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1.
Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat ; : 106471, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585250

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to clarify whether human amniotic fluid (AF) contains a significant level of bioactive lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and, whether autotaxin (ATX) is involved in the production of LPA, if present. Using LC-MS/MS, we found a higher ratio of levels of LPA and its precursor lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in AF collected after parturition than that in AF collected at the middle stage of pregnancy. We detected significant choline-producing enzymatic activity toward an exogenous LPC in AF at the middle stage of pregnancy, about half of which was ascribable to ATX. In AF collected after parturition, the ATX-independent choline-producing activity of glycerophosphcholine phosphodiesterase coupled to lysophospholipase A activity was increased in relative to the lysophospholipase D activity of ATX. These results suggest that the increased LPA/LPC ratio in AF at the term of pregnancy was due to not only a moderate increase in the level of LPC, but also an unknown mechanism involving epithelial cells bathed with AF.

4.
Hum Reprod ; 34(12): 2340-2348, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811307

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) improve the live birth rate and reduce the miscarriage rate in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) caused by an abnormal embryonic karyotype and recurrent implantation failure (RIF)? SUMMARY ANSWER: PGT-A could not improve the live births per patient nor reduce the rate of miscarriage, in both groups. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: PGT-A use has steadily increased worldwide. However, only a few limited studies have shown that it improves the live birth rate in selected populations in that the prognosis has been good. Such studies have excluded patients with RPL and RIF. In addition, several studies have failed to demonstrate any benefit at all. PGT-A was reported to be without advantage in patients with unexplained RPL whose embryonic karyotype had not been analysed. The efficacy of PGT-A should be examined by focusing on patients whose previous products of conception (POC) have been aneuploid, because the frequencies of abnormal and normal embryonic karyotypes have been reported as 40-50% and 5-25% in patients with RPL, respectively. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A multi-centre, prospective pilot study was conducted from January 2017 to June 2018. A total of 171 patients were recruited for the study: an RPL group, including 41 and 38 patients treated respectively with and without PGT-A, and an RIF group, including 42 and 50 patients treated respectively with and without PGT-A. At least 10 women in each age group (35-36, 37-38, 39-40 or 41-42 years) were selected for PGT-A groups. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All patients and controls had received IVF-ET for infertility. Patients in the RPL group had had two or more miscarriages, and at least one case of aneuploidy had been ascertained through prior POC testing. No pregnancies had occurred in the RIF group, even after at least three embryo transfers. Trophectoderm biopsy and array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) were used for PGT-A. The live birth rate of PGT-A and non-PGT-A patients was compared after the development of blastocysts from up to two oocyte retrievals and a single blastocyst transfer. The miscarriage rate and the frequency of euploidy, trisomy and monosomy in the blastocysts were noted. MAIN RESULT AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: There were no significant differences in the live birth rates per patient given or not given PGT-A: 26.8 versus 21.1% in the RPL group and 35.7 versus 26.0% in the RIF group, respectively. There were also no differences in the miscarriage rates per clinical pregnancies given or not given PGT-A: 14.3 versus 20.0% in the RPL group and 11.8 versus 0% in the RIF group, respectively. However, PGT-A improved the live birth rate per embryo transfer procedure in both the RPL (52.4 vs 21.6%, adjusted OR 3.89; 95% CI 1.16-13.1) and RIF groups (62.5 vs 31.7%, adjusted OR 3.75; 95% CI 1.28-10.95). Additionally, PGT-A was shown to reduce biochemical pregnancy loss per biochemical pregnancy: 12.5 and 45.0%, adjusted OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.85 in the RPL group and 10.5 and 40.9%, adjusted OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.03-0.92 in the RIF group. There was no difference in the distribution of genetic abnormalities between RPL and RIF patients, although double trisomy tended to be more frequent in RPL patients. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The sample size was too small to find any significant advantage for improving the live birth rate and reducing the clinical miscarriage rate per patient. Further study is necessary. WIDER IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS: A large portion of pregnancy losses in the RPL group might be due to aneuploidy, since PGT-A reduced the overall incidence of pregnancy loss in these patients. Although PGT-A did not improve the live birth rate per patient, it did have the advantage of reducing the number of embryo transfers required to achieve a similar number live births compared with those not undergoing PGT-A. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and grants from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology. There are no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

