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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691812

RESUMO

Integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies enables identification of candidate genes. However, evaluating whether nearby signals may share causal variants, termed colocalization, is affected by the presence of allelic heterogeneity, different variants at the same locus impacting the same phenotype. We previously identified eQTLs in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 770 participants in the METSIM study and detected 15 eQTL signals that colocalized with GWAS signals for waist-hip ratio (WHRadjBMI) from the GIANT consortium. Here, we reevaluated evidence of colocalization using two approaches, conditional analysis and the Bayesian test COLOC, and show that providing COLOC with approximate conditional summary statistics at multi-signal GWAS loci can reconcile disagreements in colocalization classification between the two tests. Next, we performed conditional analysis on the METSIM subcutaneous adipose tissue data to identify conditionally distinct, or secondary, eQTL signals. We used the two approaches to test for colocalization with WHRadjBMI GWAS signals and evaluated the differences in colocalization classification between the two tests. Through these analyses, we identified four GWAS signals colocalized with secondary eQTL signals for FAM13A, SSR3, GRB14, and FMO1. Thus, at loci with multiple eQTL and/or GWAS signals, analyzing each signal independently enabled additional candidate genes to be identified.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 773-787, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564431

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified thousands of genetic loci associated with cardiometabolic traits including type 2 diabetes (T2D), lipid levels, body fat distribution, and adiposity, although most causal genes remain unknown. We used subcutaneous adipose tissue RNA-seq data from 434 Finnish men from the METSIM study to identify 9,687 primary and 2,785 secondary cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL; <1 Mb from TSS, FDR < 1%). Compared to primary eQTL signals, secondary eQTL signals were located further from transcription start sites, had smaller effect sizes, and were less enriched in adipose tissue regulatory elements compared to primary signals. Among 2,843 cardiometabolic GWAS signals, 262 colocalized by LD and conditional analysis with 318 transcripts as primary and conditionally distinct secondary cis-eQTLs, including some across ancestries. Of cardiometabolic traits examined for adipose tissue eQTL colocalizations, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and circulating lipid traits had the highest percentage of colocalized eQTLs (15% and 14%, respectively). Among alleles associated with increased cardiometabolic GWAS risk, approximately half (53%) were associated with decreased gene expression level. Mediation analyses of colocalized genes and cardiometabolic traits within the 434 individuals provided further evidence that gene expression influences variant-trait associations. These results identify hundreds of candidate genes that may act in adipose tissue to influence cardiometabolic traits.

3.
Nature ; 570(7759): 71-76, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118516

RESUMO

Protein-coding genetic variants that strongly affect disease risk can yield relevant clues to disease pathogenesis. Here we report exome-sequencing analyses of 20,791 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 24,440 non-diabetic control participants from 5 ancestries. We identify gene-level associations of rare variants (with minor allele frequencies of less than 0.5%) in 4 genes at exome-wide significance, including a series of more than 30 SLC30A8 alleles that conveys protection against T2D, and in 12 gene sets, including those corresponding to T2D drug targets (P = 6.1 × 10-3) and candidate genes from knockout mice (P = 5.2 × 10-3). Within our study, the strongest T2D gene-level signals for rare variants explain at most 25% of the heritability of the strongest common single-variant signals, and the gene-level effect sizes of the rare variants that we observed in established T2D drug targets will require 75,000-185,000 sequenced cases to achieve exome-wide significance. We propose a method to interpret these modest rare-variant associations and to incorporate these associations into future target or gene prioritization efforts.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5960, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976029

RESUMO

This manuscript has not been published before and is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere. Increased septal convexity of left ventricle has been described in subjects with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) -causing mutations without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Our objective was to study septal convexity by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in subjects with the Finnish founder mutation Q1016X in the myosin-binding protein C gene (MYBPC3). Septal convexity was measured in end-diastolic 4-chamber CMR image in 67 study subjects (47 subjects with the MYBPC3-Q1061X mutation and 20 healthy relatives without the mutation). Septal convexity was significantly increased in subjects with the MYBPC3-Q1061X mutation and LVH (n = 32) compared to controls (11.4 ± 4.3 vs 2.7 ± 3.2 mm, P < 0.001). In mutation carriers without LVH, there was a trend for increased septal convexity compared to controls (4.9 ± 2.5 vs 2.7 ± 3.2 mm, P = 0.074). When indexed for BSA, septal convexity in mutation carriers without LVH was 2.8 ± 1.4 mm/m2 and 1.5 ± 1.6 mm/m2 in controls (P = 0.036). In all mutation carriers, septal convexity correlated significantly with body surface area, age, maximal LV wall thickness, LV mass, and late gadolinium enhancement. Subjects with the MYBPC3-Q10961X mutation have increased septal convexity irrespective of the presence of LVH. Septal convexity appears to reflect septal remodeling, and could be useful in recognizing LVH negative mutation carriers.

