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1.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 68, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since different types of genetic variants, from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to large chromosomal rearrangements, underlie intellectual disability, we evaluated the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) rather than chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-line genetic diagnostic test. METHODS: We analyzed three cohorts with short-read WGS: (i) a retrospective cohort with validated copy number variants (CNVs) (cohort 1, n = 68), (ii) individuals referred for monogenic multi-gene panels (cohort 2, n = 156), and (iii) 100 prospective, consecutive cases referred to our center for CMA (cohort 3). Bioinformatic tools developed include FindSV, SVDB, Rhocall, Rhoviz, and vcf2cytosure. RESULTS: First, we validated our structural variant (SV)-calling pipeline on cohort 1, consisting of three trisomies and 79 deletions and duplications with a median size of 850 kb (min 500 bp, max 155 Mb). All variants were detected. Second, we utilized the same pipeline in cohort 2 and analyzed with monogenic WGS panels, increasing the diagnostic yield to 8%. Next, cohort 3 was analyzed by both CMA and WGS. The WGS data was processed for large (> 10 kb) SVs genome-wide and for exonic SVs and SNVs in a panel of 887 genes linked to intellectual disability as well as genes matched to patient-specific Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) phenotypes. This yielded a total of 25 pathogenic variants (SNVs or SVs), of which 12 were detected by CMA as well. We also applied short tandem repeat (STR) expansion detection and discovered one pathologic expansion in ATXN7. Finally, a case of Prader-Willi syndrome with uniparental disomy (UPD) was validated in the WGS data. Important positional information was obtained in all cohorts. Remarkably, 7% of the analyzed cases harbored complex structural variants, as exemplified by a ring chromosome and two duplications found to be an insertional translocation and part of a cryptic unbalanced translocation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The overall diagnostic rate of 27% was more than doubled compared to clinical microarray (12%). Using WGS, we detected a wide range of SVs with high accuracy. Since the WGS data also allowed for analysis of SNVs, UPD, and STRs, it represents a powerful comprehensive genetic test in a clinical diagnostic laboratory setting.

2.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 530-541, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827496

RESUMO

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.

4.
Clin Genet ; 94(6): 528-537, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221345

RESUMO

We have investigated 20 consanguineous families with multiple children affected by rare disorders. Detailed clinical examinations, exome sequencing of affected as well as unaffected family members and further validation of likely pathogenic variants were performed. In 16/20 families, we identified pathogenic variants in autosomal recessive disease genes (ALMS1, PIGT, FLVCR2, TFG, CYP7B1, ALG14, EXOSC3, MEGF10, ASAH1, WDR62, ASPM, PNPO, ERCC5, KIAA1109, RIPK4, MAN1B1). A number of these genes have only rarely been reported previously and our findings thus confirm them as disease genes, further delineate the associated phenotypes and expand the mutation spectrum with reports of novel variants. We highlight the findings in two affected siblings with splice altering variants in ALG14 and propose a new clinical entity, which includes severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, behavioral problems and mild dysmorphic features, caused by biallelic variants in ALG14.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In genome-wide screening studies for de novo mutations underlying autism and intellectual disability, mutations in the ADNP gene are consistently reported among the most frequent. ADNP mutations have been identified in children with autism spectrum disorder comorbid with intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, and deficits in multiple organ systems. However, a comprehensive clinical description of the Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome is lacking. METHODS: We identified a worldwide cohort of 78 individuals with likely disruptive mutations in ADNP from January 2014 to October 2016 through systematic literature search, by contacting collaborators, and through direct interaction with parents. Clinicians filled in a structured questionnaire on genetic and clinical findings to enable correlations between genotype and phenotype. Clinical photographs and specialist reports were gathered. Parents were interviewed to complement the written questionnaires. RESULTS: We report on the detailed clinical characterization of a large cohort of individuals with an ADNP mutation and demonstrate a distinctive combination of clinical features, including mild to severe intellectual disability, autism, severe speech and motor delay, and common facial characteristics. Brain abnormalities, behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, epilepsy, hypotonia, visual problems, congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal problems, short stature, and hormonal deficiencies are common comorbidities. Strikingly, individuals with the recurrent p.Tyr719* mutation were more severely affected. CONCLUSIONS: This overview defines the full clinical spectrum of individuals with ADNP mutations, a specific autism subtype. We show that individuals with mutations in ADNP have many overlapping clinical features that are distinctive from those of other autism and/or intellectual disability syndromes. In addition, our data show preliminary evidence of a correlation between genotype and phenotype.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 54-63, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209020