5.
Hum Reprod ; 34(8): 1567-1575, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299081

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What were the risks with regard to the pregnancy outcomes of patients who conceived by frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) during a hormone replacement cycle (HRC-FET)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The patients who conceived by HRC-FET had increased risks of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and placenta accreta and a reduced risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in comparison to those who conceived by FET during a natural ovulatory cycle (NC-FET). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies have shown that pregnancy and live-birth rates after HRC-FET and NC-FET are comparable. Little has been clarified regarding the association between endometrium preparation and other pregnancy outcomes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective cohort study of patients who conceived after HRC-FET and those who conceived after NC-FET was performed based on the Japanese assisted reproductive technology registry in 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The pregnancy outcomes were compared between NC-FET (n = 29 760) and HRC-FET (n = 75 474) cycles. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the potential confounding factors. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The pregnancy rate (32.1% vs 36.1%) and the live birth rate among pregnancies (67.1% vs 71.9%) in HRC-FET cycles were significantly lower than those in NC-FET cycles. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that pregnancies after HRC-FET had increased odds of HDPs [adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.80] and placenta accreta (adjusted odds ratio, 6.91; 95% CI, 2.87-16.66) and decreased odds for GDM (adjusted odds ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.40-0.68) in comparison to pregnancies after NC-FET. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Our study was retrospective in nature, and some cases were excluded due to missing data. The implication of bias and residual confounding factors such as body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits should be considered in other observational studies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Pregnancies following HRC-FET are associated with higher risks of HDPs and placenta accreta and a lower risk of GDM. The association between the endometrium preparation method and obstetrical complication merits further attention. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): No funding was obtained for this work. The authors declare no conflicts of interest in association with the present study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable.

6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 192, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are at increased risk of specific major birth defects compared with children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). However, whether this risk is due to the treatment itself (i.e., IVF or ICSI) or underlying male subfertility is unknown. This study investigated the associations between male subfertility and the risk of major birth defects in children born after IVF and ICSI. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Japanese assisted reproductive technology registry between 2007 and 2014. Fresh embryo transfer cycles registered from 2007 to 2014 that resulted in singleton live births, still births, or selective terminations were included (n = 59,971). Major birth defects were defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, excluding chromosomal abnormalities. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using generalized estimating equations adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Major birth defects were reported in 626/59,971 (1.04%) cases. Among IVF cycles, male subfertility was associated with significantly greater risks of hypospadias (3/3163 [0.09%] vs 4/28,671 [0.01%], adjusted OR = 6.85, 95% CI 2.05-22.9, P = 0.002) and atrial septal defects (4/3163 [0.13%] vs 9/28,671 [0.03%], adjusted OR = 3.98, 95% CI 1.12-14.1, P = 0.03) compared with fertile men. Subgroup analysis using sperm parameters showed that oligozoospermia (i.e., sperm concentrations < 15 million/mL) was significantly associated with a greater risk of ventricular septal defects compared with normal sperm concentrations in IVF pregnancies (5/868 [0.58%] vs 60/28,090 [0.21%], adjusted OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.15-6.27, P = 0.02), and severe oligozoospermia (i.e., sperm concentrations < 5 million/mL) was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypospadias compared with normal sperm concentrations in ICSI pregnancies (5/3136 [0.16%] vs 5/16,865 [0.03%], adjusted OR = 3.88, 95% CI 1.14-13.2, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory study suggest that underlying male subfertility may play a role in the risk of major birth defects related to ICSI and IVF. Further research, including systematic reviews adjusting for confounders, is required to confirm the associations between male subfertility and major cardiac and urogenital birth defects.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Transferência Embrionária/efeitos adversos , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Infertilidade Masculina/complicações , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Med Invest ; 66(1.2): 123-127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of intraperitoneal administration of activin on the occurrence of endometriosis using a mouse model of endometriosis. METHODS: A mouse model of endometriosis was prepared by intraperitoneally administering endometrial tissue and blood collected from donor mice to C57BL/6J 7-8- week-old recipient mice. A total of 400 µg of activin A was intraperitoneally administered to model mice in the activin group for 5 days. Intraperitoneal endometriotic lesions were confirmed macroscopically and IL-6 and TNF-α levels in washed ascites were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Endometriotic lesions were observed in all mice. In the activin group, the maximum diameter of endometriotic lesions was significantly larger than that in control group (4.7?1.3 vs 2.9?0.9 mm, p?0.01). The total area of the lesion was also significantly higher in the activin group than in the control group (21.1?9.9 vs 8.8?5.4 mm2,p?0.01). Furthermore, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in ascites were significantly higher in the activin group than in the control group (IL-6 : 85.8?15.3 vs 75.1?19.3 pg/ml, p?0.05 ; TNF-α : 629.8?15.4 vs 605.9?11.4 pg/ml, p?0.05). CONCLUSION: Activin promotes occurrence of endometriosis. Inflammatory cytokines are also elevated by activin administration,suggesting that they may contribute to progression of endometriosis J. Med. Invest. 66 : 123-127, February, 2019.