5.
Diabetes ; 68(6): 1353-1358, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885989

RESUMO

Several amino acids (AAs) have been shown to be associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but no previous studies have investigated the association of AAs with insulin secretion in a longitudinal setting. Our study included 5,181 participants of the cross-sectional METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study having metabolomics data on 20 AAs. A total of 4,851 had a 7.4-year follow-up visit. Nine AAs (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, aspartate, and glutamate) were significantly (P < 5.8 × 10-5) associated with decreases in insulin secretion (disposition index) and the elevation of fasting or 2-h glucose levels. Five of these AAs (tyrosine, alanine, isoleucine, aspartate, and glutamate) were also found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes after adjustment for confounding factors. Our study is the first population-based large cohort to report that AAs are associated not only with insulin resistance but also with decreased insulin secretion.

6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(4): 2753-2768, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734465

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent form of diabetes in the USA, thus, the identification of biomarkers that could be used to predict the progression from prediabetes to T2DM would be greatly beneficial. Recently, circulating RNA including microRNAs (miRNAs) present in various body fluids have emerged as potential biomarkers for various health conditions, including T2DM. Whereas studies that examine the changes of miRNA spectra between healthy controls and T2DM individuals have been reported, the goal of this study is to conduct a baseline comparison of prediabetic individuals who either progress to T2DM, or remain prediabetic. Using an advanced small RNA sequencing library construction method that improves the detection of miRNA species, we identified 57 miRNAs that showed significant concentration differences between progressors (progress from prediabetes to T2DM) and non-progressors. Among them, 26 have been previously reported to be associated with T2DM in either body fluids or tissue samples. Some of the miRNAs identified were also affected by obesity. Furthermore, we identified miRNA panels that are able to discriminate progressors from non-progressors. These results suggest that upon further validation these miRNAs may be useful to predict the risk of conversion to T2DM from prediabetes.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(2): 436-445, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775854

RESUMO

AIMS: Nationwide large-scale genetic and outcome studies in cohorts with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have not been previously published. METHODS AND RESULTS: We sequenced 59 cardiomyopathy-associated genes in 382 unrelated Finnish patients with HCM and found 24 pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations in six genes in 38.2% of patients. Most mutations were located in sarcomere genes (MYBPC3, MYH7, TPM1, and MYL2). Previously reported mutations by our study group (MYBPC3-Gln1061Ter, MYH7-Arg1053Gln, and TPM1-Asp175Asn) and a fourth major mutation MYH7-Val606Met accounted for 28.0% of cases. Mutations in GLA and PRKAG2 were found in three patients. Furthermore, we found 49 variants of unknown significance in 31 genes in 20.4% of cases. During a 6.7 ± 4.2 year follow-up, annual all-cause mortality in 482 index patients and their relatives with HCM was higher than that in the matched Finnish population (1.70 vs. 0.87%; P < 0.001). Sudden cardiac deaths were rare (n = 8). Systolic heart failure (hazard ratio 17.256, 95% confidence interval 3.266-91.170, P = 0.001) and maximal left ventricular wall thickness (hazard ratio 1.223, 95% confidence interval 1.098-1.363, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of HCM-related mortality and life-threatening cardiac events. The patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation underwent an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation more often than patients without a pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutation (12.9 vs. 3.5%, P < 0.001), but there was no difference in all-cause or HCM-related mortality between the two groups. Mortality due to HCM during 10 year follow-up among the 5.2 million population of Finland was studied from death certificates of the National Registry, showing 269 HCM-related deaths, of which 32% were sudden. CONCLUSIONS: We identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic mutations in 38% of Finnish patients with HCM. Four major sarcomere mutations accounted for 28% of HCM cases, whereas HCM-related mutations in non-sarcomeric genes were rare. Mortality in patients with HCM exceeded that of the general population. Finally, among 5.2 million Finns, there were at least 27 HCM-related deaths annually.


