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1.
Lancet ; 394(10215): 2173-2183, 2019 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relevance of blood lipid concentrations to long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease and the relevance of lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease outcomes is unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular disease risk associated with the full spectrum of bloodstream non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. We also created an easy-to-use tool to estimate the long-term probabilities for a cardiovascular disease event associated with non-HDL cholesterol and modelled its risk reduction by lipid-lowering treatment. METHODS: In this risk-evaluation and risk-modelling study, we used Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium data from 19 countries across Europe, Australia, and North America. Individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline and with robust available data on cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. The primary composite endpoint of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was defined as the occurrence of the coronary heart disease event or ischaemic stroke. Sex-specific multivariable analyses were computed using non-HDL cholesterol categories according to the European guideline thresholds, adjusted for age, sex, cohort, and classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. In a derivation and validation design, we created a tool to estimate the probabilities of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, dependent on age, sex, and risk factors, and the associated modelled risk reduction, assuming a 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol. FINDINGS: Of the 524 444 individuals in the 44 cohorts in the Consortium database, we identified 398 846 individuals belonging to 38 cohorts (184 055 [48·7%] women; median age 51·0 years [IQR 40·7-59·7]). 199 415 individuals were included in the derivation cohort (91 786 [48·4%] women) and 199 431 (92 269 [49·1%] women) in the validation cohort. During a maximum follow-up of 43·6 years (median 13·5 years, IQR 7·0-20·1), 54 542 cardiovascular endpoints occurred. Incidence curve analyses showed progressively higher 30-year cardiovascular disease event-rates for increasing non-HDL cholesterol categories (from 7·7% for non-HDL cholesterol <2·6 mmol/L to 33·7% for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 12·8% to 43·6% in men; p<0·0001). Multivariable adjusted Cox models with non-HDL cholesterol lower than 2·6 mmol/L as reference showed an increase in the association between non-HDL cholesterol concentration and cardiovascular disease for both sexes (from hazard ratio 1·1, 95% CI 1·0-1·3 for non-HDL cholesterol 2·6 to <3·7 mmol/L to 1·9, 1·6-2·2 for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 1·1, 1·0-1·3 to 2·3, 2·0-2·5 in men). The derived tool allowed the estimation of cardiovascular disease event probabilities specific for non-HDL cholesterol with high comparability between the derivation and validation cohorts as reflected by smooth calibration curves analyses and a root mean square error lower than 1% for the estimated probabilities of cardiovascular disease. A 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol concentrations was associated with reduced risk of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, and this risk reduction was greater the earlier cholesterol concentrations were reduced. INTERPRETATION: Non-HDL cholesterol concentrations in blood are strongly associated with long-term risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We provide a simple tool for individual long-term risk assessment and the potential benefit of early lipid-lowering intervention. These data could be useful for physician-patient communication about primary prevention strategies. FUNDING: EU Framework Programme, UK Medical Research Council, and German Centre for Cardiovascular Research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Europace ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740944

RESUMO

AIMS: Limited evidence is available on the temporal relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischaemic stroke and their impact on mortality in the community. We sought to understand the temporal relationship of AF and ischaemic stroke and to determine the sequence of disease onset in relation to mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Across five prospective community cohorts of the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) project we assessed baseline cardiovascular risk factors in 100 132 individuals, median age 46.1 (25th-75th percentile 35.8-57.5) years, 48.4% men. We followed them for incident ischaemic stroke and AF and determined the relation of subsequent disease diagnosis with overall mortality. Over a median follow-up of 16.1 years, N = 4555 individuals were diagnosed solely with AF, N = 2269 had an ischaemic stroke but no AF diagnosed, and N = 898 developed both, ischaemic stroke and AF. Temporal relationships showed a clustering of diagnosis of both diseases within the years around the diagnosis of the other disease. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses with time-dependent covariates subsequent diagnosis of AF after ischaemic stroke was associated with increased mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-7.54; P < 0.001] which was also apparent when ischaemic stroke followed after the diagnosis of AF (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.90-5.00; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The temporal relations of ischaemic stroke and AF appear to be bidirectional. Ischaemic stroke may precede detection of AF by years. The subsequent diagnosis of both diseases significantly increases mortality risk. Future research needs to investigate the common underlying systemic disease processes.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; : 1-10, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664431