RESUMO

Genotype-first combined with reverse phenotyping has shown to be a powerful tool in human genetics, especially in the era of next generation sequencing. This combines the identification of individuals with mutations in the same gene and linking these to consistent (endo)phenotypes to establish disease causality. We have performed a MIP (molecular inversion probe)-based targeted re-sequencing study in 3,275 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) to facilitate a genotype-first approach for 24 genes previously implicated in ID.Combining our data with data from a publicly available database, we confirmed 11 of these 24 genes to be relevant for ID. Amongst these, PHIP was shown to have an enrichment of disruptive mutations in the individuals with ID (5 out of 3,275). Through international collaboration, we identified a total of 23 individuals with PHIP mutations and elucidated the associated phenotype. Remarkably, all 23 individuals had developmental delay/ID and the majority were overweight or obese. Other features comprised behavioral problems (hyperactivity, aggression, features of autism and/or mood disorder) and dysmorphisms (full eyebrows and/or synophrys, upturned nose, large ears and tapering fingers). Interestingly, PHIP encodes two protein-isoforms, PHIP/DCAF14 and NDRP, each involved in neurodevelopmental processes, including E3 ubiquitination and neuronal differentiation. Detailed genotype-phenotype analysis points towards haploinsufficiency of PHIP/DCAF14, and not NDRP, as the underlying cause of the phenotype.Thus, we demonstrated the use of large scale re-sequencing by MIPs, followed by reverse phenotyping, as a constructive approach to verify candidate disease genes and identify novel syndromes, highlighted by PHIP haploinsufficiency causing an ID-overweight syndrome.

7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1031: 39-54, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214565

RESUMO

Rare disorders constitute a large and heterogeneous group of diagnoses of which many cause chronic disabilities with significant impact on the lives of affected individuals and their families as well as on the health-care system. Each individual disorder is rare, but when considered as a group, rare disorders are common with a total prevalence of approximately 6-8%. The clinical presentation of these disorders includes a broad diversity of symptoms and signs, often involving the nervous system and resulting in symptoms such as intellectual disability, neuropsychiatric disorders, epilepsy and motor dysfunction. The methods for establishing an etiological diagnosis in patients with rare disorders have improved dramatically during recent years. With the introduction of genomic screening methods, it has been shown that the cause is genetic in the majority of the patients and many will receive an etiological diagnosis in a clinical setting. However, there are a lot of challenges in diagnosing these disorders and despite recent years' advances, a large number of patients with rare disorders still go without an etiological diagnosis. In this chapter we will review the etiology of rare disorders with focus on intellectual disability and what has been learned from massive parallel sequencing studies in deciphering the genetic basis. Furthermore, we will discuss challenges in the etiological diagnostics of these disorders including issues that regard interpretation of the numerous genetic variants detected by genomic screening methods and challenges in the translation of massive parallel sequencing technologies into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Brain ; 140(11): 2838-2850, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29088354

