head and neck, and ≤2 in other body parts. Non-TBI was defined as AIS scores ≥4 in single body parts other than the head and neck, and the absence of AIS scores ≥3 in any other trauma-affected parts. Specific biomarkers for thrombin and plasmin generation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis inhibition were measured at the presentation to the emergency department (0 h) and 3 h after arrival. Results: We analyzed 34 iTBI and 40 non-TBI patients. Baseline characteristics, transfusion requirements and in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ between groups. The changes in coagulation/fibrinolysis-related biomarkers were similar. Lactate levels in the iTBI group positively correlated with DIC scores (rho = -0.441, p = 0.017), but not with blood pressure (rho = -0.098, p = 0.614). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the injury severity score was an independent predictor of DIC development in patients with iTBI (odds ratio = 1.237, p = 0.018). Patients with iTBI were further subdivided into two groups: DIC (n = 15) and non-DIC (n = 19) groups. Marked thrombin and plasmin generation were observed in all patients with iTBI, especially those with DIC. Patients with iTBI and DIC had higher requirements for massive transfusion and emergency surgery, and higher in-hospital mortality than those without DIC. Furthermore, DIC development significantly correlated with poor hospital survival; DIC scores at 0 h were predictive of in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Coagulofibrinolytic changes in iTBI and non-TBI patients were identical, and consistent with the pathophysiology of DIC. DIC diagnosis in the early phase of TBI is key in predicting the outcomes of severe TBI.

4.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e706, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815889

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide since early 2020, and there are still no signs of resolution. The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock (J-SSCG) 2020 Special Committee created the Japanese rapid/living recommendations on drug management for COVID-19 using the experience of creating the J-SSCG. Methods: The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to determine the certainty of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. The first edition of this guideline was released on September 9, 2020, and this document is the revised edition (version 4.0; released on September 9, 2021). Clinical questions (CQs) were set for the following seven drugs: favipiravir (CQ1), remdesivir (CQ2), corticosteroids (CQ4), tocilizumab (CQ5), anticoagulants (CQ7), baricitinib (CQ8), and casirivimab/imdevimab (CQ9). Two CQs (hydroxychloroquine [CQ3] and ciclesonide [CQ6]) were retrieved in this updated version. Recommendations: Favipiravir is not suggested for all patients with COVID-19 (GRADE 2C). Remdesivir is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Corticosteroids are recommended for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 1B) and for patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation/intensive care (GRADE 1A); however, their administration is not recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B). Tocilizumab is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2B). Anticoagulant administration is recommended for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization and patients with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation/intensive care (good practice statement). Baricitinib is suggested for patients with moderate COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen/hospitalization (GRADE 2C). Casirivimab/imdevimab is recommended for patients with mild COVID-19 not requiring supplemental oxygen (GRADE 1B). We hope that these updated clinical practice guidelines will help medical professionals involved in the care of patients with COVID-19.

5.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(3): 239-246, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803121

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains a global public health concern in 2021. However, the risk of attending schools during the pandemic remains unevaluated. This study estimated the secondary transmission rate at schools using the results of a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) screening test performed between July 2020 and April 2021, before starting the nationwide mass vaccination. A total of 1,924 students (20 RT-PCR-positive; 1.0%) from 52 schools or preschools were evaluated, together with 1,379 non-adults (95 RT-PCR-positive; 6.9%) exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in non-school environments. Assuming that the infectious index cases were asymptomatic and the transmission at schools followed a Bernoulli process, we estimated the probability of transmission after each contact at school as approximately 0.005 (0.5% per contact) with the current infection prevention measures at schools in Japan (i.e., hand hygiene, physical distancing, wearing masks, and effective ventilation). Furthermore, assuming that all children are capable of carrying the infection, then contact between an index case and 20-30 students per day at schools would yield the expected value for secondary cases of ≥ 1.0, during the 10 days of the infectious period. In conclusion, with the current infection prevention measures at schools in Japan, secondary transmission at schools would occur in approximately every 200 contacts. When considering this rate, compliance with the current infection prevention measures at schools and early detection and quarantine of the index cases would be effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19 at schools.