Assuntos
Ativinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endometriose/induzido quimicamente , Ativinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Endometriose/imunologia , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interleucina-6/análise , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
8.
J Med Invest ; 66(1.2): 165-171, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064932

RESUMO

As the follicular environment transits from being activin dominant to inhibin dominant during folliculogenesis, it is assumed that activin plays an important role in the early stage of follicular growth. We examined the effects of activin on morphological, biochemical and molecular changes in isolated preantral follicles. Preantral follicles were mechanically isolated from 14-day old female C57BL/6 mice. Each follicle was cultured and observed for 14 days usingan in vitro follicle culture system containing FSH, FSH + activin A and FSH + inhibin in the culture medium. We subsequently examined FSH receptor (FSH-R) mRNA expression in isolated follicle cultures with or without activin on days 0 and 2. Activin was observed to significantly stimulate follicle enlargement on days 2, 4, 6 and 8, accelerate morphological changes and increase estradiollevels in culture medium on days 4, 12 and 14. In contrast, inhibin did not alter follicular growth. Additionally, activin stimulated the expression of FSH-R mRNA in isolated granulosa cells. It was demonstrated that activin stimulated the growth of preantral follicles, mainly during the early stage of folliculogenesis, by inducing FSH-R expression, in an isolated follicle culture system. J. Med. Invest. 66 : 165-171, February, 2019.


Assuntos
Ativinas/farmacologia , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Receptores do FSH/análise , Receptores do FSH/genética
9.
J Med Invest ; 66(1.2): 70-74, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064958

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the early development of endometriosis and on the production of cytokines and chemokines in the murine peritoneal cavity. METHODS: Endometriotic lesions were induced in C57BL/6J adult female mice by intraperitoneal injection of endometrial fragments plus blood or endometrial fragments plus blood with LPS. On day 7, endometriotic lesions were assessed by gross and microscopic evaluations. Time-dependent changes in the secretion of TNF-α,IL-6,and CXCL2/MIP-2 in peritoneal lavage fluid after the intraperitoneal injection of LPS (50 µg/body) were measured by their respective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: The areas of endometriotic lesions in the LPS group (10.8 8.6 mm2) were significantly larger than those in the control group (3.1 3.7 mm2).The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 peaked within 2 hours and the level of MIP-2 reached a maximum on day 1 after the injection of LPS. CONCLUSIONS: LPS promotes development of the early stages of murine endometriotic lesions. J. Med. Invest. 66 : 70-74, February, 2019.


Assuntos
Endometriose/patologia , Endométrio/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Peritônio/patologia , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL2/fisiologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endometriose/imunologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
Neuropeptides ; 75: 49-57, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885500

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that oxytocin reduces food intake and body weight gain and promotes lipolysis in some species, including humans. Interestingly, these effects of oxytocin are more marked in obese individuals. Although the menopausal loss of ovarian function induces increased visceral adiposity and some metabolic disorders, no safe medical interventions for these conditions have been established. In this study, we evaluated the effects of oxytocin on appetite, body weight, and fat mass in ovariectomized rats. Six-day oxytocin treatment attenuated cumulative food intake and body weight gain, and reduced visceral and subcutaneous fat weight and adipocyte cell area in ovariectomized rats. Blood examinations indicated that 6-day oxytocin treatment did not alter renal or hepatic functions. Instead, it might prevent ovariectomy-induced liver damage. In addition, acute oxytocin treatment did not affect body temperature or locomotor activity. These results indicate that oxytocin might be useful for treating or preventing menopause-induced metabolic disorders, without causing any adverse effects.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Ratos
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3076, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816139

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested ovarian stimulation was associated with lower birth weight and higher risk of preterm delivery (PTD) from fresh embryo transfers (ETs). However, whether the increased risk differs between distinct ovarian stimulation protocols remains unknown. A retrospective cohort study of 38,220 singleton deliveries after fresh single ETs from 2007 to 2013 was conducted. Main outcomes were birth weight and gestational length. Compared with the natural cycle, all ovarian stimulation protocols were associated with a significantly increased risk for PTD, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). In subgroup analysis of maternal age under 35 years, luteal support using progesterone, and early cleavage ETs, the significant associations remained for LBW and SGA in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and for LBW in GnRH agonist protocol. Ovarian stimulation using clomiphene citrate (CC) had the highest increased risks for LBW (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.58, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.43-1.73) and SGA (AOR, 1.65, 95% CI, 1.50-1.82) compared with natural cycles, and was further associated with PTD and cesarean section. These findings suggest ovarian stimulation was associated with lower birth weight, and CC may have adverse effect on neonatal outcomes in fresh cycles.

