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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594261

RESUMO

Decreased or increased activity of potassium channels caused by loss-of-function and gain-of-function (GOF) variants in the corresponding genes, respectively, underlies a broad spectrum of human disorders affecting the central nervous system, heart, kidney, and other organs. While the association of epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID) with variants affecting function in genes encoding potassium channels is well known, GOF missense variants in K+ channel encoding genes in individuals with syndromic developmental disorders have only recently been recognized. These syndromic phenotypes include Zimmermann-Laband and Temple-Baraitser syndromes, caused by dominant variants in KCNH1, FHEIG syndrome due to dominant variants in KCNK4, and the clinical picture associated with dominant variants in KCNN3. Here we review the presentation of these individuals, including five newly reported with variants in KCNH1 and three additional individuals with KCNN3 variants, all variants likely affecting function. There is notable overlap in the phenotypic findings of these syndromes associated with dominant KCNN3, KCNH1, and KCNK4 variants, sharing developmental delay and/or ID, coarse facial features, gingival enlargement, distal digital hypoplasia, and hypertrichosis. We suggest to combine the phenotypes and define a new subgroup of potassium channelopathies caused by increased K+ conductance, referred to as syndromic neurodevelopmental K+ channelopathies due to dominant variants in KCNH1, KCNK4, or KCNN3.

2.
Eur J Med Genet ; 64(3): 104161, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571691

RESUMO

Fibrillin-2, encoded by FBN2, plays an important role in the early process of elastic fiber assembly. To date, heterozygous pathogenic variants in FBN2 have been shown to cause congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA; Beals-Hecht syndrome). Classical CCA is characterized by long and slender fingers and toes, ear deformities, joint contractures at birth, clubfeet, muscular hypoplasia and often tall stature. In individuals with a severe CCA form, different cardiovascular or gastrointestinal anomalies have been described. Here, we report on a 15-year-old girl with a severe form of CCA and novel biallelic variants in FBN2. The girl inherited the missense variant c.3563G > T/p.(Gly1188Val) from her unaffected father and the nonsense variant c.6831C > A/p.(Cys2277*) from her healthy mother. We could detect only a small amount of FBN2 transcripts harboring the nonsense variant in leukocyte-derived mRNA from the patient and mother suggesting nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. As the father did not show any clinical signs of CCA we hypothesize the missense variant c.3563G > T to be a hypomorphic allele. Taken together, our data suggests that severe CCA can be inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner by compound heterozygosity of a hypomorphic and a null allele of the FBN2 gene.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 764, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436942

RESUMO

Marfan syndrome and related disorders are a group of heritable connective tissue disorders and share many clinical features that involve cardiovascular, skeletal, craniofacial, ocular, and cutaneous abnormalities. The majority of affected individuals have aortopathies associated with early mortality and morbidity. Implementation of targeted gene panel next-generation sequencing in these individuals is a powerful tool to obtain a genetic diagnosis. Here, we report on clinical and genetic spectrum of 53 families from India with a total of 83 patients who had a clinical diagnosis suggestive of Marfan syndrome or related disorders. We obtained a molecular diagnosis in 45/53 (85%) index patients, in which 36/53 (68%) had rare variants in FBN1 (Marfan syndrome; 63 patients in total), seven (13.3%) in TGFBR1/TGFBR2 (Loeys-Dietz syndrome; nine patients in total) and two patients (3.7%) in SKI (Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome). 21 of 41 rare variants (51.2%) were novel. We did not detect a disease-associated variant in 8 (15%) index patients, and none of them met the Ghent Marfan diagnostic criteria. We found the homozygous FBN1 variant p.(Arg954His) in a boy with typical features of Marfan syndrome. Our study is the first reporting on the spectrum of variants in FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and SKI in Indian individuals.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1044-1061, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159882