Assuntos
Miosinas Cardíacas/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Previsões , Mutação , Sistema de Registros , Sarcômeros/metabolismo , Miosinas Cardíacas/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/mortalidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Sarcômeros/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
8.
J Electrocardiol ; 51(6): 983-989, 2018 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The sensitivity and specificity of the conventional 12-lead ECG to identify carriers of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) - causing mutations without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been limited. We assessed the ability of novel electrocardiographic parameters to improve the detection of HCM mutation carriers. METHODS: We studied 140 carriers (G+) of the TPM1-Asp175Asn or MYBPC3-Gln1061X pathogenic variants for HCM: The G+/LVH+ group (n = 98) consisted of mutation carriers with LVH and the G+/LVH- group (n = 42) without LVH. The control group consisted of 30 subjects. The standard 12-lead ECG was comprehensively analyzed and two novel ECG variables were introduced: RV1RV3 and septal remodeling. A subset of 65 individuals underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 2D strain echocardiography. RESULTS: Conventional major ECG criteria were sensitive (90%) and specific (97%) in identifying G+/LVH+ subjects. RV1RV3 and septal remodeling were more prevalent in the G+/LVH- subjects compared to the control group (33% vs 3%, p = 0.005 and 45% vs 3%, p < 0.001, respectively). The combination of RV1RV3 and Q waves and repolarization abnormalities (QR) differentiated between the G+/LVH- subjects and the control group with a sensitivity of 52% and specificity of 97%. The combination of septal remodeling and QR differentiated between G+/LVH- subjects and the control group with a sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 97%. CONCLUSIONS: The novel ECG-parameters RV1RV3 and septal remodeling were effective in identifying G+/LVH- subjects and could be useful in the diagnostics of new suspected HCM patients and in the screening and follow-up of HCM families.

9.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1229-1240, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349858

RESUMO

Objective: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a well-established risk factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we assessed the effects of APOE polymorphism on cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammation-related parameters in population-based cohorts. Methods: Association of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammation-related parameters with the APOE polymorphism in a large Finnish Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) cohort and Finnish Geriatric Intervention study to prevent cognitive impairment and disability (FINGER) were investigated. Brain-specific effects were addressed in postmortem brain samples. Results: Individuals carrying the APOE ε4 allele displayed significantly elevated serum/plasma LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels. APOE ε3ε4 and ε4ε4 significantly associated with lower levels of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Plasma amyloid-ß 42 (Aß42) and reduced hs-CRP levels showed an association independently of the APOE status. Interpretation: These data suggest that the APOE ε4 allele associates with lower levels of hs-CRP in individuals without dementia. Moreover, Aß42 may encompass anti-inflammatory effects reflected by reduced hs-CRP levels.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15989, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375486

RESUMO

The rs780094 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; C/T) of glucokinase regulatory protein gene (GCKR) is a regulatory genetic variant that has been associated with lactate levels in the fasting state. However, the association of this locus with lactate during hyperglycemia, and the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unknown. We investigated the association of rs780094 with lactate levels in a frequently sampled oral glucose tolerance test in humans and evaluated the effect of increasing GCKR expression on lactate production in liver cells. The C allele of rs780094 was associated with lower lactate levels in fasting but increased lactate level during hyperglycemia independently of insulin levels. Increased expression of GKRP induced higher lactate level in HepG2 cells and in human primary hepatocytes (HPH) upon glucose stimulation by increasing the amount of GCK. Glucagon induced the expression of GCKR in HepG2 and HPH cells. Our results suggest that the association of rs780094 with lactate levels may involve differential GCKR expression between the carriers of the C and T alleles.