RESUMO

The presynaptic, high-affinity choline transporter is a critical determinant of signalling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at both central and peripheral cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. Here we describe an autosomal recessive presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome presenting with a broad clinical phenotype due to homozygous choline transporter missense mutations. The clinical phenotype ranges from the classical presentation of a congenital myasthenic syndrome in one patient (p.Pro210Leu), to severe neurodevelopmental delay with brain atrophy (p.Ser94Arg) and extend the clinical outcomes to a more severe spectrum with infantile lethality (p.Val112Glu). Cells transfected with mutant transporter construct revealed a virtually complete loss of transport activity that was paralleled by a reduction in transporter cell surface expression. Consistent with these findings, studies to determine the impact of gene mutations on the trafficking of the Caenorhabditis elegans choline transporter orthologue revealed deficits in transporter export to axons and nerve terminals. These findings contrast with our previous findings in autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy of a dominant-negative frameshift mutation at the C-terminus of choline transporter that was associated with significantly reduced, but not completely abrogated choline transporter function. Together our findings define divergent neuropathological outcomes arising from different classes of choline transporter mutation with distinct disease processes and modes of inheritance. These findings underscore the essential role played by the choline transporter in sustaining acetylcholine neurotransmission at both central and neuromuscular synapses, with important implications for treatment and drug selection.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Simportadores/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Atrofia , Axônios/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Linhagem , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Simportadores/metabolismo
9.
Circulation ; 136(11): 1037-1048, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are localized and occur sporadically. However, they also can be multifocal in autosomal-dominant disorders, such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and capillary malformation (CM)-AVM. Previously, we identified RASA1 mutations in 50% of patients with CM-AVM. Herein we studied non-RASA1 patients to further elucidate the pathogenicity of CMs and AVMs. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide linkage study on a CM-AVM family. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed on 9 unrelated CM-AVM families. We identified a candidate gene and screened it in a large series of patients. The influence of several missense variants on protein function was also studied in vitro. RESULTS: We found evidence for linkage in 2 loci. Whole-exome sequencing data unraveled 4 distinct damaging variants in EPHB4 in 5 families that cosegregated with CM-AVM. Overall, screening of EPHB4 detected 47 distinct mutations in 54 index patients: 27 led to a premature stop codon or splice-site alteration, suggesting loss of function. The other 20 are nonsynonymous variants that result in amino acid substitutions. In vitro expression of several mutations confirmed loss of function of EPHB4. The clinical features included multifocal CMs, telangiectasias, and AVMs. CONCLUSIONS: We found EPHB4 mutations in patients with multifocal CMs associated with AVMs. The phenotype, CM-AVM2, mimics RASA1-related CM-AVM1 and also hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. RASA1-encoded p120RASGAP is a direct effector of EPHB4. Our data highlight the pathogenetic importance of this interaction and indicts EPHB4-RAS-ERK signaling pathway as a major cause for AVMs.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico , Malformações Arteriovenosas/genética , Capilares/anormalidades , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Mancha Vinho do Porto/diagnóstico , Mancha Vinho do Porto/genética , Receptor EphB4/genética , Proteína p120 Ativadora de GTPase/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
10.
Nat Neurosci ; 20(8): 1043-1051, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628100

RESUMO

Although de novo missense mutations have been predicted to account for more cases of autism than gene-truncating mutations, most research has focused on the latter. We identified the properties of de novo missense mutations in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and highlight 35 genes with excess missense mutations. Additionally, 40 amino acid sites were recurrently mutated in 36 genes, and targeted sequencing of 20 sites in 17,688 patients with NDD identified 21 new patients with identical missense mutations. One recurrent site substitution (p.A636T) occurs in a glutamate receptor subunit, GRIA1. This same amino acid substitution in the homologous but distinct mouse glutamate receptor subunit Grid2 is associated with Lurcher ataxia. Phenotypic follow-up in five individuals with GRIA1 mutations shows evidence of specific learning disabilities and autism. Overall, we find significant clustering of de novo mutations in 200 genes, highlighting specific functional domains and synaptic candidate genes important in NDD pathology.