12.
Reprod Med Biol ; 18(1): 7-16, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655717

RESUMO

Purpose: The Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology started an online cycle-based assisted reproductive technology (ART) registry system in 2007. This report presents the characteristics and treatment outcomes of ART registered for the cycles practiced during 2016. Methods: Cycle-specific information for all ART cycles implemented in participating ART facilities were collected. A descriptive analysis was conducted for the registry database of 2016. Results: In total, 447 790 treatment cycles and 54 110 neonates (one in 18.1 neonates born in Japan) were reported in 2016. The mean patients' age was 38.1 years (SD = 4.5). Among the egg retrieval cycles, 104 575 of 251 399 (41.6%) were freeze-all cycles without fresh embryo transfers (ET), while fresh ET was performed in 64 497 cycles (58.4%). A total of 187 132 frozen-thawed ET cycles were reported, resulting in 62 432 pregnancies and 44 484 neonates born. Single ET was selected for 81.0% of fresh transfers and 82.7% of frozen cycles, resulting in singleton pregnancy/live birth rates of 97.0%/96.4% and 96.7%/96.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The total ART cycles and subsequent live births continued to increase in 2016. Single ET was performed more than 80%, and ET has shifted from using fresh embryos to frozen ones.

13.
Reprod Med Biol ; 18(1): 91-96, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655726

RESUMO

Purpose: A retrospective, cohort study was conducted between 2009 and 2017 in a private infertility center to determine the predictive value of endogenous estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels in hormone-replacement frozen embryo replacement (FER) treatment cycles. Methods: A total of 120 consecutive, infertile patients who became pregnant after FER cycles were analyzed (age: 37.4 ± 4.4 years). Electively vitrified blastocysts were created during natural cycle IVF or mild ovarian stimulation treatments and subsequently transferred through delayed vitrified-thawed blastocyst transfer cycles supplemented with estrogens and a combination of synthetic progestogens. Serum E2 and progesterone P4 levels were intensively monitored every five days (from the day after embryo transfer until 9w1d of pregnancy) and compared among patients with a subsequent live birth (n = 76) or first-trimester pregnancy loss (n = 44). Results: Endogenous placental activity started as early as 5-6th pregnancy week differing significantly according to pregnancy outcome. For P4, the exponential rise from 6w2d onwards allowed distinguishing between failing and successful conceptions. For P4, lower quartiles of the live birth group did not intersect with upper quartiles of the miscarriage group. Conclusions: Innovative FER protocols incorporating synthetic progestogens allow the correct measurement of endogenous placental activity and could help to monitor early first-trimester ART pregnancies.

14.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 269: 46-52, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099033

RESUMO

Infectious, psychological and metabolic stresses in the prenatal and early neonatal period induce long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders later in life. We examined the sexual behavior of female rats that were subjected to undernutrition in the prenatal period. Eight pregnant rats were divided into two groups: a maternal normal nutrition group (mNN; n = 4) and a maternal undernutrition group (mUN; n = 4), which received 50% of the daily food intake amount of the mNN group from gestation day 13 to delivery. Nine and seven female offspring were randomly selected from the mNN and mUN groups, respectively. Vaginal opening (VO), estrous cycle length, sexual behavior and mRNA expression levels of the factors that regulate sexual behavior were observed. In the mUN group, VO day was later, the estrous cycle was longer, and the lordosis quotient and lordosis rating were lower than in the mNN group; such differences were not seen in other sexual performances, such as ear wiggles, darts, kick bouts and box. The hypothalamic mRNA expression level of progesterone receptor (PR) A + B and oxytocin (OT) were significantly lower in the mUN group than in the mNN group. These findings indicated that prenatal undernutrition disrupted puberty onset, the estrous cycle, sexual behavior and hypothalamic mRNA expression of PR and OT in female rat pups.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/complicações , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Comportamento Sexual , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Maturidade Sexual
15.
J Endocrinol ; 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089683