11.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 8(11): 3499-3506, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201759

RESUMO

We describe a simple bioinformatics method for biomarker discovery that is based on the analysis of global transcript levels in a population of inbred mouse strains showing variation for disease-related traits. This method has advantages such as controlled environment and accessibility to heart and plasma tissue in the preclinical selection stage. We illustrate the approach by identifying candidate heart failure (HF) biomarkers by overlaying mouse transcriptome and clinical traits from 91 Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) inbred strains and human HF transcriptome from the Myocardial Applied Genomics Network (MAGNet) consortium. We found that some of the top differentially expressed genes correlated with known human HF biomarkers, such as galectin-3 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Using ELISA assays, we investigated one novel candidate, Glycoprotein NMB, in a mouse model of chronic ß-adrenergic stimulation by isoproterenol (ISO) induced HF. We observed significantly lower GPNMB plasma levels in the ISO model compared to the control group (p-value = 0.007). In addition, we assessed GPNMB plasma levels among 389 HF cases and controls from the METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study. Lower levels of GPNMB were also observed in patients with HF from the METSIM study compared to non-HF controls (p-value < 0.0001). In summary, we have identified several candidate biomarkers for HF using the cardiac transcriptome data in a population of mice that may be directly relevant and applicable to human populations.

12.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 23(6): e12582, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by ventricular repolarization abnormalities and risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Our aim was to study the association between the phenotype and ventricular repolarization dynamics in HCM patients. METHODS: HCM patients with either the MYBPC3-Q1061X or TPM1-D175N mutation (n = 46) and control subjects without mutation and hypertrophy (n = 35) were studied with 24-hr ambulatory ECG recordings by measuring time intervals of rate-adapted QT (QTe), maximal QT, and T-wave apex to wave end (TPE) intervals and the QTe/RR slope. Findings were correlated to specified echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) findings. RESULTS: Rate-adapted QTe interval was progressively longer in HCM patients with decreasing heart rates compared to control subjects (p = 0.020). The degree of hypertrophy correlated with measured QTe values. HCM patients with maximal wall thickness higher than the mean (20.6 mm) had longer maximum QTe and median TPE intervals compared to control subjects and HCM patients with milder hypertrophy (p < 0.001 and p = 0.014, respectively). HCM patients with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on CMRI had steeper QTe/RR slopes compared to HCM patients without LGE and control subjects (p = 0.044 and p = 0.001, respectively). LGE was an independent predictor of QTe/RR slope (p = 0.023, B = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Dynamics of ventricular repolarization in HCM are affected by hypertrophy and fibrosis. LGE may confer an independent effect on QT dynamics which may increase the arrhythmogenic potential in HCM.

14.
Stem Cell Res ; 30: 96-99, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807259

RESUMO

An amyloid precursor protein (APP) A673T mutation was found to be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive decline in the Icelandic population and to associate with decreased levels of plasma ß-amyloid in a Finnish population-based cohort. Human fibroblasts from a Finnish male individual carrying the protective mutation were used to generate integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) line by Sendai virus technology. The iPSC line retained the mutation and expressed pluripotency markers, had a normal karyotype and differentiated into all three germ layers.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 620-635, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625024

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and functional genomics approaches implicate enhancer disruption in islet dysfunction and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. We applied genetic fine-mapping and functional (epi)genomic approaches to a T2D- and proinsulin-associated 15q22.2 locus to identify a most likely causal variant, determine its direction of effect, and elucidate plausible target genes. Fine-mapping and conditional analyses of proinsulin levels of 8,635 non-diabetic individuals from the METSIM study support a single association signal represented by a cluster of 16 strongly associated (p < 10-17) variants in high linkage disequilibrium (r2 > 0.8) with the GWAS index SNP rs7172432. These variants reside in an evolutionarily and functionally conserved islet and ß cell stretch or super enhancer; the most strongly associated variant (rs7163757, p = 3 × 10-19) overlaps a conserved islet open chromatin site. DNA sequence containing the rs7163757 risk allele displayed 2-fold higher enhancer activity than the non-risk allele in reporter assays (p < 0.01) and was differentially bound by ß cell nuclear extract proteins. Transcription factor NFAT specifically potentiated risk-allele enhancer activity and altered patterns of nuclear protein binding to the risk allele in vitro, suggesting that it could be a factor mediating risk-allele effects. Finally, the rs7163757 proinsulin-raising and T2D risk allele (C) was associated with increased expression of C2CD4B, and possibly C2CD4A, both of which were induced by inflammatory cytokines, in human islets. Together, these data suggest that rs7163757 contributes to genetic risk of islet dysfunction and T2D by increasing NFAT-mediated islet enhancer activity and modulating C2CD4B, and possibly C2CD4A, expression in (patho)physiologic states.