6.
No Shinkei Geka ; 49(5): 955-963, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615755

RESUMO

The main objectives of critical care of severe traumatic brain injury(TBI)are the prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain insults, preservation of cerebral perfusion pressure, and optimization of cerebral oxygenation. The critical care management of severe TBI will be discussed with a focus on the monitoring and avoidance or minimization of secondary brain insults, with emphasis on understanding the underlying physiology and pathophysiology. The evolution of critical care of severe traumatic brain injury will also be discussed along with the accumulating knowledge and experience.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Humanos
7.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e659, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484801

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members. As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

8.
J Intensive Care ; 9(1): 53, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433491

RESUMO

The Japanese Clinical Practice Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2020 (J-SSCG 2020), a Japanese-specific set of clinical practice guidelines for sepsis and septic shock created as revised from J-SSCG 2016 jointly by the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, was first released in September 2020 and published in February 2021. An English-language version of these guidelines was created based on the contents of the original Japanese-language version. The purpose of this guideline is to assist medical staff in making appropriate decisions to improve the prognosis of patients undergoing treatment for sepsis and septic shock. We aimed to provide high-quality guidelines that are easy to use and understand for specialists, general clinicians, and multidisciplinary medical professionals. J-SSCG 2016 took up new subjects that were not present in SSCG 2016 (e.g., ICU-acquired weakness [ICU-AW], post-intensive care syndrome [PICS], and body temperature management). The J-SSCG 2020 covered a total of 22 areas with four additional new areas (patient- and family-centered care, sepsis treatment system, neuro-intensive treatment, and stress ulcers). A total of 118 important clinical issues (clinical questions, CQs) were extracted regardless of the presence or absence of evidence. These CQs also include those that have been given particular focus within Japan. This is a large-scale guideline covering multiple fields; thus, in addition to the 25 committee members, we had the participation and support of a total of 226 members who are professionals (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, clinical engineers, and pharmacists) and medical workers with a history of sepsis or critical illness. The GRADE method was adopted for making recommendations, and the modified Delphi method was used to determine recommendations by voting from all committee members.As a result, 79 GRADE-based recommendations, 5 Good Practice Statements (GPS), 18 expert consensuses, 27 answers to background questions (BQs), and summaries of definitions and diagnosis of sepsis were created as responses to 118 CQs. We also incorporated visual information for each CQ according to the time course of treatment, and we will also distribute this as an app. The J-SSCG 2020 is expected to be widely used as a useful bedside guideline in the field of sepsis treatment both in Japan and overseas involving multiple disciplines.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264977

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the value of quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) combined with other risk factors in predicting in-hospital mortality in patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected infection. This post-hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter study dataset included 34 emergency departments across Japan (December 2017 to February 2018). We included adult patients (age ≥16 years) who presented to the emergency department with suspected infection. qSOFA was calculated and recorded by senior emergency physicians when they suspected an infection. Different types of sepsis-related risk factors (demographic, functional, and laboratory values) were chosen from prior studies. A logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive value of qSOFA for in-hospital mortality in models based on the following combination of predictors: 1) qSOFA-Only; 2) qSOFA+Age; 3) qSOFA+Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS); 4) qSOFA+Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI); 5) qSOFA+lactate levels; 6) qSOFA+Age+CCI+CFS+lactate levels. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and other key clinical statistics at Youden's index, where the sum of sensitivity and specificity is maximized. Following prior literature, an AUC >0.9 was deemed to indicate high accuracy; 0.7-0.9, moderate accuracy; 0.5-0.7, low accuracy; and 0.5, a chance result. Of the 951 patients included in the analysis, 151 (15.9%) died during hospitalization. The AUC for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.627 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.580-0.673) for the qSOFA-Only model. Addition of other variables only marginally improved the model's AUC; the model that included all potentially relevant variables yielded an AUC of only 0.730 (95% CI: 0.687-0.774). Other key statistic values were similar among all models, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.55-0.65 and 0.60-0.75, respectively. In this post-hoc data analysis from a prospective multicenter study based in Japan, combining qSOFA with other sepsis-related risk factors only marginally improved the model's predictive value.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sepse/mortalidade
10.
Intern Med ; 60(18): 2905-2910, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248118