RESUMO

Importance: Risk stratification for coronary heart disease (CHD) remains challenging because of the complex causative mechanism of the disease. Metabolomic profiling offers the potential to detect new biomarkers and improve CHD risk assessment. Objective: To evaluate the association between circulating metabolites and incident CHD in a large European cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based study used the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) case-cohort to measure circulating metabolites using a targeted approach in serum samples from 10 741 individuals without prevalent CHD. The cohort consisted of a weighted, random subcohort of the original cohort of more than 70 000 individuals. The case-cohort design was applied to 6 European cohorts: FINRISK97 (Finland), Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases/Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (MONICA/KORA; Germany), MONICA-Brianza and Moli-Sani (Italy), DanMONICA (Denmark), and the Scottish Heart Health Extended Cohort (United Kingdom). Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations with time to CHD onset were assessed individually by applying weighted and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. The association of metabolites with CHD onset was examined by C indices. Results: In 10 741 individuals (4157 women [38.7%]; median [interquartile range] age, 56.5 [49.2-62.2] years), 2166 incident CHD events (20.2%) occurred over a median (interquartile range) follow-up time of 9.2 (4.5-15.0) years. Among the 141 metabolites analyzed, 24 were significantly associated with incident CHD at a nominal P value of .05, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), lysoPCs, amino acids, and sphingolipids. Five PCs remained significant after correction for multiple testing: acyl-alkyl-PC C40:6 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.13 [95% CI, 1.07-1.18]), diacyl-PC C40:6 (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.04-1.15]), acyl-alkyl-PC C38:6 (HR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.05-1.16]), diacyl-PC C38:6 (HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]) and diacyl-PC C38:5 (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.16]). Lower levels of these metabolites were associated with increased risk of incident CHD. The strength of the associations competes with those of classic risk factors (C statistics: acyl-alkyl-PC C40:6, 0.756 [95% CI, 0.738-0.774], diacyl-PC C40:6, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.736-0.772], acyl-alkyl-PC C38:6, 0.755 [95% CI, 0.736-0.773], diacyl-PC C38:6, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.736-0.772]), diacyl-PC C38:5, 0.754 [95% CI, 0.736-0.772]). Adding metabolites to a base risk model including classic risk factors high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity troponin I did not improve discrimination by C statistics. Conclusions and Relevance: Five PCs were significantly associated with increased risk of incident CHD and showed comparable discrimination with individual classic risk factors. Although these metabolites do not improve CHD risk assessment beyond that of classic risk factors, these findings hold promise for an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of CHD.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
5.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 204-213, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates differences between women and men in heart failure (HF) risk and mortality. BACKGROUND: Sex differences in HF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. METHODS: In 78,657 individuals (median 49.5 years of age; age range 24.1 to 98.7 years; 51.7% women) from community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani, Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe) consortium, the association between incident HF and mortality, the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular diseases, biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP]; N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) with incident HF, and their attributable risks were tested in women vs. men. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, fewer HF cases were observed in women (n = 2,399 [5.9%]) than in men (n = 2,771 [7.3%]). HF incidence increased markedly after 60 years of age, initially with a more rapid increase in men, whereas incidence in women exceeded that of men after 85 years of age. HF onset substantially increased mortality risk in both sexes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed the following sex differences for the association with incident HF: systolic blood pressure hazard ratio (HR) according to SD in women of 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.14) versus HR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.24) in men; heart rate HR of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.03) in women versus HR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13) in men; CRP HR of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.20) in women versus HR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.24 to 1.41) in men; and NT-proBNP HR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.74) in women versus HR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.05) in men. Population-attributable risk of all risk factors combined was 59.0% in women and 62.9% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Women had a lower risk for HF than men. Sex differences were seen for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, CRP, and NT-proBNP, with a lower HF risk in women.

