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1.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423124

RESUMO

The potential contribution of serum osmolarity in the modulation of blood pressure has not been evaluated. This study was done to examine the relationship between hyperosmolarity and hypertension in a five-year longitudinal design. We enrolled 10,157 normotensive subjects without diabetes who developed hypertension subsequently as determined by annual medical examination in St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, between 2004 and 2009. High salt intake was defined as >12 g/day by a self-answered questionnaire and hyperosmolarity was defined as >293 mOsm/L serum osmolarity, calculated using serum sodium, fasting blood glucose, and blood urea nitrogen. Statistical analyses included adjustments for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, drinking alcohol, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, and chronic kidney disease. In the patients with normal osmolarity, the group with high salt intake had a higher cumulative incidence of hypertension than the group with normal salt intake (8.4% versus 6.7%, p = 0.023). In contrast, in the patients with high osmolarity, the cumulative incidence of hypertension was similar in the group with high salt intake and in the group with normal salt intake (13.1% versus 12.9%, p = 0.84). The patients with hyperosmolarity had a higher incidence of hypertension over five years compared to that of the normal osmolarity group (p < 0.001). After multiple adjustments, elevated osmolarity was an independent risk for developing hypertension (OR (odds ratio), 1.025; 95% CI (confidence interval), 1.006-1.044), regardless of the amount of salt intake. When analyzed in relation to each element of calculated osmolarity, serum sodium and fasting blood glucose were independent risks for developing hypertension. Our results suggest that hyperosmolarity is a risk for developing hypertension regardless of salt intake.

2.
J Pediatr ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the epidemiologic characteristics, treatments, and cardiac complications of KD, using data from the nationwide survey in Japan. STUDY DESIGN: The nationwide KD survey in Japan has been conducted biennially since 1970. The most recent survey was completed in 2019, obtaining information for patients who developed KD during 2017-2018. Survey respondents were hospitals specializing in pediatrics and those with ≥100 beds and a pediatric department throughout Japan, where patients with Kawasaki disease were eventually hospitalized. RESULTS: The survey identified 32528 patients with Kawasaki disease, which consisted of 15164 (46.6%) in 2017 and 17364 (53.4%) in 2018. The highest annual incidence rate was recorded in 2018 (359 per 100,000 children aged 0-4 years). After 1982, patients with ≤4 principal KD signs gradually increased, resulting in 6847 (21.1%) patients diagnosed during 2017-2018. Among 30784 patients receiving initial intravenous immunoglobulin administration, 6061 (19.7%) did not respond. Within 30 days of KD onset, 9.0% of patients were diagnosed with cardiac complications, and consequently, 2.6% of patients developed cardiac sequelae after the acute illness. CONCLUSIONS: The annual number of patients developing KD in Japan increased from 1970 through 2018, while the proportion of patients with Kawasaki disease with cardiac complications decreased in the most recent two decades. Early diagnosis of KD as well as advances in initial treatments could explain these findings.

3.
J Nephrol ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440840

RESUMO

The most common cause of liver disease worldwide is now non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD refers to a spectrum of disease ranging from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, causing cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the impact of NAFLD is not limited to the liver. NAFLD has extra-hepatic consequences, most notably, cardiovascular and renal disease. NAFLD and chronic kidney disease share pathogenic mechanisms including insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress. Not surprisingly, there has been a recent surge in efforts to manage NAFLD in an integrated way that not only protects the liver but also delays comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease. This concept of simultaneously addressing the main disease target and comorbidities is key to improve outcomes, as recently demonstrated by clinical trials of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP1 receptor agonists in diabetes. HIF activators, already marketed in China, also have the potential to protect both liver and kidney, as suggested by preclinical data. This review concisely discusses efforts at identifying common pathogenic pathways between NAFLD and chronic kidney disease with an emphasis on potential paradigm shifts in diagnostic workup and therapeutic management.