RESUMO

Although polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is among the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age, its etiology remains poorly understood. From the perspective of developmental origins of health and disease, some studies have investigated the relationship between low birth weight and the prevalence of PCOS and/or PCOS phenotypes in humans; however, the results of these studies were inconclusive. Here, we evaluated the effects of prenatal undernutrition on the metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS model rats. The PCOS model rats showed increased body weight, food intake, fat weight, adipocyte size, and upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue; prenatal undernutrition exacerbated these metabolic changes. Prenatal undernutrition also increased the gene expression of hypothalamic orexigenic factor and decreased the gene expression of anorexigenic factor in the PCOS model rats. In addition, the PCOS model rats exhibited irregular cyclicity, polycystic ovaries, and disrupted gene expression of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes. Interestingly, prenatal undernutrition attenuated these reproductive changes in the PCOS model rats. Our results suggest that in dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS model rats, prenatal undernutrition exacerbates the metabolic phenotypes, whereas it improves the reproductive phenotypes, and that such phenotypic changes may be induced by the alteration of some peripheral and central factors.

16.
Int J Dev Neurosci ; 71: 163-171, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is known that various types of stress in early life increase the incidence of diabetes, myocardial infarctions, and psychiatric disorders in adulthood. We examined the mechanism by which neonatal immune stress reduces sexual behavior in adult male rats. METHODS: Male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control (n = 17), postnatal day 10 lipopolysaccharide (PND10LPS) (n = 31), and PND25LPS (n = 16) groups, which received intraperitoneal injections of LPS (100 µg/kg) or saline (injection volume: ≤0.1 ml/g) on postnatal days 10 and 25. In experiment 1, male rats (age: 11 to 12 weeks) were put together with female rats in a one-to-one setting for mating, and sexual behavior (mounting, intromission, and ejaculation) was monitored for 30 minutes. The serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) and the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of factors related to sexual behavior were examined. After experiment 1 finished, the remaining 37 male rats were used for experiment 2: the control group (n = 8), PND10 LPS group (n = 21) and PND25LPS group (n = 8) these rats had been given an i.p. injection of the saline during the expriment1. All of the rats were orchidectomized at 14 weeks of age. After a 3-week recovery period, a silastic tube containing crystalline T was subcutaneously implanted into the back of each rat. The rats' sexual behavior, serum hormone concentrations, and hypothalamic mRNA expression levels were assessed. RESULTS: In experiment 1, preputial separation occurred significantly later in the PND10LPS group than in the control group. The frequency of sexual behavior was significantly lower in the PND10LPS group than in the control group. The serum T concentrations of the PND10LPS and PND25LPS groups were significantly lower than that of the control group, but the serum LH concentrations of the 3 groups did not differ significantly. The hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of progesterone receptor B (PRB) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were significantly lower in the PND10LPS and PND25LPS groups than in the control group, whereas the hypothalamic PRA + B mRNA expression levels of the 3 groups did not differ significantly. In experiment 2, after T supplementation the frequency of sexual behavior was significantly lower in the PND10LPS and PND25LPS groups than in the control group, although there were no significant differences in the serum T or LH concentrations or the hypothalamic PRB, PRA + B, or GnRH mRNA expression levels of the 3 groups. CONCLUSION: In male rats, immune stress in the early neonatal period delayed sexual maturation, reduced sexual behavior, suppressed the serum T concentration, and downregulated the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of GnRH and the PR in adulthood. The delayed sexual maturation was presumed to have been caused by the reduction in the serum T concentration. However, the rats that experienced neonatal stress exhibited reduced sexual behavior irrespective of their serum T concentrations.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Androgênios/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/genética , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/genética , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/genética
17.
Reprod Med Biol ; 17(3): 315-324, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013434

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the optimized protocol of low dose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) therapy that has a starting dose of 50 IU/62.5 IU with a small increment dose (12.5 IU) for women with World Health Organization (WHO) II ovulatory disorder and unexplained infertility. Methods: Anovulatory women with WHO group II ovulatory disorder (ovulation induction [OI] patients, n = 29), and with an unexplained infertility (ovarian stimulation [OS] patients, n = 21) were enrolled. The protocol of low dose step-up FSH therapy was optimized for the starting dose as 50 IU (body mass index [BMI] < 20 group) and 62.5 IU (BMI ≥ 20 group) with the increment dose of 12.5 IU. Study outcomes were ovulation, monofollicular development and other variables. Results: In the OIpatients, the ovulation rate was 100% (BMI < 20 group) and 90.9% (BMI ≥ 20 group). Monofollicular development was 80.0% (BMI < 20) and 77.3% (BMI ≥ 20). The pregnancy rate was 60% (3/5 BMI < 20) and 18.2% (4/22 BMI ≥ 20). There was no multiple pregnancy. In the OSpatients, the ovulation rate was 100%. Monofollicular development was 85.7% (BMI < 20) and 76.6% (BMI ≥ 20). No pregnancy was achieved in the OSpatients. Conclusion: Optimized protocol of low dose FSH therapy setting a starting dose 50 IU/62.5 IU by BMI with an increment dose of 12.5 IU was safe and highly effective in WHO group II anovulatory patients. However, this protocol seemed uneffective for patients with unexplained infertility.