6.
Stroke ; 50(3): 610-617, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786848

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation and a marker of cardiac function used in the detection of heart failure. Given the link between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, NT-proBNP is a candidate marker of stroke risk. Our aim was to evaluate the association of NT-proBNP with stroke and to determine the predictive value beyond a panel of established risk factors. Methods- Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe-Consortium, we analyzed data of 58 173 participants (50% men; mean age 52 y) free of stroke from 6 community-based cohorts. NT-proBNP measurements were performed in the central Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe laboratory. The outcomes considered were total stroke and subtypes of stroke (ischemic/hemorrhagic). Results- During a median follow-up time of 7.9 years, we observed 1550 stroke events (1176 ischemic). Increasing quarters of the NT-proBNP distribution were associated with increasing risk of stroke ( P for trend <0.0001; multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for risk factors and cardiac diseases). Individuals in the highest NT-proBNP quarter (NT-proBNP >82.2 pg/mL) had 2-fold (95% CI, 75%-151%) greater risk of stroke than individuals in the lowest quarter (NT-proBNP <20.4 pg/mL). The association remained unchanged when adjusted for interim coronary events during follow-up, and though it was somewhat heterogeneous across cohorts, it was highly homogenous according to cardiovascular risk profile or subtypes of stroke. The addition of NT-proBNP to a reference model increased the C-index discrimination measure by 0.006 ( P=0.0005), yielded a categorical net reclassification improvement of 2.0% in events and 1.4% in nonevents and an integrated discrimination improvement of 0.007. Conclusions- In European individuals free of stroke, levels of NT-proBNP are positively associated with risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, independently from several other risk factors and conditions. The addition of NT-proBNP to variables of established risk scores improves prediction of stroke, with a medium effect size.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/sangue , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127326

RESUMO

Most studies reporting on the association of circulating testosterone levels with type 2 diabetes in men are of cross-sectional design. Reports on the relevance of altered testosterone levels in women are scarce. Here, we evaluate the role of low serum testosterone levels for incident diabetes in men and women in a population setting of 7706 subjects (3896 females). During a mean follow up time of 13.8 years, 7.8% developed type 2 diabetes. Significant correlations of testosterone with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (R = 0.21, p < 0.001), body-mass-index (R = -0.23, p < 0.001), and waist-to-hip-ratio (R = -0.21, p < 0.001) were found in men. No correlation was found with age in men; in women, the correlation was negligible (R = 0.04, p = 0.012). In men, low testosterone levels predicted high risk of type 2 diabetes, while in women this relationship was opposite. Men with low testosterone levels showed increased risk of future diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91⁻3.72, p < 0.001 in basic model; HR 1.56 95%, CI 1.10⁻2.21, p = 0.003). In women, low testosterone levels indicated lower risk with (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37⁻0.77, p = 0.003), while the association lost significance in the fully adjusted model (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.49⁻1.05, p = 0.09). Low levels of testosterone predicted future diabetes in men. A borderline opposite association was found in women.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
8.
Arch Public Health ; 76: 38, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988297

RESUMO

Background: Representative and reliable data on health and health determinants of the population and population sub-groups are needed for evidence-informed policy making; planning and evaluation of prevention programmes; and research. Health examination surveys (HESs) including questionnaires, objective health measurements and analysis of biological samples, provide information on many health indicators that are available not at all or less reliably or completely through administrative registers or health interview surveys. Methods: Standardized cross-sectional HESs were already conducted in the 1980's and 1990's, in the framework of the WHO MONICA Project. The methodology was developed and finally, in 2010-2012, a European Health Examination Survey (EHES) Pilot Project was conducted. During this pilot phase, an EHES Coordinating Centre (EHES CC, formerly EHES Reference Centre) was established. Standardized protocols, guidelines and quality control procedures were prepared and tested in 12 countries which conducted pilot surveys, demonstrating the feasibility of standardized HES data collection in the European Union (EU).Currently, the EHES CC operates at the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Finland. Its activities include maintaining and developing the standardized protocols, guidelines and training programme; maintaining the EHES network; providing professional support for countries planning and organizing their national HESs; external quality assessment for surveys organized in the EU Member States; and development of a centralized database and joint reporting system for HES data. Results: An increasing number of EU Member States are conducting national HESs, demonstrating a strong need for such surveys as part of the national health monitoring systems. Standardization of the data collection is essential to ensure that HES data are comparable across countries and over time. The work of the EHES CC helps to ensure the quality and comparability of HES data across the EU. Conclusions: HES data have been used for health monitoring and identifying public health problems; to develop health and prevention programmes; to support health policies and preparation of health-related legislation and regulations; and to develop clinical treatment guidelines and population reference values. HESs have also been utilized to prepare health measurement tools and diagnostic methods; in training and research and to increase health awareness among population.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197497, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), Cystatin C and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been discussed as biomarkers for prediction of cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of single and repeated measurements of GDF-15 compared to Cystatin C and CRP for incidence of heart failure (HF) and death due to coronary heart disease (CHD) in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of GDF-15, CRP and Cystatin C were determined in three repeated measurements collected 5 years apart in the DAN-MONICA (Danish-Multinational MONitoring of trends and determinants in Cardiovascular disease) cohort (participants at baseline n = 3785). Cox regression models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors revealed significantly increased hazard ratios (HR) for GDF-15 for incident HF 1.36 (HR per interquartile range (IQR) increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16; 1.59) and for death from CHD 1.51 (HR per IQR increase, 95% CI: 1.31, 1.75) (both with p<0.001). Joint modeling of time-to-event and longitudinal GDF-15 over a median 27-year follow-up period showed that the marker evolution was positively associated with death of CHD (HR per IQR increase 3.02 95% CI: (2.26, 4.04), p < 0.001) and HF (HR per IQR increase 2.12 95% CI: (1.54, 2.92), p<0.001). However using Cox models with follow-up time starting at the time of the third examination, serial measurement of GDF-15, modeled as changes between the measurements, did not improve prediction over that of the most recent measurement. CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 is a promising biomarker for prediction of HF and death due to CHD in the general population, which may provide prognostic information to already established clinical biomarkers. Repeated measurements of GDF-15 displayed only a slight improvement in the prediction of these endpoints compared to a single measurement.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Cistatina C/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 25(11): 1133-1139, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808758