RESUMO

Heparan sulfate belongs to the group of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), highly sulfated linear polysaccharides. Heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase 1 (HS2ST1) is one of several specialized enzymes required for heparan sulfate synthesis and catalyzes the transfer of the sulfate groups to the sugar moiety of heparan sulfate. We report bi-allelic pathogenic variants in HS2ST1 in four individuals from three unrelated families. Affected individuals showed facial dysmorphism with coarse face, upslanted palpebral fissures, broad nasal tip, and wide mouth, developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, flexion contractures, brachydactyly of hands and feet with broad fingertips and toes, and uni- or bilateral renal agenesis in three individuals. HS2ST1 variants cause a reduction in HS2ST1 mRNA and decreased or absent heparan sulfate 2-O-sulfotransferase 1 in two of three fibroblast cell lines derived from affected individuals. The heparan sulfate synthesized by the individual 1 cell line lacks 2-O-sulfated domains but had an increase in N- and 6-O-sulfated domains demonstrating functional impairment of the HS2ST1. As heparan sulfate modulates FGF-mediated signaling, we found a significantly decreased activation of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 in FGF-2-stimulated cell lines of affected individuals that could be restored by addition of heparin, a GAG similar to heparan sulfate. Focal adhesions in FGF-2-stimulated fibroblasts of affected individuals concentrated at the cell periphery. Our data demonstrate that a heparan sulfate synthesis deficit causes a recognizable syndrome and emphasize a role for 2-O-sulfated heparan sulfate in human neuronal, skeletal, and renal development.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1062-1077, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217309

RESUMO

Dysfunction of the endolysosomal system is often associated with neurodegenerative disease because postmitotic neurons are particularly reliant on the elimination of intracellular aggregates. Adequate function of endosomes and lysosomes requires finely tuned luminal ion homeostasis and transmembrane ion fluxes. Endolysosomal CLC Cl-/H+ exchangers function as electric shunts for proton pumping and in luminal Cl- accumulation. We now report three unrelated children with severe neurodegenerative disease, who carry the same de novo c.1658A>G (p.Tyr553Cys) mutation in CLCN6, encoding the late endosomal Cl-/H+-exchanger ClC-6. Whereas Clcn6-/- mice have only mild neuronal lysosomal storage abnormalities, the affected individuals displayed severe developmental delay with pronounced generalized hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and variable neurodegeneration and diffusion restriction in cerebral peduncles, midbrain, and/or brainstem in MRI scans. The p.Tyr553Cys amino acid substitution strongly slowed ClC-6 gating and increased current amplitudes, particularly at the acidic pH of late endosomes. Transfection of ClC-6Tyr553Cys, but not ClC-6WT, generated giant LAMP1-positive vacuoles that were poorly acidified. Their generation strictly required ClC-6 ion transport, as shown by transport-deficient double mutants, and depended on Cl-/H+ exchange, as revealed by combination with the uncoupling p.Glu200Ala substitution. Transfection of either ClC-6Tyr553Cys/Glu200Ala or ClC-6Glu200Ala generated slightly enlarged vesicles, suggesting that p.Glu200Ala, previously associated with infantile spasms and microcephaly, is also pathogenic. Bafilomycin treatment abrogated vacuole generation, indicating that H+-driven Cl- accumulation osmotically drives vesicle enlargement. Our work establishes mutations in CLCN6 associated with neurological diseases, whose spectrum of clinical features depends on the differential impact of the allele on ClC-6 function.

6.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090494

RESUMO

Mutations in the X-linked gene coding for the calcium-/calmodulin dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) are associated with severe neurological disorders ranging from intellectual disability (in males) to mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH). CASK is involved in transcription control, in the regulation of trafficking of the postsynaptic NMDA and AMPA receptors, and acts as a presynaptic scaffolding protein. For CASK missense mutations it is mostly unclear which of CASK's molecular interactions and cellular functions are altered and contribute to patient phenotypes. We identified five CASK missense mutations in male patients affected by neurodevelopmental disorders. These and five previously reported mutations were systematically analyzed with respect to interaction with CASK interaction partners by coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation. We show that one mutation in the L27 domain interferes with binding to Sap97. Two mutations in the guanylate kinase (GK) domain affect binding of CASK to the nuclear factors CINAP and Tbr1. A total of five mutations in GK as well as PDZ domains affect binding of CASK to the presynaptic cell adhesion molecule Neurexin. Upon expression in neurons, we observe that binding to Neurexin is not required for presynaptic localization of CASK. We show by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay that Neurexin induces oligomerization of CASK, and that mutations in GK and PDZ domains interfere with the Neurexin-induced oligomerization of CASK. Our data are supported by molecular modelling, where we observe that the cooperative activity of PDZ, SH3 and GK domains is required for Neurexin binding and oligomerization of CASK.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(11): 2793-2796, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783269