16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(10): 1830-1846, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566149

RESUMO

Most epigenome-wide association studies to date have been conducted in blood. However, metabolic syndrome is mediated by a dysregulation of adiposity and therefore it is critical to study adipose tissue in order to understand the effects of this syndrome on epigenomes. To determine if natural variation in DNA methylation was associated with metabolic syndrome traits, we profiled global methylation levels in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. We measured association between 32 clinical traits related to diabetes and obesity in 201 people from the Metabolic Syndrome in Men cohort. We performed epigenome-wide association studies between DNA methylation levels and traits, and identified associations for 13 clinical traits in 21 loci. We prioritized candidate genes in these loci using expression quantitative trait loci, and identified 18 high confidence candidate genes, including known and novel genes associated with diabetes and obesity traits. Using methylation deconvolution, we examined which cell types may be mediating the associations, and concluded that most of the loci we identified were specific to adipocytes. We determined whether the abundance of cell types varies with metabolic traits, and found that macrophages increased in abundance with the severity of metabolic syndrome traits. Finally, we developed a DNA methylation-based biomarker to assess type 2 diabetes risk in adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that profiling DNA methylation in adipose tissue is a powerful tool for understanding the molecular effects of metabolic syndrome on adipose tissue, and can be used in conjunction with traditional genetic analyses to further characterize this disorder.

17.
Front Physiol ; 9: 80, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467678

RESUMO

Background: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have emerged as a promising experimental tool for translational heart research and drug development. However, their usability as a human adult cardiomyocyte model is limited by their functional immaturity. Our aim is to analyse quantitatively those characteristics and how they differ from adult CMs. Methods and Results: We have developed a novel in silico model with all essential functional electrophysiology and calcium handling features of hiPSC-CMs. Importantly, the virtual cell recapitulates the immature intracellular ion dynamics that are characteristic for hiPSC-CMs, as quantified based our in vitro imaging data. The strong "calcium clock" is a source for a dual function of excitation-contraction coupling in hiPSC-CMs: action potential and calcium transient morphology vary substantially depending on the activation sequence of underlying ionic currents and fluxes that is altered in spontaneous vs. paced mode. Furthermore, parallel simulations with hiPSC-CM and adult cardiomyocyte models demonstrate the central differences. Results indicate that hiPSC-CMs translate poorly the disease specific phenotypes of Brugada syndrome, long QT Syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, showing less robustness and greater tendency for arrhythmic events than adult CMs. Based on a comparative sensitivity analysis, hiPSC-CMs share some features with adult CMs, but are still functionally closer to prenatal CMs than adult CMs. A database analysis of 3000 hiPSC-CM model variants suggests that hiPSC-CMs recapitulate poorly fundamental physiological properties of adult CMs. Single modifications do not appear to solve this problem, which is mostly contributed by the immaturity of intracellular calcium handling. Conclusion: Our data indicates that translation of findings from hiPSC-CMs to human disease should be made with great caution. Furthermore, we established a mathematical platform that can be used to improve the translation from hiPSC-CMs to human, and to quantitatively evaluate hiPSC-CMs development toward more general and valuable model for human cardiac diseases.

18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(9): 1664-1674, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481666