RESUMO

Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common serious abnormal heart rhythm, and a frequent cause of ischaemic stroke. Recent experimental studies, mainly in orchiectomised rats, report a relationship between sex hormones and atrial electrophysiology and electroanatomy. We aimed to evaluate whether low testosterone levels are predictive for atrial fibrillation and/or ischaemic stroke in men and women. Design and methods The serum total testosterone levels were measured at baseline in a population cohort of 7892 subjects (3876 male, 4016 female), aged 25-74 years, using a commercially available immunoassay. The main outcome measure was atrial fibrillation or ischaemic stroke, whichever came first. Results During a median follow-up of 13.8 years, a total of 629 subjects (8.0%) suffered from incident atrial fibrillation ( n = 426) and/or ischemic stroke ( n = 276). Cox regression analyses, adjusted for age (used as time-scale), geographical region, total cholesterol (log), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (log), hypertension medication, known diabetes, smoking status, waist-hip-ratio, and time of blood drawn, documented differential predictive value of low sex-specific testosterone levels for atrial fibrillation and/or ischaemic stroke, in men and in women: Increasing levels were associated with lower risk in men (hazard ratio per one nmol/l increase 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.93-1.00); p = 0.049). On the other hand, increasing testosterone levels were associated with higher risk in women (hazard ratio per one nmol/l increase 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.36); p = 0.031). Conclusion Our study indicates that low testosterone levels are associated with increased risk of future atrial fibrillation and/or ischaemic stroke in men, while they are protective in women.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Previsões , Vigilância da População/métodos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais
11.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 72(7): 653-657, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable data on clinical biomarkers are necessary in order to assess the health risks of populations and especially in assessing long-term trends related to disease incidence. METHODS: Ten European laboratories participated in a two-phase quality control exercise of total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) analysis. The European Health Examination Survey Reference Laboratory prepared plasma batches for analysis, and provided target values for them. Two criteria were set for the precision and the systematic error (bias). Three plasma samples were analysed in duplicate on separate days (n=12). RESULTS: In Round 1, all laboratories met the acceptable criterion (3%) for precision of TC. The mean bias of all laboratories was 0.99% (95% CI 0.03% to 1.95%). Six laboratories measured samples from Round 2. Five laboratories met the goal criterion of 3%; one failed to meet the acceptable criterion of 5%. The mean bias for HDL-C of the three batches of six laboratories was within goal limits (±5% from target) and that of all 10 within acceptable (±10%). The mean bias of all laboratories was 1.1% (95% CI -0.18 to 2.32). In Round 2 four laboratories met the goal criterion and one the acceptable criterion. CONCLUSION: The quality control exercise demonstrated that although the majority of the laboratories met the strict criteria for systematic error for TC and HDL-C, standardisation of methods is still needed to improve the accuracy of biomarker measurements of laboratories engaged in population health surveys. A protocol is recommended for obtaining reliable and comparable biomarker data between countries.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Laboratórios/normas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Saúde da População , Controle de Qualidade
12.
Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 237-243, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036286