Assuntos
Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Exoma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Receptores de Glutamato/genética
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(4): 650-658, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28343630

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a highly heterogeneous disorder involving at least 600 genes, yet a genetic diagnosis remains elusive in ∼35%-40% of individuals with moderate to severe ID. Recent meta-analyses statistically analyzing de novo mutations in >7,000 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders highlighted mutations in PPM1D as a possible cause of ID. PPM1D is a type 2C phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of cellular stress-response pathways by mediating a feedback loop of p38-p53 signaling, thereby contributing to growth inhibition and suppression of stress-induced apoptosis. We identified 14 individuals with mild to severe ID and/or developmental delay and de novo truncating PPM1D mutations. Additionally, deep phenotyping revealed overlapping behavioral problems (ASD, ADHD, and anxiety disorders), hypotonia, broad-based gait, facial dysmorphisms, and periods of fever and vomiting. PPM1D is expressed during fetal brain development and in the adult brain. All mutations were located in the last or penultimate exon, suggesting escape from nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Both PPM1D expression analysis and cDNA sequencing in EBV LCLs of individuals support the presence of a stable truncated transcript, consistent with this hypothesis. Exposure of cells derived from individuals with PPM1D truncating mutations to ionizing radiation resulted in normal p53 activation, suggesting that p53 signaling is unaffected. However, a cell-growth disadvantage was observed, suggesting a possible effect on the stress-response pathway. Thus, we show that de novo truncating PPM1D mutations in the last and penultimate exons cause syndromic ID, which provides additional insight into the role of cell-cycle checkpoint genes in neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Éxons , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Adolescente , Ciclo Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Genet ; 49(4): 515-526, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28191889

RESUMO

Gene-disruptive mutations contribute to the biology of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), but most of the related pathogenic genes are not known. We sequenced 208 candidate genes from >11,730 cases and >2,867 controls. We identified 91 genes, including 38 new NDD genes, with an excess of de novo mutations or private disruptive mutations in 5.7% of cases. Drosophila functional assays revealed a subset with increased involvement in NDDs. We identified 25 genes showing a bias for autism versus intellectual disability and highlighted a network associated with high-functioning autism (full-scale IQ >100). Clinical follow-up for NAA15, KMT5B, and ASH1L highlighted new syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of disease.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(3): 541-552, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26942287

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are genetically heterogeneous, and a significant number of genes have been associated with both conditions. A few mutations in POGZ have been reported in recent exome studies; however, these studies do not provide detailed clinical information. We collected the clinical and molecular data of 25 individuals with disruptive mutations in POGZ by diagnostic whole-exome, whole-genome, or targeted sequencing of 5,223 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (ID primarily) or by targeted resequencing of this locus in 12,041 individuals with ASD and/or ID. The rarity of disruptive mutations among unaffected individuals (2/49,401) highlights the significance (p = 4.19 × 10(-13); odds ratio = 35.8) and penetrance (65.9%) of this genetic subtype with respect to ASD and ID. By studying the entire cohort, we defined common phenotypic features of POGZ individuals, including variable levels of developmental delay (DD) and more severe speech and language delay in comparison to the severity of motor delay and coordination issues. We also identified significant associations with vision problems, microcephaly, hyperactivity, a tendency to obesity, and feeding difficulties. Some features might be explained by the high expression of POGZ, particularly in the cerebellum and pituitary, early in fetal brain development. We conducted parallel studies in Drosophila by inducing conditional knockdown of the POGZ ortholog row, further confirming that dosage of POGZ, specifically in neurons, is essential for normal learning in a habituation paradigm. Combined, the data underscore the pathogenicity of loss-of-function mutations in POGZ and define a POGZ-related phenotype enriched in specific features.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transposases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação para Baixo , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Exoma , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(12): 3083-7, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25251319