RESUMO

Comprehensive metabolite profiling captures many highly heritable traits, including amino acid levels, which are potentially sensitive biomarkers for disease pathogenesis. To better understand the contribution of genetic variation to amino acid levels, we performed single variant and gene-based tests of association between nine serum amino acids (alanine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine) and 16.6 million genotyped and imputed variants in 8545 non-diabetic Finnish men from the METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study with replication in Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966). We identified five novel loci associated with amino acid levels (P = < 5×10-8): LOC157273/PPP1R3B with glycine (rs9987289, P = 2.3×10-26); ZFHX3 (chr16:73326579, minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.42%, P = 3.6×10-9), LIPC (rs10468017, P = 1.5×10-8), and WWOX (rs9937914, P = 3.8×10-8) with alanine; and TRIB1 with tyrosine (rs28601761, P = 8×10-9). Gene-based tests identified two novel genes harboring missense variants of MAF <1% that show aggregate association with amino acid levels: PYCR1 with glycine (Pgene = 1.5×10-6) and BCAT2 with valine (Pgene = 7.4×10-7); neither gene was implicated by single variant association tests. These findings are among the first applications of gene-based tests to identify new loci for amino acid levels. In addition to the seven novel gene associations, we identified five independent signals at established amino acid loci, including two rare variant signals at GLDC (rs138640017, MAF=0.95%, Pconditional = 5.8×10-40) with glycine levels and HAL (rs141635447, MAF = 0.46%, Pconditional = 9.4×10-11) with histidine levels. Examination of all single variant association results in our data revealed a strong inverse relationship between effect size and MAF (Ptrend<0.001). These novel signals provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms of amino acid metabolism and potentially, their perturbations in disease.

19.
Diabetes ; 67(2): 334-342, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141982

RESUMO

Rare fully penetrant mutations in AKT2 are an established cause of monogenic disorders of glucose metabolism. Recently, a novel partial loss-of-function AKT2 coding variant (p.Pro50Thr) was identified that is nearly specific to Finns (frequency 1.1%), with the low-frequency allele associated with an increase in fasting plasma insulin level and risk of type 2 diabetes. The effects of the p.Pro50Thr AKT2 variant (p.P50T/AKT2) on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in the whole body and in different tissues have not previously been investigated. We identified carriers (N = 20) and matched noncarriers (N = 25) for this allele in the population-based Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM)study and invited these individuals back for positron emission tomography study with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. When we compared p.P50T/AKT2 carriers to noncarriers, we found a 39.4% reduction in whole-body GU (P = 0.006) and a 55.6% increase in the rate of endogenous glucose production (P = 0.038). We found significant reductions in GU in multiple tissues-skeletal muscle (36.4%), liver (16.1%), brown adipose (29.7%), and bone marrow (32.9%)-and increases of 16.8-19.1% in seven tested brain regions. These data demonstrate that the p.P50T substitution of AKT2 influences insulin-mediated GU in multiple insulin-sensitive tissues and may explain, at least in part, the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in p.P50T/AKT2 carriers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Resistência à Insulina , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Absorção Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Precoce , Finlândia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/metabolismo , Seguimentos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
20.
Metabolism ; 78: 1-12, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for early markers to track and predict the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from the state of normal glucose tolerance through prediabetes. In this study we tested whether the plasma molecular lipidome has biomarker potential to predicting the onset of T2DM. METHODS: We applied global lipidomic profiling on plasma samples from well-phenotyped men (107 cases, 216 controls) participating in the longitudinal METSIM study at baseline and at five-year follow-up. To validate the lipid markers, an additional study with a representative sample of adult male population (n=631) was also conducted. A total of 277 plasma lipids were analyzed using the lipidomics platform based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Lipids with the highest predictive power for the development of T2DM were computationally selected, validated and compared to standard risk models without lipids. RESULTS: A persistent lipid signature with higher levels of triacylglycerols and diacyl-phospholipids as well as lower levels of alkylacyl phosphatidylcholines was observed in progressors to T2DM. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C18:2 (LysoPC(18:2)), phosphatidylcholines PC(32:1), PC(34:2e) and PC(36:1), and triacylglycerol TG(17:1/18:1/18:2) were selected to the full model that included metabolic risk factors and FINDRISC variables. When further adjusting for BMI and age, these lipids had respective odds ratios of 0.32, 2.4, 0.50, 2.2 and 0.31 (all p<0.05) for progression to T2DM. The independently-validated predictive power improved in all pairwise comparisons between the lipid model and the respective standard risk model without the lipids (integrated discrimination improvement IDI>0; p<0.05). Notably, the lipid models remained predictive of the development of T2DM in the fasting plasma glucose-matched subset of the validation study. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that a lipid signature characteristic of T2DM is present years before the diagnosis and improves prediction of progression to T2DM. Molecular lipid biomarkers were shown to have predictive power also in a high-risk group, where standard risk factors are not helpful at distinguishing progressors from non-progressors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Finlândia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Fatores de Risco
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