RESUMO

Background: Declining participation rates in health examination surveys may impair the representativeness of surveys and introduce bias into the comparison of results between population groups if participation rates differ between them. Changes in the characteristics of non-participants over time may also limit comparability with earlier surveys. Methods: We studied the association of socio-economic position with participation, and its changes over the past 25 years. Occupational class and educational level are used as indicators of socio-economic position. Data from six cross-sectional FINRISK surveys conducted between 1987 and 2012 in Finland were linked to national administrative registers, which allowed investigation of the differences between survey participants and non-participants. Results: Our results show that individuals with low occupational class or low level of education were less likely to participate than individuals with high occupational class or high level of education. Participation rates decreased in all subgroups of the population but the decline was fastest among those with low level of education. Conclusions: The differences in participation rates must be taken into account to avoid biased estimates because socio-economic position has also been shown to be strongly related to health, health behaviour and biological risk factors. Particular attention should be paid to the recruitment of the less-educated population groups.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Scand J Public Health ; 46(7): 758-766, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072108

RESUMO

AIMS: A common objective of epidemiological surveys is to provide population-level estimates of health indicators. Survey results tend to be biased under selective non-participation. One approach to bias reduction is to collect information about non-participants by contacting them again and asking them to fill in a questionnaire. This information is called re-contact data, and it allows to adjust the estimates for non-participation. METHODS: We analyse data from the FINRISK 2012 survey, where re-contact data were collected. We assume that the respondents of the re-contact survey are similar to the remaining non-participants with respect to the health given their available background information. Validity of this assumption is evaluated based on the hospitalisation data obtained through record linkage of survey data to the administrative registers. Using this assumption and multiple imputation, we estimate the prevalences of daily smoking and heavy alcohol consumption and compare them to estimates obtained with a commonly used assumption that the participants represent the entire target group. RESULTS: When adjusting for non-participation using re-contact data, higher prevalence estimates were observed compared to prevalence estimates based on participants only. Among men, the smoking prevalence estimate was 28.5% (23.2% for participants) and heavy alcohol consumption prevalence was 9.4% (6.8% for participants). Among women, smoking prevalence was 19% (16.5% for participants) and heavy alcohol consumption was 4.8% (3% for participants). CONCLUSIONS: The utilisation of re-contact data is a useful method to adjust for non-participation bias on population estimates in epidemiological surveys.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Viés de Seleção , Fumar/epidemiologia
15.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 71(12): 1210-1216, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28983063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the origins of the social gradient in stroke incidence in different populations is limited. This study aims to estimate the burden of educational class inequalities in stroke incidence and to assess the contribution of risk factors in determining these inequalities across Europe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MORGAM (MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph) Study comprises 48 cohorts recruited mostly in the 1980s and 1990s in four European regions using standardised procedures for baseline risk factor assessment and fatal and non-fatal stroke ascertainment and adjudication during follow-up. Among the 126 635 middle-aged participants, initially free of cardiovascular diseases, generating 3788 first stroke events during a median follow-up of 10 years, we estimated differences in stroke rates and HRs for the least versus the most educated individuals. RESULTS: Compared with their most educated counterparts, the overall age-adjusted excess hazard for stroke was 1.54 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.91) and 1.41 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.71) in least educated men and women, respectively, with little heterogeneity across populations. Educational class inequalities accounted for 86-413 and 78-156 additional stroke events per 100 000 person-years in the least compared with most educated men and women, respectively. The additional events were equivalent to 47%-130% and 40%-89% of the average incidence rates. Inequalities in risk factors accounted for 45%-70% of the social gap in incidence in the Nordic countries, the UK and Lithuania-Kaunas (men), but for no more than 17% in Central and South Europe. The major contributors were cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Social inequalities in stroke incidence contribute substantially to the disease rates in Europe. Healthier lifestyles in the most disadvantaged individuals should have a prominent impact in reducing both inequalities and the stroke burden.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Circulation ; 136(17): 1588-1597, 2017 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac disease in aging populations with high comorbidity and mortality. Sex differences in AF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. METHODS: In N=79 793 individuals without AF diagnosis at baseline (median age, 49.6 years; age range, 24.1-97.6 years; 51.7% women) from 4 community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE consortium (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe), we examined AF incidence, its association with mortality, common risk factors, biomarkers, and prevalent cardiovascular disease, and their attributable risk by sex. Median follow-up time was 12.6 (to a maximum of 28.2) years. RESULTS: Fewer AF cases were observed in women (N=1796; 4.4%), than in men (N=2465; 6.4%). Cardiovascular risk factor distribution and lipid profile at baseline were less beneficial in men than in women, and cardiovascular disease was more prevalent in men. Cumulative incidence increased markedly after the age of 50 years in men and after 60 years in women. The lifetime risk was similar (>30%) for both sexes. Subjects with incident AF had a 3.5-fold risk of death in comparison with those without AF. Multivariable-adjusted models showed sex differences for the association of body mass index and AF (hazard ratio per standard deviation increase, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.23 in women versus 1.31; 95% CI 1.25-1.38 in men; interaction P value of 0.001). Total cholesterol was inversely associated with incident AF with a greater risk reduction in women (hazard ratio per SD, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.90 versus 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.97 in men; interaction P value of 0.023). No sex differences were seen for C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide. The population-attributable risk of all risk factors combined was 41.9% in women and 46.0% in men. About 20% of the risk was observed for body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Lifetime risk of AF was high, and AF was strongly associated with increased mortality both in women and men. Body mass index explained the largest proportion of AF risk. Observed sex differences in the association of body mass index and total cholesterol with AF need to be evaluated for underlying pathophysiology and relevance to sex-specific prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Hypertension ; 70(4): 743-750, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784648