4.
6.
Angiology ; 71(4): 315-323, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000517

RESUMO

Several trials have been completed in patients with heart failure (HF) treated with uric acid (UA)-lowering agents with inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether lowering UA would have an effect on mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with HF in a systematic review and meta-analysis. The primary outcome measures were all-cause mortality, CV mortality, CV events, and CV hospitalization in patients with HF. We included 11 studies in our final analysis. Overall, allopurinol treatment was associated with a significant increase in the risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.49, P = .02). The trial heterogeneity is high (heterogeneity χ2 = 37.3, I2 = 73%, P < .001). With regard to CV mortality, allopurinol treatment was associated with a 42% increased risk of CV mortality (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.11-1.81, P = .005). There was a trend toward increased CV hospitalization in the same group (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.95-1.53, P = .12). Uric acid-lowering treatments increase all-cause and CV mortality but did not increase CV hospitalization significantly in this study.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Febuxostat/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Oxipurinol/uso terapêutico , Ácido Úrico
7.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 52(3): 541-547, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a relatively common complication following primary coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially in at-risk patients. The goal of this study is to evaluate the role of pre-procedural serum osmolarity as a risk factor for CIN in patients undergoing elective CAG for stable coronary artery disease (CAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 356 stable CAD patients scheduled to undergo CAG or PCI were included in this two-center study. Serum osmolarity was calculated on admission. CIN was defined according to the KDIGO criteria. RESULTS: There were 45 (12.6%) patients who developed CIN 48-72 h after CAG or PCI. CIN patients had a higher prevalence of diabetes (51.1% in those with CIN vs 24.4% in those without CIN, p < 0.001), higher serum glucose (129 mg/dL in those with CIN vs 108 mg/dL in those without CIN, p < 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (22.4 mg/dL in those with CIN vs 19.0 mg/dL in those without CIN, p = 0.01) and serum osmolarity (294.2 mOsm in those with CIN vs 290.1 mOsm in those without CIN, p < 0.001) levels, had received a higher dose of contrast (250 mL in those with CIN vs 200 mL in those without CIN, p = 0.03) but had lower hemoglobin (12.9 g/dL in those with CIN vs 13.6 g/dL in those without CIN, p = 0.04) level. In multivariate analysis, serum osmolarity [odds ratio (OR) 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.18 for each mOsm/L increase; p = 0.001], diabetes (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.26-4.71; p = 0.01), C-reactive protein (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08 for each mg/dL increase; p = 0.02) and contrast volume (OR 34.66, 95% CI 1.25-962.22 for each L increase; p = 0.04) remained as independent predictors of CIN. Serum sodium, glucose and blood urea nitrogen contributed to the excess serum osmolarity of CIN patients. CONCLUSION: Serum osmolarity is a cheap and widely available marker that can reliably predict CIN after CAG or PCI. Future research should focus on determining a clinically optimal cutoff for serum osmolarity that would warrant preventive interventions. Furthermore, later research may investigate the role of serum osmolarity not only as a risk factor but also as a pathogenetic mechanism underlying CIN.

9.
J Hypertens ; 38(2): 371-372, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913953
10.
Hypertens Res ; 43(4): 354-356, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988480
11.
J Diabetes ; 12(3): 197-204, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fructose is distinct among common sugars in its ability to raise serum uric acid, and some studies suggest fructose-induced uric acid production may have a role in the ability of this sugar to induce metabolic syndrome. A fructose tolerance test has been previously developed to evaluate the relative ability of fructose to raise uric acid in individuals. However, the effect of fructose to raise uric acid in people with diabetes has not been studied. METHODS: People with type 2 diabetes (n = 143) and without diabetes controls (n = 132) with similar body mass index (BMI) underwent an oral fructose tolerance test. As a comparison, participants also had their uric acid levels measured after an oral glucose tolerance test on a different day. RESULTS: Serum uric acid was lower in people with type 2 diabetes compared to controls with a similar BMI, especially those with poor glucose control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥ 8%). Fructose administration raised serum uric acid in both groups, with a lower absolute rise in people with diabetes. People with diabetes with a blunted rise in serum uric acid had higher baseline serum uric acid concentrations and a higher BMI. People without diabetes with a higher BMI also showed a blunted serum uric acid response. Oral glucose administration lowered serum uric acid in both participants, with a greater fall in those with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Both the presence of diabetes and obesity blunt the serum uric acid response to fructose ingestion. These data demonstrate altered fructose-dependent urate metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(3): 197-203, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet count is considered as a biomarker for the development of coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) among Kawasaki disease (KD) patients. However, previous studies have reported inconsistent results. We addressed the controversial association of platelet count with CAAs using a large-scale dataset. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using KD survey data from Japan (2015-2016; n = 25,448). Classifying patients by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) responsiveness, we described the trends in platelet count using the lowest and highest values along with the specific illness days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between platelet count and CAAs, adjusting for relevant factors. RESULTS: Platelet counts rapidly decreased from admission, reached the lowest count at 6-7 days, and peaked after 10 days. Platelet counts in IVIG non-responders decreased with a lower minimum value than IVIG responders, but subsequently rebounded toward a higher maximum. Compared with patients with normal platelet counts (150-450 × 10/L), patients with abnormally high platelet counts (>450 × 10/L) were more likely to have CAAs at admission (adjusted odds ratio: IVIG responders, 1.50 [95% confidence interval 1.20-1.87] and non-responders, 1.46 [1.01-2.12]). By contrast, IVIG non-responding patients whose counts were below normal (<150 × 10/L) after hospitalization were at higher risk for developing CAAs (2.27 [1.44-3.58]). CONCLUSIONS: Platelet count varied widely by illness day and was confounded by IVIG responsiveness, which might have contributed to previous inconsistent findings. KD patients with abnormally high platelet counts at admission or abnormally low counts after hospitalization were at higher risk for CAAs.