RESUMO

Objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains the world's largest public health concern in 2021. A history of close contact with infectious patients is a factor that predicts a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Meanwhile, the precise predictive value of symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to clarify the predictive and discriminatory value of each clinical symptom suggestive of COVID-19. Methods This study enrolled participants who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using a nasopharyngeal swab between November 2020 and January 2021. All enrolled patients were evaluated for data regarding the presence and closeness of contact with infectious patients and comprehensive clinical features (i.e., fever, cough, dyspnea, fatigue, dysosmia, and dysgeusia). Results Among the 1,744 tested participants, 144 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the test-positive group, self-reported cough, fatigue, dysosmia, and dysgeusia were significant predictors of COVID-19, independent from a history of close contact. In particular, the presence of dysosmia was the strongest predictor of COVID-19 in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the 42 patients with self-reported dysosmia, 25 (59.5%) were SARS-CoV-2 test-positive. Self-reported dysosmia was reported by 25 (17.4%) of the 144 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 15 (60.0%) of the 25 COVID-19 patients with dysosmia had accompanying dysgeusia. Conclusion The presence of dysosmia was reported by 10-25% of patients with COVID-19, and is a significant predictor of COVID-19 infection, independent from a history of close contact.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Disgeusia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato
11.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(4): 285-291, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical frailty scale (CFS) score has been validated as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people. Older people are at a higher risk of sepsis and have a higher mortality rate. However, the association of frailty on outcomes in patients with sepsis has not been completely examined. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the association between CFS and outcomes in patients with sepsis. DESIGN: This was a multicenter prospective cohort substudy. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included 37 emergency departments from across Japan. The patients (age ≥16 years) were included in this study if they had suspected infection at an emergency department during December 2017-February 2018. OUTCOME MEASURE AND ANALYSIS: The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, stratified by the CFS score categories. The secondary outcomes were the duration of hospital stay, number of ICU-free days (ICUFDs) and number of ventilator-free days (VFDs). MAIN RESULTS: A total of 917 patients were included. The median age was 79 years. The CFS score was associated with an increased risk of 28-day mortality and with a higher likelihood of long-term hospital stay and short-term VFDs and ICUFDs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the CFS score was a predictor of 28-day mortality [odds ratio (OR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.42]. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported that in patients with suspected sepsis in the emergency department, frailty may be associated with poor prognosis and length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Adolescente , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11616, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079047

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the world's largest public health concern. This study evaluated COVID-19 transmission risks in people in group living environments. A total of 4550 individuals with a history of recent contact with patients at different places (dormitory/home/outside the residences) and levels (close/lower-risk) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA using a nasopharyngeal swab test between July 2020 and May 2021. The test-positive rate was highest in individuals who had contact in dormitories (27.5%), but the rates were largely different between dormitories with different infrastructural or lifestyle features and infection control measures among residents. With appropriate infection control measures, the secondary transmission risk in dormitories was adequately suppressed. The household transmission rate (12.6%) was as high as that of close contact outside the residences (11.3%) and accounted for > 60% of the current rate of COVID-19 transmission among non-adults. Household transmission rates synchronized to local epidemics with changed local capacity of quarantining infectious patients. In conclusion, a group living environment is a significant risk factor of secondary transmission. Appropriate infection control measures and quarantine of infectious residents will decrease the risk of secondary transmission in group living environments.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Características da Família , Feminino , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252955, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distribution of body mass in populations of Western countries differs from that of populations of East Asian countries. In East Asian countries, fewer people have a high body mass index than those in Western countries. In Japan, the country with the highest number of older adults worldwide, many people have a low body mass index. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between a low body mass index and mortality in patients with sepsis in Japan. METHODS: We conducted this retrospective analysis of 548 patients with severe sepsis from a multicenter prospective observational study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses determined the association between body mass index and 28-day mortality adjusted for age, sex, pre-existing conditions, the occurrence of septic shock, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores. Furthermore, the association between a low body mass index and 28-day mortality was analyzed. RESULTS: The low body mass index group represented 18.8% of the study population (103/548); the normal body mass index group, 57.3% (314/548); and the high body mass index group, 23.9% (131/548), with the 28-day mortality rates being 21.4% (22/103), 11.2% (35/314), and 14.5% (19/131), respectively. In the low body mass index group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 28-day mortality relative to the non-low body mass index (normal and high body mass index groups combined) group were 2.0 (1.1-3.4) and 2.3 (1.2-4.2), respectively. CONCLUSION: A low body mass index was found to be associated with a higher 28-day mortality than the non-low body mass index in patients with sepsis in Japan. Given that older adults often have a low body mass index, these patients should be monitored closely to reduce the occurrence of negative outcomes.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Sepse/mortalidade , Magreza/mortalidade , Perda de Peso , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 254(2): 89-100, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162780

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the world's largest public health concern in 2021. This study evaluated the associations of the prevalence of airway symptoms among the tested individuals and data regarding the natural environmental factors with the weekly number of newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients in Sendai City (Nt). For the derivatives of the screening test results, data from individuals with a contact history who underwent nasopharyngeal swab reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing between July 2020 and April 2021 (6,156 participants, including 550 test-positive patients) were used. The value of Nt correlated with the weekly RT-PCR test-positive rate after close contact, prevalence of cough symptoms in test-positive individuals or in test-negative individuals, lower air temperature, lower air humidity, and higher wind speed. The weekly test-positive rate correlated with lower air humidity and higher wind speed. In cross-correlation analyses, natural environmental factors correlated with the regional epidemic status on a scale of months, whereas the airway symptoms among non-COVID-19 population affected on a scale of weeks. When applying an autoregression model to the serial data of Nt, large-scale movements of people were suggested to be another factor to influence the local epidemics on a scale of days. In conclusion, the prevalence of cough symptoms in the local population, lower air humidity or higher wind speed, and large-scale movements of people in the locality would jointly influence the local epidemic status of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Meio Ambiente , Epidemias , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26132, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032762