RESUMO

Hypertension represents a major cardiovascular risk factor. The pathophysiology of increased blood pressure (BP) is not yet completely understood. Transcriptome profiling offers possibilities to uncover genetics effects on BP. Based on 2 populations including 2549 individuals, a meta-analyses of monocytic transcriptome-wide profiles were performed to identify transcripts associated with BP. Replication was performed in 2 independent studies of whole-blood transcriptome data including 1990 individuals. For identified candidate genes, a direct link between long-term changes in BP and gene expression over time and by treatment with BP-lowering therapy was assessed. The predictive value of protein levels encoded by candidate genes for subsequent cardiovascular disease was investigated. Eight transcripts (CRIP1, MYADM, TIPARP, TSC22D3, CEBPA, F12, LMNA, and TPPP3) were identified jointly accounting for up to 13% (95% confidence interval, 8.7-16.2) of BP variability. Changes in CRIP1, MYADM, TIPARP, LMNA, TSC22D3, CEBPA, and TPPP3 expression associated with BP changes-among these, CRIP1 gene expression was additionally correlated to measures of cardiac hypertrophy. Assessment of circulating CRIP1 (cystein-rich protein 1) levels as biomarkers showed a strong association with increased risk for incident stroke (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.09; P=5.0×10-5). Our comprehensive analysis of global gene expression highlights 8 novel transcripts significantly associated with BP, providing a link between gene expression and BP. Translational approaches further established evidence for the potential use of CRIP1 as emerging disease-related biomarker.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Hipertensão , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Proteolipídicas Associadas a Linfócitos e Mielina/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 37(6): 1222-1227, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28428221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-1ß represents a key cytokine in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). IL-1ß is counter-regulated by IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), an endogenous inhibitor. This study aimed to identify population-based studies on circulating IL-1RA and incident CVD in a systematic review, estimate the association between IL-1RA and incident CVD in a meta-analysis, and to test whether the association between IL-1RA and incident CVD is explained by other inflammation-related biomarkers in the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease/Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg). APPROACH AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic literature search and identified 5 cohort studies on IL-1RA and incident CVD in addition to the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study for a meta-analysis based on a total of 1855 CVD cases and 18 745 noncases with follow-up times between 5 and 16 years. The pooled standardized hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for incident CVD was 1.11 (1.06-1.17) after adjustment for age, sex, anthropometric, metabolic, and lifestyle factors (P<0.0001). There was no heterogeneity in effect sizes (I2=0%; P=0.88). More detailed analyses in the MONICA/KORA study showed that the excess risk for CVD was attenuated by ≥10% after additional separate adjustment for serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, myeloperoxidase, soluble E-selectin, or soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. CONCLUSIONS: Serum IL-1RA levels were positively associated with risk of CVD after adjustment for multiple confounders in a meta-analysis of 6 population-based cohorts. This association may at least partially reflect a response to triggers inducing subclinical inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial activation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Eur Heart J ; 38(32): 2490-2498, 2017 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449027