RESUMO

Roberts syndrome (also known as Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder, characterized by pre- and postnatal growth retardation, limb malformations including bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or mesomelia, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Biallelic loss-of-function variants in ESCO2, which codes for establishment of sister chromatid cohesion N-acetyltransferase 2, cause Roberts syndrome. Phenotypic spectrum among patients is broad, challenging clinical diagnosis in mildly affected individuals. Here we report a 3-year-old boy with a mild phenotype of Roberts syndrome with bilateral elbow contractures, humeroradial synostosis, mild lower limb disparity, and facial dysmorphism. Trio whole-exome sequencing identified the novel biallelic splice variant c.1673+1G>A in ESCO2 in the patient. Aberrant ESCO2 pre-mRNA splicing, reduced relative ESCO2 mRNA amount, and characteristic cytogenetic defects, such as premature centromere separation, heterochromatin repulsion, and chromosome breaks, in patient cells strongly supported pathogenicity of the ESCO2 variant affecting one of the highly conserved guanine-thymine dinucleotide of the donor splice site. Our case highlights the difficulty in establishing a clinical diagnosis in individuals with minor clinical features of Roberts syndrome and normal intellectual and social development. However, next-generation sequencing tools allow for molecular diagnosis in cases presenting with mild developmental defects.

8.
Brain ; 143(8): 2437-2453, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761064

RESUMO

In pleiotropic diseases, multiple organ systems are affected causing a variety of clinical manifestations. Here, we report a pleiotropic disorder with a unique constellation of neurological, endocrine, exocrine, and haematological findings that is caused by biallelic MADD variants. MADD, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activating death domain protein, regulates various cellular functions, such as vesicle trafficking, activity of the Rab3 and Rab27 small GTPases, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced signalling and prevention of cell death. Through national collaboration and GeneMatcher, we collected 23 patients with 21 different pathogenic MADD variants identified by next-generation sequencing. We clinically evaluated the series of patients and categorized the phenotypes in two groups. Group 1 consists of 14 patients with severe developmental delay, endo- and exocrine dysfunction, impairment of the sensory and autonomic nervous system, and haematological anomalies. The clinical course during the first years of life can be potentially fatal. The nine patients in Group 2 have a predominant neurological phenotype comprising mild-to-severe developmental delay, hypotonia, speech impairment, and seizures. Analysis of mRNA revealed multiple aberrant MADD transcripts in two patient-derived fibroblast cell lines. Relative quantification of MADD mRNA and protein in fibroblasts of five affected individuals showed a drastic reduction or loss of MADD. We conducted functional tests to determine the impact of the variants on different pathways. Treatment of patient-derived fibroblasts with TNF-α resulted in reduced phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, enhanced activation of the pro-apoptotic enzymes caspase-3 and -7 and increased apoptosis compared to control cells. We analysed internalization of epidermal growth factor in patient cells and identified a defect in endocytosis of epidermal growth factor. We conclude that MADD deficiency underlies multiple cellular defects that can be attributed to alterations of TNF-α-dependent signalling pathways and defects in vesicular trafficking. Our data highlight the multifaceted role of MADD as a signalling molecule in different organs and reveal its physiological role in regulating the function of the sensory and autonomic nervous system and endo- and exocrine glands.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788663

RESUMO

RASopathies are caused by variants in genes encoding components or modulators of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Noonan syndrome is the most common entity among this group of disorders and is characterized by heart defects, short stature, variable developmental delay, and typical facial features. Heterozygous variants in SOS2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS, have recently been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome. The number of published cases with SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is still limited and little is known about genotype-phenotype correlations. We collected previously unpublished clinical and genotype data from 17 individuals carrying a disease-causing SOS2 variant. Most individuals had one of the previously reported dominant pathogenic variants; only four had novel changes at the established hotspots for variants that affect protein function. The overall phenotype of the 17 patients fits well into the spectrum of Noonan syndrome and is most similar to the phenotype observed in patients with SOS1-related Noonan syndrome, with ectodermal anomalies as common features and short stature and learning disabilities as relatively infrequent findings compared to the average Noonan syndrome phenotype. The spectrum of heart defects in SOS2-related Noonan syndrome was consistent with the known spectrum of cardiac anomalies in RASopathies, but no specific heart defect was particularly predominating. Notably, lymphatic anomalies were extraordinarily frequent, affecting more than half of the patients. We therefore conclude that SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is associated with a particularly high risk of lymphatic complications that may have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life.