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that genetic aberrations involving the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) gene result in a variable phenotype of syndromic intellectual disability. Although only a small number of patients have been described, there is already considerable variation in regard to the underlying molecular mechanism spanning from structural variation to point mutations. We here describe a male patient with intellectual disability, speech and language impairment, cleft palate, malformed teeth, and oligodontia. Array CGH analysis identified a small intragenic duplication in the SATB2 gene that included three coding exons. The result was confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and low coverage whole genome mate pair sequencing. WGS breakpoint analysis directly confirmed the duplication as intragenic. This is the first reported patient with an intragenic duplication in SATB2 in combination with a phenotype that is highly similar to previously described patients with small deletions or point mutations of the same gene. Our findings expand the spectra of SATB2 mutations and confirm the presence of a distinct SATB2-phenotype with severe ID and speech impairment, cleft palate and/or high arched palate, and abnormalities of the teeth. For patients that present with this clinical picture, a high-resolution exon targeted array CGH and/or WGS, in addition to sequencing of SATB2, should be considered.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Primers do DNA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Med Genet ; 50(8): 521-8, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23636107

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To delineate the molecular basis for a novel autosomal recessive syndrome, characterised by distinct facial features, intellectual disability, hypotonia and seizures, in combination with abnormal skeletal, endocrine, and ophthalmologic findings. METHODS: We examined four patients from a consanguineous kindred with a strikingly similar phenotype, by using whole exome sequencing (WES). Functional validation of the initial results were performed by flow cytometry determining surface expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) and GPI anchored proteins and, in addition, by in vivo assays on zebrafish embryos. RESULTS: The results from WES identified a homozygous mutation, c.547A>C (p.Thr183Pro), in PIGT; Sanger sequencing of additional family members confirmed segregation with the disease. PIGT encodes phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis class T (PIG-T) protein, which is a subunit of the transamidase complex that catalyses the attachment of proteins to GPI. By flow cytometry, we found that granulocytes from the patients had reduced levels of the GPI anchored protein CD16b, supporting pathogenicity of the mutation. Further functional in vivo validation via morpholino mediated knockdown of the PIGT ortholog in zebrafish (pigt) showed that, unlike human wild-type PIGT mRNA, the p.Thr183Pro encoding mRNA failed to rescue gastrulation defects induced by the suppression of pigt. CONCLUSIONS: We identified mutations in PIGT as the cause of a novel autosomal recessive intellectual disability syndrome. Our results demonstrate a new pathogenic mechanism in the GPI anchor pathway and expand the clinical spectrum of disorders belonging to the group of GPI anchor deficiencies.


Assuntos
Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/deficiência , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/genética , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Convulsões/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Linhagem , Síndrome , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(5): 1111-7, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22495764

RESUMO

We have studied a family with repeated transmission of mosaicism for a supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC), giving rise to varying symptoms of the cat eye syndrome (CES) in the offspring. The frequency of the SMC was investigated using FISH with probes from the CES critical region on lymphocytes as well as buccal cells. The same probes were used to study the frequency of the SMC in spermatozoa from the father. The SMC was characterized in detail using array-CGH and was found to correspond to a symmetrical cat eye SMC type I, with two extra copies of the most proximal part of 22q11, not extending into the classical 22q11.2 deletion region. Mosaicism for the SMC was detected in 4 out of 7 family members, the father and all his three children. The degree of mosaicism varied greatly between individuals as well as between tissues, with twice as many cells with the SMC in epithelial cells compared to blood. The highest frequency (almost 50%) was found in spermatozoa from the father. There was a direct correlation between the degree of mosaicism and the symptoms, varying from no obvious symptoms to classical CES. The study confirms the occurrence of direct transmission of SMC-mosaicism in CES. The results indicate that examination of parental epithelial cells should be preferred compared to blood cells in order to exclude a recurrence risk in parents of a child with CES. Interphase FISH analysis of spermatozoa is the most sensitive method to exclude paternal germ line mosaicsm.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Mosaicismo , Aneuploidia , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Anormalidades do Olho , Família , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Espermatozoides
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