RESUMO

Aims: As promising compounds to lower Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are emerging, the need for a precise characterization and comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk is increasing. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Lp(a) concentrations across the European population, to characterize the association with cardiovascular outcomes and to provide high comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk by use of centrally determined Lp(a) concentrations. Methods and results: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE)-project, we analysed data of 56 804 participants from 7 prospective population-based cohorts across Europe with a maximum follow-up of 24 years. All Lp(a) measurements were performed in the central BiomarCaRE laboratory (Biokit Quantia Lp(a)-Test; Abbott Diagnostics). The three endpoints considered were incident major coronary events (MCE), incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, and total mortality. We found lower Lp(a) levels in Northern European cohorts (median 4.9 mg/dL) compared to central (median 7.9 mg/dL) and Southern European cohorts (10.9 mg/dL) (Jonckheere-Terpstra test P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves showed the highest event rate of MCE and CVD events for Lp(a) levels ≥90th percentile (log-rank test: P < 0.001 for MCE and CVD). Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors revealed a significant association of Lp(a) levels with MCE and CVD with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.30 for MCE [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15‒1.46] and of 1.25 for CVD (95% CI 1.12‒1.39) for Lp(a) levels in the 67‒89th percentile and a HR of 1.49 for MCE (95% CI 1.29‒1.73) and of 1.44 for CVD (95% CI 1.25‒1.65) for Lp(a) levels ≥ 90th percentile vs. Lp(a) levels in the lowest third (P < 0.001 for all). There was no significant association between Lp(a) levels and total mortality. Subgroup analysis for a continuous version of cube root transformed Lp(a) identified the highest Lp(a)-associated risk in individuals with diabetes [HR for MCE 1.31 (95% CI 1.15‒1.50)] and for CVD 1.22 (95% CI 1.08‒1.38) compared to those without diabetes [HR for MCE 1.15 (95% CI 1.08‒1.21; HR for CVD 1.13 (1.07-1.19)] while no difference of the Lp(a)- associated risk were seen for other cardiovascular high risk states. The addition of Lp(a) levels to a prognostic model for MCE and CVD revealed only a marginal but significant C-index discrimination measure increase (0.001 for MCE and CVD; P < 0.05) and net reclassification improvement (0.010 for MCE and 0.011 for CVD). Conclusion: In this large dataset on harmonized Lp(a) determination, we observed regional differences within the European population. Elevated Lp(a) was robustly associated with an increased risk for MCE and CVD in particular among individuals with diabetes. These results may lead to better identification of target populations who might benefit from future Lp(a)-lowering therapies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Lipoproteína(a)/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lipoproteína(a)/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco
20.
Clin Chem ; 63(1): 334-342, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28062627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI) concentrations reflect myocardial stress. The role of hs-cTnI in predicting long-term changes in the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general populations is not clearly defined. METHODS: We investigated whether the change in 3 repeated measures of hs-cTnI collected 5 years apart in a prospective Danish study (3875 participants, initially aged 30-60 years, 51% female, disease free at baseline) improves 10-year prediction of incident CVD compared to using a single most recent hs-cTnI measurement. The change process was modelled using a joint (longitudinal and survival) model and compared to a Cox model using a single hs-cTnI measure adjusted for classic CVD risk factors, and evaluated using discrimination statistics. RESULTS: Median hs-cTnI concentrations changed from 2.6 ng/L to 3.4 ng/L over 10 years. The change in hs-cTnI predicts 10-year risk of CVD (581 events); the joint model gave a hazard ratio of 1.31 per interquartile difference in hs-cTnI (95% CI 1.15-1.48) after adjustment for CVD risk factors. However, the joint model performed only marginally better (c-index improvement 0.0041, P = 0.03) than using a single hs-cTnI measure (c-index improvement 0.0052, P = 0.04) for prediction of CVD, compared to a model incorporating CVD risk factors without hs-cTnI (c-index 0.744). CONCLUSIONS: The change in hs-cTnI in 5-year intervals better predicts risk of CVD in the general population, but the most recent measure of hs-cTnI, (at 10 years) is as effective in predicting CVD risk. This simplifies the use of hs-cTnI as a prognostic marker for primary prevention of CVD in the general population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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