10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(9): 103996, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622958

RESUMO

Cantú syndrome (CS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by a coarse facial appearance, macrocephaly, hypertrichosis, skeletal and cardiovascular anomalies and caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in ABCC9 and KCNJ8, encoding subunits of heterooctameric ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. CS shows considerable clinical overlap with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS), a rare condition with coarse facial features, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, intellectual disability of variable degree, and hypoplasia or aplasia of terminal phalanges and/or nails. ZLS is caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in KCNH1 or KCNN3, and gain-of-function KCNK4 variants underlie the clinically similar FHEIG (facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth) syndrome; KCNH1, KCNN3 and KCNK4 encode potassium channels. Within our research project on ZLS, we performed targeted Sanger sequencing of ABCC9 in 15 individuals tested negative for a mutation in the ZLS-associated genes and found two individuals harboring a heterozygous pathogenic ABCC9 missense variant. Through a collaborative effort, we identified a total of nine individuals carrying a monoallelic ABCC9 variant: five sporadic patients and four members of two unrelated families. Among the six detected ABCC9 missense variants, four [p.(Pro252Leu), p.(Thr259Lys), p.(Ala1064Pro), and p.(Arg1197His)] were novel. Systematic assessment of the clinical features in the nine cases with an ABCC9 variant highlights the significant clinical overlap between ZLS and CS that includes early developmental delay, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, joint laxity, and hypoplasia of terminal phalanges and nails. Gain of K+ channel activity possibly accounts for significant clinical similarities of CS, ZLS and FHEIG syndrome and defines a new subgroup of potassium channelopathies.

11.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(7)2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679894

RESUMO

Currently, no reliable genotype-phenotype correlation is available for pediatric Marfan patients in everyday clinical practice. We investigated correlations of FBN1 variants with the prevalence and age of onset of Marfan manifestations in childhood and differentiated three groups: missense/in-frame, splice, and nonsense/frameshift variants. In addition, we differentiated missense variants destroying or generating a cysteine (cys-missense) and alterations not affecting cysteine. We categorized 105 FBN1-positive pediatric patients. Patients with cys-missense more frequently developed aortic dilatation (p = 0.03) requiring medication (p = 0.003), tricuspid valve prolapse (p = 0.03), and earlier onset of myopia (p = 0.02) than those with other missense variants. Missense variants correlated with a higher prevalence of ectopia lentis (p = 0.002) and earlier onset of pulmonary artery dilatation (p = 0.03) than nonsense/frameshift, and dural ectasia was more common in the latter (p = 0.005). Pectus excavatum (p = 0.007) appeared more often in patients with splice compared with missense/in-frame variants, while hernia (p = 0.04) appeared earlier in the latter. Findings on genotype-phenotype correlations in Marfan-affected children can improve interdisciplinary therapy. In patients with cys-missense variants, early medical treatment of aortic dilatation seems reasonable and early regular ophthalmologic follow-up essential. Patients with nonsense/frameshift and splice variants require early involvement of orthopedic specialists to support the growing child.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 41(9): 1645-1661, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623794

RESUMO

The family of Tre2-Bub2-Cdc16 (TBC)-domain containing GTPase activating proteins (RABGAPs) is not only known as key regulatorof RAB GTPase activity but also has GAP-independent functions. Rab GTPases are implicated in membrane trafficking pathways, such as vesicular trafficking. We report biallelic loss-of-function variants in TBC1D2B, encoding a member of the TBC/RABGAP family with yet unknown function, as the underlying cause of cognitive impairment, seizures, and/or gingival overgrowth in three individuals from unrelated families. TBC1D2B messenger RNA amount was drastically reduced, and the protein was absent in fibroblasts of two patients. In immunofluorescence analysis, ectopically expressed TBC1D2B colocalized with vesicles positive for RAB5, a small GTPase orchestrating early endocytic vesicle trafficking. In two independent TBC1D2B CRISPR/Cas9 knockout HeLa cell lines that serve as cellular model of TBC1D2B deficiency, epidermal growth factor internalization was significantly reduced compared with the parental HeLa cell line suggesting a role of TBC1D2B in early endocytosis. Serum deprivation of TBC1D2B-deficient HeLa cell lines caused a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis. Our data reveal that loss of TBC1D2B causes a neurodevelopmental disorder with gingival overgrowth, possibly by deficits in vesicle trafficking and/or cell survival.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(1): 34-45, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497488