18.
Reprod Med Biol ; 17(3): 325-328, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013435

RESUMO

Case: Approximately 3%-25% of cases of endometrial carcinoma (EC) or atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AH) occur in women aged <40 years and conservative treatment with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is administered to women who wish to preserve their fertility. Here is reported the pregnancy outcomes of patients with EC or AH who received MPA therapy at Tokushima University Hospital, Tokushima, Japan. The frequency of pregnancy and live births among the patients with EC or AH who received conservative treatment, followed by fertility treatment, were analyzed retrospectively. Outcome: Twelve patients underwent fertility examinations and received fertility treatment immediately after the completion of conservative treatment for EC or AH. One patient had the complication of severe diabetes and total embryo cryopreservation was performed before her diabetes was treated. Among the other 11 patients, 8 (72.7%) became pregnant at least once and 6 (54.5%) experienced at least 1 live birth. Three patients (25.0%) suffered disease recurrence during or after the infertility treatment and all of the recurrences occurred in the EC cohort. Conclusion: When patients with EC or AH wish to preserve their fertility, it is recommended that prompt and effective fertility treatment, including assisted reproductive technology, should be initiated just after conservative treatment because EC and AH exhibit relatively high recurrence rates among conservatively treated patients.

19.
J Clin Med ; 7(7)2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976877

RESUMO

It is known that metabolic disturbances suppress reproductive functions in females. The mechanisms underlying metabolic and nutritional effects on reproductive functions have been established based on a large body of clinical and experimental data. From the 1980s to 1990s, it was revealed that disrupted gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion is the main cause of reproductive impairments in metabolic and nutritional disorders. From the late 1990s to early 2000s, it was demonstrated that, in addition to their primary functions, some appetite- or metabolism-regulating factors affect GnRH secretion. Furthermore, in the early 2000s, kisspeptin, which is a potent positive regulator of GnRH secretion, was newly discovered, and it has been revealed that kisspeptin integrates the effects of metabolic status on GnRH neurons. Recent studies have shown that kisspeptin mediates at least some of the effects of appetite- and metabolism-regulating factors on GnRH neurons. Thus, kisspeptin might be a useful clinical target for treatments aimed at restoring reproductive functions in individuals with metabolic or nutritional disturbances, such as those who exercise excessively, experience marked weight loss, or suffer from eating disorders. This paper presents a review of what is currently known about the effects of metabolic status on reproductive functions and their underlying mechanisms by summarizing the available evidence.

20.
Behav Brain Res ; 349: 102-108, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544963

RESUMO

Energy balance and reproductive functions are closely linked in some species. The sex hormones (estrogens and androgens) are involved in the regulation of appetite, metabolism, body weight (BW), and body composition in mammals. Previously, we showed that the effects of testosterone on BW, appetite, and fat weight were markedly affected by alterations to the gonadal hormonal milieu. In this study, we examined whether testosterone administration changes food preferences and whether these effects of testosterone depend on gonadal status in female rats. We also evaluated the underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects, focusing on hypothalamic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In gonadal-intact (sham) female rats, chronic testosterone administration promoted a preference for a high-fat diet (HFD) and increased BW gain, fat weight, and adipocyte size, whereas no such effects were observed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Testosterone administration increased hypothalamic interleukin-1 mRNA expression in the sham rats, but not the OVX rats. On the contrary, testosterone administration decreased the hypothalamic mRNA levels of ER stress-response genes in the OVX rats, but not the sham rats. These testosterone-induced alterations in OVX rats might represent a regulatory mechanism for preventing hypothalamic inflammation and the overconsumption of a HFD. In conclusion, testosterone's effects on food preferences and the subsequent changes were affected by gonadal status. Testosterone-induced changes in hypothalamic inflammatory cytokine production and ER stress might be related to these findings.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Ovariectomia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testosterona/administração & dosagem
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