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine the association between the intensive care unit (ICU) model and in-hospital mortality of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective observational study conducted in 59 ICUs in Japan from January 2016 to March 2017. We included adult patients (aged ≥16 years) with severe sepsis and septic shock based on the sepsis-2 criteria who were admitted to an ICU with a 1:2 nurse-to-patient ratio per shift. Patients were categorized into open or closed ICU groups, according to the ICU model. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.A total of 1018 patients from 45 ICUs were included in this study. Patients in the closed ICU group had a higher severity score and higher organ failure incidence than those in the open ICU group. The compliance rate for the sepsis care 3-h bundle was higher in the closed ICU group than in the open ICU group. In-hospital mortality was not significantly different between the closed and open ICU groups in a multilevel logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval; 0.52-1.32, P = .43) and propensity score matching analysis (closed ICU, 21.2%; open ICU, 25.7%, P = .22).In-hospital mortality between the closed and open ICU groups was not significantly different after adjusting for ICU structure and compliance with the sepsis care bundle.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Sepse/mortalidade , Sepse/terapia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11031, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34040091

RESUMO

Trauma patients die from massive bleeding due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype in the early phase, which transforms to DIC with a thrombotic phenotype in the late phase of trauma, contributing to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and a consequently poor outcome. This is a sub-analysis of a multicenter prospective descriptive cross-sectional study on DIC to evaluate the effect of a DIC diagnosis on the survival probability and predictive performance of DIC scores for massive transfusion, MODS, and hospital death in severely injured trauma patients. A DIC diagnosis on admission was associated with a lower survival probability (Log Rank P < 0.001), higher frequency of massive transfusion and MODS and a higher mortality rate than no such diagnosis. The DIC scores at 0 and 3 h significantly predicted massive transfusion, MODS, and hospital death. Markers of thrombin and plasmin generation and fibrinolysis inhibition also showed a good predictive ability for these three items. In conclusion, a DIC diagnosis on admission was associated with a low survival probability. DIC scores obtained immediately after trauma predicted a poor prognosis of severely injured trauma patients.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada , Coagulação Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Fibrinólise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
17.
Shock ; 56(4): 507-513, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978606

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Glycemic control strategies for sepsis have changed significantly over the last decade, but their impact on dysglycemia and its associated outcomes has been poorly understood. In addition, there is controversy regarding the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia in sepsis. To evaluate the incidence and risks of dysglycemia under current strategy, we conducted a preplanned subanalysis of the sepsis cohort in a prospective, multicenter FORECAST study. A total of 1,140 patients with severe sepsis, including 259 patients with pre-existing diabetes, were included. Median blood glucose levels were approximately 140 mg/dL at 0 and 72 h indicating that blood glucose was moderately controlled. The rate of initial and late hyperglycemia was 27.3% and 21.7%, respectively. The rate of early hypoglycemic episodes during the initial 24 h was 13.2%. Glycemic control was accompanied by a higher percentage of initial and late hyperglycemia but not with early hypoglycemic episodes, suggesting that glycemic control was targeted at excess hyperglycemia. In nondiabetic patients, late hyperglycemia (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval; P value: 1.816, 1.116-2.955, 0.016) and early hypoglycemic episodes (1.936, 1.180-3.175, 0.009) were positively associated with in-hospital mortality. Further subgroup analysis suggested that late hyperglycemia and early hypoglycemic episodes independently, and probably synergistically, affect the outcomes. In diabetic patients, however, these correlations were not observed. In conclusion, a significantly high incidence of dysglycemia was observed in our sepsis cohort under moderate glycemic control. Late hyperglycemia in addition to early hypoglycemia was associated with poor outcomes at least in nondiabetic patients. More sophisticated approaches are necessary to reduce the incidence of these serious complications.