RESUMO

IFAP syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Previous research found that mutations in MBTPS2, encoding site-2-protease (S2P), underlie X-linked IFAP syndrome. The present report describes the identification via whole-exome sequencing of three heterozygous mutations in SREBF1 in 11 unrelated, ethnically diverse individuals with autosomal-dominant IFAP syndrome. SREBF1 encodes sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which promotes the transcription of lipogenes involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterols. This process requires cleavage of SREBP1 by site-1-protease (S1P) and S2P and subsequent translocation into the nucleus where it binds to sterol regulatory elements (SRE). The three detected SREBF1 mutations caused substitution or deletion of residues 527, 528, and 530, which are crucial for S1P cleavage. In vitro investigation of SREBP1 variants demonstrated impaired S1P cleavage, which prohibited nuclear translocation of the transcriptionally active form of SREBP1. As a result, SREBP1 variants exhibited significantly lower transcriptional activity compared to the wild-type, as demonstrated via luciferase reporter assay. RNA sequencing of the scalp skin from IFAP-affected individuals revealed a dramatic reduction in transcript levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and of keratin genes known to be expressed in the outer root sheath of hair follicles. An increased rate of in situ keratinocyte apoptosis, which might contribute to skin hyperkeratosis and hypotrichosis, was also detected in scalp samples from affected individuals. Together with previous research, the present findings suggest that SREBP signaling plays an essential role in epidermal differentiation, skin barrier formation, hair growth, and eye function.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Ceratose/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008625, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176688

RESUMO

P/Q-type channels are the principal presynaptic calcium channels in brain functioning in neurotransmitter release. They are composed of the pore-forming CaV2.1 α1 subunit and the auxiliary α2δ-2 and ß4 subunits. ß4 is encoded by CACNB4, and its multiple splice variants serve isoform-specific functions as channel subunits and transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. In two siblings with intellectual disability, psychomotor retardation, blindness, epilepsy, movement disorder and cerebellar atrophy we identified rare homozygous variants in the genes LTBP1, EMILIN1, CACNB4, MINAR1, DHX38 and MYO15 by whole-exome sequencing. In silico tools, animal model, clinical, and genetic data suggest the p.(Leu126Pro) CACNB4 variant to be likely pathogenic. To investigate the functional consequences of the CACNB4 variant, we introduced the corresponding mutation L125P into rat ß4b cDNA. Heterologously expressed wild-type ß4b associated with GFP-CaV1.2 and accumulated in presynaptic boutons of cultured hippocampal neurons. In contrast, the ß4b-L125P mutant failed to incorporate into calcium channel complexes and to cluster presynaptically. When co-expressed with CaV2.1 in tsA201 cells, ß4b and ß4b-L125P augmented the calcium current amplitudes, however, ß4b-L125P failed to stably complex with α1 subunits. These results indicate that p.Leu125Pro disrupts the stable association of ß4b with native calcium channel complexes, whereas membrane incorporation, modulation of current density and activation properties of heterologously expressed channels remained intact. Wildtype ß4b was specifically targeted to the nuclei of quiescent excitatory cells. Importantly, the p.Leu125Pro mutation abolished nuclear targeting of ß4b in cultured myotubes and hippocampal neurons. While binding of ß4b to the known interaction partner PPP2R5D (B56δ) was not affected by the mutation, complex formation between ß4b-L125P and the neuronal TRAF2 and NCK interacting kinase (TNIK) seemed to be disturbed. In summary, our data suggest that the homozygous CACNB4 p.(Leu126Pro) variant underlies the severe neurological phenotype in the two siblings, most likely by impairing both channel and non-channel functions of ß4b.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo N/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neurônios/metabolismo , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Ratos , Transmissão Sináptica/genética
16.
Cell Calcium ; 87: 102182, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097819