13.
Clin Kidney J ; 12(6): 861-870, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807301

RESUMO

Chronic non-communicable diseases have become a pandemic public problem in the 21st century, causing enormous burden on the economy, health and quality of life of societies. The role of a chronic inflammatory state in the pathogenesis of chronic disease has been more comprehensively recognized by recent findings. The new paradigm 'metaflammation' focuses on metabolism-induced (high fat or fructose-based diet or excessive calorie intake) chronic inflammation. There is a close correlation between the increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic heart failure with both increased inflammatory marker levels and western-type diet. In this review we describe the concept of metaflammation, its role in the development of CKD and chronic heart disease, the molecular and signalling pathways involved and the therapeutic consequences.

14.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(12): 1143-1145, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586419
15.
Circ J ; 83(11): 2282-2291, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) includes inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Cell-based therapy using adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) has emerged as a novel therapeutic approach to treat heart failure in MI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a combination of ASC transplantation and SNS inhibition synergistically improves cardiac functions after MI.Methods and Results:ASCs were isolated from fat tissues of Lewis rats. In in vitro studies using cultured ASC cells, mRNA levels of angiogenic factors under normoxia or hypoxia, and the effects of norepinephrine and a ß-blocker, carvedilol, on the mRNA levels were determined. Hypoxia increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in ASCs. Norepinephrine further increased VEGF mRNA; this effect was unaffected by carvedilol. VEGF promoted VEGF receptor phosphorylation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which were inhibited by carvedilol. In in vivo studies using a rat MI model, transplanted ASC sheets improved contractile functions of MI hearts; they also facilitated neovascularization and suppressed fibrosis after MI. These beneficial effects of ASC sheets were abolished by carvedilol. The effects of ASC sheets and carvedilol on MI heart functions were confirmed by Langendorff perfusion experiments using isolated hearts. CONCLUSIONS: ASC sheets prevented cardiac dysfunctions and remodeling after MI in a rat model via VEGF secretion. Inhibition of VEGF effects by carvedilol abolished their beneficial effects.

16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(11): 1592-1600, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of standardisation in the terminology used to describe gout. The aim of this project was to develop a consensus statement describing the recommended nomenclature for disease states of gout. METHODS: A content analysis of gout-related articles from rheumatology and general internal medicine journals published over a 5-year period identified potential disease states and the labels commonly assigned to them. Based on these findings, experts in gout were invited to participate in a Delphi exercise and face-to-face consensus meeting to reach agreement on disease state labels and definitions. RESULTS: The content analysis identified 13 unique disease states and a total of 63 unique labels. The Delphi exercise (n=76 respondents) and face-to-face meeting (n=35 attendees) established consensus agreement for eight disease state labels and definitions. The agreed labels were as follows: 'asymptomatic hyperuricaemia', 'asymptomatic monosodium urate crystal deposition', 'asymptomatic hyperuricaemia with monosodium urate crystal deposition', 'gout', 'tophaceous gout', 'erosive gout', 'first gout flare' and 'recurrent gout flares'. There was consensus agreement that the label 'gout' should be restricted to current or prior clinically evident disease caused by monosodium urate crystal deposition (gout flare, chronic gouty arthritis or subcutaneous tophus). CONCLUSION: Consensus agreement has been established for the labels and definitions of eight gout disease states, including 'gout' itself. The Gout, Hyperuricaemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network recommends the use of these labels when describing disease states of gout in research and clinical practice.