18.
Acute Med Surg ; 8(1): e647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968411

RESUMO

Aim: A lack of known guidelines for the provision of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) to patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has led to variability in practice between hospitals even in the same country. Because variability in ECPR practice has not been completely examined, we aimed to describe the variability in ECPR practice in patients with OHCA from the emergency department (ED) to the intensive care units (ICU). Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire to examine variability in ECPR practice was completed in January 2020 by 36 medical institutions who participated in the SAVE-J II study. Institutional demographics, inclusion and exclusion criteria, initial resuscitation management, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) initiation, initial ECMO management, intra-aortic balloon pumping/endotracheal intubation/management during coronary angiography, and computed tomography criteria were recorded. Results: We received responses from all 36 institutions. Four institutions (11.1%) had a hybrid emergency room. Cardiovascular surgery was always involved throughout the entire ECMO process in only 14.7% of institutions; 60% of institutions had formal inclusion criteria and 50% had formal exclusion criteria. In two-thirds of institutions, emergency physicians carried out cannulation. Catheterization room was the leading location of cannulation (48.6%) followed by ED (31.4%). The presence of formal exclusion criteria significantly increased with increasing ECPR volume (P for trend <0.001). Intra-aortic balloon pumping was routinely initiated in only 25% of institutions. Computed tomography was routinely carried out before coronary angiography in 25% of institutions. Conclusions: We described the variability in ECPR practice in patients with OHCA from the ED to the ICU.

19.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 623582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869173

RESUMO

In diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, the morbidity of infectious disease is increased, and these infections can easily progress from local to systemic infection. Sepsis is a characteristic of organ failure related to microcirculation disorders resulting from endothelial cell injury, whose most frequent comorbidity in patients is DM. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of infection on DM-induced microvascular damage on inflammation and pulmonary endothelial structure using an experimental endotoxemia model. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 15 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into 10-week-old male C57BLKS/J Iar- + lepr db /lepr db (db/db) mice and into C57BLKS/J Iar-m + / + lepr db (db/ +) mice, which served as the littermate non-diabetic control. At 48 h after LPS administration, the survival rate of db/db mice (0%, 0/10) was markedly lower (P < 0.05) than that of the db/ + mice (75%, 18/24), whereas the survival rate was 100% in both groups 24 h after LPS administration. In control mice, CD11b-positive cells increased at 6 h after LPS administration; by comparison, the number of CD11b-positive cells increased gradually in db/db mice until 12 h after LPS injection. In the control group, the number of Iba-1-positive cells did not significantly increase before and at 6, 12, and 24 h after LPS injection. Conversely, Iba-1-positive cells continued to increase until 24 h after LPS administration, and this increase was significantly greater than that in the control mice. Expression of Ext1, Csgalnact1, and Vcan related to endothelial glycocalyx synthesis was significantly lower in db/db mice than in the control mice before LPS administration, indicating that endothelial glycocalyx synthesis is attenuated in db/db/mice. In addition, ultrastructural analysis revealed that endothelial glycocalyx was thinner in db/db mice before LPS injection. In conclusion, in db/db mice, the endothelial glycocalyx is already injured before LPS administration, and migration of inflammatory cells is both delayed and expanded. This extended inflammation may be involved in endothelial glycocalyx damage due to the attenuation of endothelial glycocalyx synthesis.

20.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 19, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information on hyperoxemia among patients with trauma has been limited, other than traumatic brain injuries. This study aimed to elucidate whether hyperoxemia during resuscitation of patients with trauma was associated with unfavorable outcomes. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of a prospective observational study was carried out at 39 tertiary hospitals in 2016-2018 in adult patients with trauma and injury severity score (ISS) of > 15. Hyperoxemia during resuscitation was defined as PaO2 of ≥ 300 mmHg on hospital arrival and/or 3 h after arrival. Intensive care unit (ICU)-free days were compared between patients with and without hyperoxemia. An inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPW) analysis was conducted to adjust patient characteristics including age, injury mechanism, comorbidities, vital signs on presentation, chest injury severity, and ISS. Analyses were stratified with intubation status at the emergency department (ED). The association between biomarkers and ICU length of stay were then analyzed with multivariate models. RESULTS: Among 295 severely injured trauma patients registered, 240 were eligible for analysis. Patients in the hyperoxemia group (n = 58) had shorter ICU-free days than those in the non-hyperoxemia group [17 (10-21) vs 23 (16-26), p < 0.001]. IPW analysis revealed the association between hyperoxemia and prolonged ICU stay among patients not intubated at the ED [ICU-free days = 16 (12-22) vs 23 (19-26), p = 0.004], but not among those intubated at the ED [18 (9-20) vs 15 (8-23), p = 0.777]. In the hyperoxemia group, high inflammatory markers such as soluble RAGE and HMGB-1, as well as low lung-protective proteins such as surfactant protein D and Clara cell secretory protein, were associated with prolonged ICU stay. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperoxemia until 3 h after hospital arrival was associated with prolonged ICU stay among severely injured trauma patients not intubated at the ED. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR, UMIN000019588 . Registered on November 15, 2015.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia/etiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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