RESUMO

Ryanodine receptor ion channels (RyR1s) release Ca2+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to regulate skeletal muscle contraction. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified the heterozygous RYR1 variant c.14767_14772del resulting in the in-frame deletion p.(Phe4923_Phe4924del) in two brothers with a lethal form of the fetal akinesia deformation syndrome (FADS). The two deleted phenylalanines (RyR1-Δ4923FF4924) are located in the S6 pore-lining helix of RyR1. Clinical features in one of the two siblings included severe hypotonia, thin ribs, swallowing inability, and respiratory insufficiency that caused early death. Functional consequences of the RyR1-Δ4923FF4924 variant were determined using recombinant 2,200-kDa homotetrameric and heterotetrameric RyR1 channel complexes that were expressed in HEK293 cells and characterized by cellular, electrophysiological, and computational methods. Cellular Ca2+ release in response to caffeine indicated that the homotetrameric variant formed caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ conducting channels in HEK293 cells. In contrast, the homotetrameric channel complex was not activated by Ca2+ and did not conduct Ca2+ based on single-channel measurements. The computational analysis suggested decreased protein stability and loss of salt bridge interactions between RyR1-R4944 and RyR1-D4938, increasing the electrostatic interaction energy of Ca2+ in a region 20 Å from the mutant site. Co-expression of wild-type and mutant RyR1s resulted in Ca2+-dependent channel activities that displayed intermediate Ca2+ conductances and suggested maintenance of a reduced Ca2+ release in the two patients. Our findings reveal that the RYR1 pore variant p.(Phe4923_Phe4924del) attenuates the flow of Ca2+ through heterotetrameric channels, but alone was not sufficient to cause FADS, indicating additional genetic factors to be involved.

17.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 42(9): 653-661, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789838

RESUMO

Goltz-Gorlin syndrome (GGS) (focal dermal hypoplasia) is a very rare developmental disorder affecting ectodermal and mesodermal structures. The syndrome is inherited in an X-linked manner, with the majority of affected individuals being female. We report the case of a 51-year-old man presenting with congenital skin lesions, syndactyly, facial and thoracic asymmetry, inguinal and laryngeal papillomas, cryptorchidism, polythelia, and dental anomalies. Molecular genetic analysis confirmed the clinically suspected diagnosis of GGS by detecting a known pathogenic mutation in the PORCN gene, c.502G>A [p.(Gly168Arg)] in the mosaic state. Histopathological examinations of skin biopsies of affected individuals typically show focal dermal hypoplasia and fat herniation; despite numerous skin biopsies, these characteristics were not found in the patient involved. Instead, we observed a notable reduction and fragmentation of the elastic fibers in the upper dermis. A systematic literature review regarding the histopathological presence or absence of dermal hypoplasia and/or information on elastic fibers revealed 240 histopathological descriptions of 173 individuals. Absence of dermal hypoplasia was found in 21 biopsies (8.8%). Information on elastic fibers was given in 47 cases (19.6%), showing decrease/absence in 31 cases and fragmentation of elastic fibers in 11 cases. Therefore, the histopathological absence of dermal hypoplasia does not exclude the diagnosis of the GGS. Decrease and fragmentation of elastic fibers may represent new histopathological clues to the diagnosis of this rare syndrome. At the same time, GGS should be included in the histopathological differential diagnoses of elastolytic disorders.

18.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795342

RESUMO

Background: Pathogenic variants in TGFBR1, TGFBR2 and SMAD3 genes cause Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and pathogenic variants in FBN1 cause Marfan syndrome. Despite their similar phenotypes, both syndromes may have different cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: Three expert centers performed a case-matched comparison of cardiovascular outcomes. The Loeys-Dietz group comprised 43 men and 40 women with a mean age of 34 ± 18 years. Twenty-six individuals had pathogenic variants in TGFBR1, 40 in TGFBR2, and 17 in SMAD3. For case-matched comparison we used 83 age and sex-frequency matched individuals with Marfan syndrome. Results: In Loeys-Dietz compared to Marfan syndrome, a patent ductus arteriosus (p = 0.014) was more prevalent, the craniofacial score was higher (p < 0.001), the systemic score lower (p < 0.001), and mitral valve prolapse less frequent (p = 0.003). Mean survival for Loeys-Dietz and Marfan syndrome was similar (75 ± 3 versus 73 ± 2 years; p = 0.811). Cardiovascular outcome was comparable between Loeys-Dietz and Marfan syndrome, including mean freedom from proximal aortic surgery (53 ± 4 versus 48 ± 3 years; p = 0.589), distal aortic repair (72 ± 3 versus 67 ± 2 years; p = 0.777), mitral valve surgery (75 ± 4 versus 65 ± 3 years; p = 0.108), and reintervention (20 ± 3 versus 14 ± 2 years; p = 0.112). In Loeys-Dietz syndrome, lower age at initial presentation predicted proximal aortic surgery (HR = 0.748; p < 0.001), where receiver operating characteristic analysis identified ≤33.5 years with increased risk. In addition, increased aortic sinus diameters (HR = 6.502; p = 0.001), and higher systemic score points at least marginally (HR = 1.175; p = 0.065) related to proximal aortic surgery in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Conclusions: Cardiovascular outcome of Loeys-Dietz syndrome was comparable to Marfan syndrome, but the severity of systemic manifestations was a predictor of proximal aortic surgery.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12516, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467394