18.
Circulation ; 140(12): 992-1003, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the primary prevention of coronary artery disease events by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering therapy in older individuals, aged ≥75 years, is insufficient. This trial tested whether LDL-C-lowering therapy with ezetimibe is useful for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in older patients. METHODS: This multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded end-point evaluation conducted at 363 medical institutions in Japan examined the preventive efficacy of ezetimibe for patients aged ≥75 years, with elevated LDL-C without history of coronary artery disease. Patients, who all received dietary counseling, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ezetimibe (10 mg once daily) versus usual care with randomization stratified by site, age, sex, and baseline LDL-C. The primary outcome was a composite of sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or stroke. RESULTS: Overall, 3796 patients were enrolled between May 2009 and December 2014, and 1898 each were randomly assigned to ezetimibe versus control. Median follow-up was 4.1 years. After exclusion of 182 ezetimibe patients and 203 control patients because of lack of appropriate informed consent and other protocol violations, 1716 (90.4%) and 1695 (89.3%) patients were included in the primary analysis, respectively. Ezetimibe reduced the incidence of the primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.86; P=0.002). Regarding the secondary outcomes, the incidences of composite cardiac events (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.98; P=0.039) and coronary revascularization (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18-0.79; P=0.007) were lower in the ezetimibe group than in the control group; however, there was no difference in the incidence of stroke, all-cause mortality, or adverse events between trial groups. CONCLUSIONS: LDL-C-lowering therapy with ezetimibe prevented cardiovascular events, suggesting the importance of LDL-C lowering for primary prevention in individuals aged ≥75 years with elevated LDL-C. Given the open-label nature of the trial, its premature termination and issues with follow-up, the magnitude of benefit observed should be interpreted with caution. Clinical Registration: URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp. Unique identifier: UMIN000001988.

19.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(4): F941-F948, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411075

RESUMO

Obesity and metabolic syndrome are well-known risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, less is known about the mechanism(s) by which metabolic syndrome might accelerate kidney disease. We hypothesized that metabolic syndrome should accelerate the development of kidney disease and that it might be associated with alterations in energy metabolism. We studied the pound mouse (which develops early metabolic syndrome due to a leptin receptor deletion) and wild-type littermates and compared the level of renal injury and muscle wasting after equivalent injury with oral adenine. Renal function, histology, and biochemical analyses were performed. The presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with earlier development of renal disease (12 mo) and earlier mortality in pound mice compared with controls. After administration of adenine, kidney disease was worse in pound mice, and this was associated with greater tubular injury with a decrease in kidney mitochondria, lower tissue ATP levels, and worse oxidative stress. Pound mice with similar levels of renal function as adenine-treated wild-type mice also showed worse sarcopenia, with lower tissue ATP and intracellular phosphate levels. In summary, our data demonstrate that obesity and metabolic syndrome accelerate the progression of CKD and worsen CKD-dependent sarcopenia. Both conditions are associated with renal alterations in energy metabolism and lower tissue ATP levels secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced mitochondrial number.

20.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 15(12): 767-775, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296965

RESUMO

Hyperuricaemia is common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and increases in severity with the deterioration of kidney function. Although existing guidelines for CKD management do not recommend testing for or treatment of hyperuricaemia in the absence of a diagnosis of gout or urate nephrolithiasis, an emerging body of evidence supports a direct causal relationship between serum urate levels and the development of CKD. Here, we review randomized clinical trials that have evaluated the effect of urate-lowering therapy (ULT) on the rate of CKD progression. Among trials in which individuals in the control arm experienced progressive deterioration of kidney function (which we define as ≥4 ml/min/1.73 m² over the course of the study - typically 6 months to 2 years), treatment with ULT conferred consistent clinical benefits. In contrast, among trials where clinical progression was not observed in the control arm, treatment with ULT was ineffective, but this finding should not be used as an argument against the use of uric acid-lowering therapy. Although additional studies are needed to identify threshold values of serum urate for treatment initiation and to confirm optimal target levels, we believe that sufficient evidence exists to recommend routine measurement of serum urate levels in patients with CKD and consider initiation of ULT among those who are hyperuricaemic with evidence of deteriorating renal function, unless specific contraindications exist.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Úrico/antagonistas & inibidores
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