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, the elongation phase of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is regulated by the transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), composed of Cyclin-T1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 9. The release of RNAP II is mediated by phosphorylation through P-TEFb that in turn is under control by the inhibitory 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complex. The 7SK snRNP consists of the 7SK non-coding RNA and the proteins MEPCE, LARP7, and HEXIM1/2. Biallelic LARP7 loss-of-function variants underlie Alazami syndrome characterized by growth retardation and intellectual disability. We report a boy with global developmental delay and seizures carrying the de novo MEPCE nonsense variant c.1552 C > T/p.(Arg518*). mRNA and protein analyses identified nonsense-mediated mRNA decay to underlie the decreased amount of MEPCE in patient fibroblasts followed by LARP7 and 7SK snRNA downregulation and HEXIM1 upregulation. Reduced binding of HEXIM1 to Cyclin-T1, hyperphosphorylation of the RNAP II C-terminal domain, and upregulated expression of ID2, ID3, MRPL11 and snRNAs U1, U2 and U4 in patient cells are suggestive of enhanced activation of P-TEFb. Flavopiridol treatment and ectopic MEPCE protein expression in patient fibroblasts rescued increased expression of six RNAP II-sensitive genes and suggested a possible repressive effect of MEPCE on P-TEFb-dependent transcription of specific genes.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Códon sem Sentido , Humanos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Fator B de Elongação Transcricional Positiva/genética , Fator B de Elongação Transcricional Positiva/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1139-1157, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155282

RESUMO

Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS) is characterized by coarse facial features with gingival enlargement, intellectual disability (ID), hypertrichosis, and hypoplasia or aplasia of nails and terminal phalanges. De novo missense mutations in KCNH1 and KCNK4, encoding K+ channels, have been identified in subjects with ZLS and ZLS-like phenotype, respectively. We report de novo missense variants in KCNN3 in three individuals with typical clinical features of ZLS. KCNN3 (SK3/KCa2.3) constitutes one of three members of the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels that are part of a multiprotein complex consisting of the pore-forming channel subunits, the constitutively bound Ca2+ sensor calmodulin, protein kinase CK2, and protein phosphatase 2A. CK2 modulates Ca2+ sensitivity of the channels by phosphorylating SK-bound calmodulin. Patch-clamp whole-cell recordings of KCNN3 channel-expressing CHO cells demonstrated that disease-associated mutations result in gain of function of the mutant channels, characterized by increased Ca2+ sensitivity leading to faster and more complete activation of KCNN3 mutant channels. Pretreatment of cells with the CK2 inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole revealed basal inhibition of wild-type and mutant KCNN3 channels by CK2. Analogous experiments with the KCNN3 p.Val450Leu mutant previously identified in a family with portal hypertension indicated basal constitutive channel activity and thus a different gain-of-function mechanism compared to the ZLS-associated mutant channels. With the report on de novo KCNK4 mutations in subjects with facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, ID, and gingival overgrowth, we propose to combine the phenotypes caused by mutations in KCNH1, KCNK4, and KCNN3 in a group of neurological potassium channelopathies caused by an increase in K+ conductance.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/etiologia , Fibromatose Gengival/etiologia , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/etiologia , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Baixa/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células CHO , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Fibromatose Gengival/patologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Humanos , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Baixa/química , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Baixa/metabolismo
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